Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 1996Lower Risk/near threatened(Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
Understanding of the taxonomy, distribution and distributional relationships, threats and likely future management needs of this and other Philippine wild pig species, and hence also their inclusion in relevant protective legislation, research studies and education/awareness campaigns, have undoubtedly benefited from greatly increased local and international interest in the extraodinary diversity of Philippines endemic suids since the early 1990’s. However, much more needs to be done in order to:
• determine the identities and relationships of many (as yet unstudied and described) insular populations, some of which are likely to constitute new taxa; and therefore also to:
• identify and prioritise conservation needs and efforts on the most threatened and distinct taxa and populations via conduct of relevant (and comparative) population distribution and (perhaps especially) ethnobiological surveys, in order to:
• better understand and ameliorate existing or likely future threats, whether via increased advocacy in decision-making sectors, more effective enforcement of existing protective legislation, establishment of more effectively protected ‘protected’ areas, mitigation of prevailing negative attitudes through enhanced education/awareness initiatives, resolution of existing legislative anomalies re. traditional, commercial and other uses; etc.
Philippine warty pig
The Philippine warty pig, Sus philippensis, is one of four known pig species endemic to the Philippines. The other three endemic species are the Visayan warty pig (S. cebifrons), Mindoro warty pig (S. oliveri) and the Palawan bearded pig (S. ahoenobarbus), also being rare members of the Suidae family. Philippine warty pigs have two pairs of warts, with a tuft of hair extending outwards from the warts closest to the jaw.
There are at least three recognized subspecies of the Philippine warty pig:
- S. p. philippensis (from Luzon and nearby islands)
- S. p. oliveri (from Mindoro) (this subspecies has also been listed as a distinct species, S. oliveri, Mindoro warty pig).
- S. p. mindanensis (from Mindanao)
Distribution and habitat
In general, the original distribution of S. philippensis covered the western islands of the Philippines, while the original distribution of S. cebifrons covered the central and eastern islands. Specifically, the range of Philippine warty pigs included Luzon, Biliran, Samar, Leyte, Mindoro, Mindanao, Jolo, Polillo, Catanduanes, and possibly other islands. Moreover, it was formerly found in most habitats (from sea level to up to 2800 m) but is now confined to remote forests due to loss of habitat and heavy hunting by noose traps or trigger set bullets.
Genetic relation to other pigs (Suidae)
It is closely related to the Bornean bearded pig (Sus barbatus), and in fact was once thought to be a subspecies (i.e., S. b. philippensis) like the Palawan bearded pig (S. b. ahoenobarbus). The Palawan bearded pig is now also frequently classified not as a subspecies, but as a separate Philippine endemic pig species, S. ahoenobarbus.
With loss of its natural habitat from deforestation and uncontrolled logging and hunting, they have been forced into close contact with domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) (the domesticated variety of the non-endemic Eurasian wild boar), and hybridization between the two species has been reported. Accordingly, genetic contamination of Philippine warty pig stock is a real and irreversible problem.[verification needed]