Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Adult size is small, reaching only 25 mm SVL in females and 21 mm SVL in males. The dorsum, throat and belly are smooth; the belly disc is poorly developed. The digital discs are small. There is no webbing between the toes. The vomerine teeth, behind the choanae, are in long and almost straight series (Schwartz 1960; Schwartz and Henderson 1985; Schwartz and Henderson 1991).

The anterior surface is yellowish tan, grading rapidly behind the sacral region to orange, reddish brown or rich mahogany on the posterior third of the dorsum and the upper surface of the hind limbs. The anterior two-thirds of the dorsum and the upper surface of the forelimbs are overlaid with black markings that almost entirely mask the ground color. These markings extend over the lores and snout and ventrally to a line on each side connecting fore and hind limbs. Two very faintly and irregularly delimited dorsolateral lines are apparent. The dark dorsal markings degenerate into isolated black and gray marks on the posterior third of the dorsum, as well as the thighs and crura. The concealed surfaces of the hind limbs are dark brown. The venter is covered with a regular arrangement of brown chromatophores, giving it a dark appearance (Schwartz 1960; Schwartz and Henderson 1985; Schwartz and Henderson 1991).

This species is a member of the Eleutherodactylus ricordii group (subgenus Euhyas) (Hedges et al. 2008).

  • Díaz, L. M. and Cádiz, L. M. (2007). ''Guía descriptiva para la identificación de las llamadas de anuncio de las ranas cubanas del género Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae).'' Herpetotropicos, 3, 100-122.
  • Hedges, S. B., Duellman, W. E., and Heinicke, M. P. (2008). ''New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): Molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation.'' Zootaxa, 1737, 1-182.
  • Schwartz, A . and Henderson, R. W. (1985). A Guide to the Identification of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies Exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee.
  • Schwartz, A. (1960). ''Nine new Cuban frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus.'' Science Publishers Reading Public Museum Art Gallery, 11, 1-50.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R. W. (1991). Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions and Natural History. University Press of Florida, Florida.
  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Vale, M., Alvarez, A., Montes, L., and Avila, A. (1998). Estudio Nacional sobre la Diversidad Biológica en la República de Cuba. CESYTA, Madrid.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in Guantanamo Province, Cuba, with an altitudinal range of 30-1,150m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

This species is endemic to Cuba and it is known only from Sagua-Baracoa and the Sierra Maestra Mountains, Guantánamo Province, eastern Cuba, at 30-1,150 m asl. This is a terrestrial frog sometimes found in shrubs (60 cm above the ground) and always in very moist areas of humid forests (Schwartz 1960; Schwartz and Henderson 1991).

  • Díaz, L. M. and Cádiz, L. M. (2007). ''Guía descriptiva para la identificación de las llamadas de anuncio de las ranas cubanas del género Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae).'' Herpetotropicos, 3, 100-122.
  • Hedges, S. B., Duellman, W. E., and Heinicke, M. P. (2008). ''New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): Molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation.'' Zootaxa, 1737, 1-182.
  • Schwartz, A . and Henderson, R. W. (1985). A Guide to the Identification of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies Exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee.
  • Schwartz, A. (1960). ''Nine new Cuban frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus.'' Science Publishers Reading Public Museum Art Gallery, 11, 1-50.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R. W. (1991). Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions and Natural History. University Press of Florida, Florida.
  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Vale, M., Alvarez, A., Montes, L., and Avila, A. (1998). Estudio Nacional sobre la Diversidad Biológica en la República de Cuba. CESYTA, Madrid.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is found in mesic hardwood forests on the ground and in rock crevices. Eggs are laid on the ground and it breeds by direct development.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Blair Hedges, Luis Díaz

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its forest habitat in Cuba.
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Population

Population
It is uncommon even in suitable habitat.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

The call generally consists of 1-2 notes, followed by trills of 10-15 notes. The notes of all calls have a rising frequency modulation. Various trills may be emitted consecutively. Call repetition rate is 43-48 calls/minute. Note duration is 11-34 milliseconds and trill duration is 481-752 milliseconds. The call interval is 0.3-4.2 seconds. The mean dominant frequency of a note is 3.5 kHz (range 2.4-3.9 kHz) and the mean dominant frequency of the trills is 4.3 kHz (range 3.8-4.9 kHz) (Díaz and Cádiz 2007).

This species has terrestrial eggs with direct development (Stuart et al. 2008).

  • Díaz, L. M. and Cádiz, L. M. (2007). ''Guía descriptiva para la identificación de las llamadas de anuncio de las ranas cubanas del género Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae).'' Herpetotropicos, 3, 100-122.
  • Hedges, S. B., Duellman, W. E., and Heinicke, M. P. (2008). ''New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): Molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation.'' Zootaxa, 1737, 1-182.
  • Schwartz, A . and Henderson, R. W. (1985). A Guide to the Identification of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies Exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee.
  • Schwartz, A. (1960). ''Nine new Cuban frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus.'' Science Publishers Reading Public Museum Art Gallery, 11, 1-50.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R. W. (1991). Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions and Natural History. University Press of Florida, Florida.
  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Vale, M., Alvarez, A., Montes, L., and Avila, A. (1998). Estudio Nacional sobre la Diversidad Biológica en la República de Cuba. CESYTA, Madrid.
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Threats

Major Threats
It is threatened by habitat degradation and deforestation due to agriculture, subsistence farming, charcoaling, and tourism (both because of infrastructure development and the impact from tourists).
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Eleutherodactylus acmonis is declining and is not common even where habitat is suitable (Stuart et al. 2008). Habitat modification is considered the principal threat to this species (Vale et al. 1998). Habitat loss is an issue as well, arising from deforestation due to subsistence agriculture and charcoal collection (Stuart et al. 2008). In addition, habitat degradation and loss are also due to increased infrastructure development for tourism (Stuart et al. 2008). E. acmonis does occur within several protected areas but management needs to be strengthened (Stuart et al. 2008).

  • Díaz, L. M. and Cádiz, L. M. (2007). ''Guía descriptiva para la identificación de las llamadas de anuncio de las ranas cubanas del género Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae).'' Herpetotropicos, 3, 100-122.
  • Hedges, S. B., Duellman, W. E., and Heinicke, M. P. (2008). ''New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): Molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation.'' Zootaxa, 1737, 1-182.
  • Schwartz, A . and Henderson, R. W. (1985). A Guide to the Identification of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies Exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee.
  • Schwartz, A. (1960). ''Nine new Cuban frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus.'' Science Publishers Reading Public Museum Art Gallery, 11, 1-50.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R. W. (1991). Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions and Natural History. University Press of Florida, Florida.
  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Vale, M., Alvarez, A., Montes, L., and Avila, A. (1998). Estudio Nacional sobre la Diversidad Biológica en la República de Cuba. CESYTA, Madrid.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It occurs in several protected areas, although these are in need of improved and strengthened management.
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Wikipedia

Eleutherodactylus acmonis

Eleutherodactylus acmonis is a species of frog in the Leptodactylidae family endemic to Cuba. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.

References[edit]

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