Overview

Distribution

Sus celebensis is found in the lower east portion of the oriental region and the upper west portion of the Australian region. Sus celebensis is common in the northern, central and eastern Sulawesi Island. Available evidence supports that this species formerly occured thoughout Sulawesi, as well as the neighboring islands of Selayer, Muna, Buton, Peleng, Lembeh and the Togain Islands. The species is now scarce in Southern Sulawesi and may also be extinct on the neraby Selayar due to the virtual deforestation of these areas. Wild pigs referred to as feral S. celebensis have been extensively introduced in Indonesia on the islands of Halmahera, Flores, Timor, Lendu, Simeuleu, and Nias Islands, and the domesticated forms of S. celebensis can be seen on the islands of Roti and Savur.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native ); australian (Introduced , Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

  • Macdonald, A. 1993. Pig, Peccaries and Hippos. IUCN, 5.7: 155-160.
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Range Description

S. celebensis is a medium sized pig which is still found in abundance in central, east and south-east Sulawesi. It is now scarce in south and north-east Sulawesi and may be extinct on nearby Selayar Island. It also occurs as a native form on the adjacent islands of Buton, Muna, Kabeana, Peleng, Lembeh and on some of the Togian Islands (Burton and Macdonald 2006). As originally shown by Groves (1981), this species has also been truly domesticated and widely transported to other islands, where it has also often hybridized with S. scrofa, thus giving rise to a variety of introduced domestic and feral pig populations amongst the Indonesian the islands of Flores, Timor, Simeuleu, Seram, Buru and Nias Islands. Domesticated forms of S. celebensis can be seen on the islands of Roti and Sawu (Groves 1983, Bell 1987). Wild pigs from Halmahera, previously referred to as feral S. celebensis, have been shown to have greater genetic affinity to the New Guinea pigs (Larson et al. 2005).
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Physical Description

Morphology

The coat of S. celebensis is often black in color with yellow and/or white hairs intermixed. Some specimens have been known to be reddish/brown. The ventral side lightens to a creamy off-white with age. There is always a dark dorsal stripe, and a yellow band that encircles the snout. Distinctive tufts of hair are found on the forehead. Piglets are born with five dark brown and six light horizontal stripes along the length of their bodies, which tends to go away after about 6 months of age.

Adult males develop three pairs of facial warts. The preorbital pair is the largest, but these do not reach their full size until the pigs are at least 8 years old. All the warts become larger with age.

The backs of Sulawesi warty pigs are short and slightly convex. These animals have relatively short legs, and a long tail that is simply tufted. Body length has been recored at 80 to 130 cm, and shoulder height at 70 cm. Adult males are larger than sows, averaging 60 cm at the shoulder. These swine can weigh any where from 40 to 70 kg. Recent forms are larger than the sub-fossil remains found in caves in Southern Sulawesi.

Range mass: 40 to 70 kg.

Range length: 80 to 130 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; ornamentation

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

  • Hooijer, D. 1969. Pleistocene Vertebrates from Celebes, *Sus celebensis*. Muller & Schlegel,1845. Beaufortia, 16: 215-218.
  • National Research Council, 1983. Little-known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future. National Academy Press: 75-79.
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Type Information

Type for Sus celebensis
Catalog Number: USNM 114178
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Male;
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): W. Abbott
Year Collected: 1901
Locality: Simalur Island, Sumatra, Indonesia, Asia
  • Type: Miller, G. S. 1906 Jun 13. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 30: 753.
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Type for Sus celebensis
Catalog Number: USNM 141167
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Female;
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): W. Abbott
Year Collected: 1905
Locality: Pulo Nias, Sumatra, Indonesia, Asia
  • Type: Miller, G. S. 1906 Jun 13. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 30: 751.
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Ecology

Habitat

Celebes wild boars are reported to occur in a wide variety of habitats on the Indonesian Islands, including rainforests, swamps, high grassland terrains, and agricultural areas. They are found at altitudes up to moss forest at about 2300 m, but they prefer valleys.

Range elevation: 2300 (high) m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; rainforest

Wetlands: swamp

Other Habitat Features: agricultural

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Sulawesi Warty Pigs are reported to occur in a wide variety of habitats, ranging from rainforest and swamp, to open grasslands and agricultural areas, and at all altitudes up to moss forest (>2,500 m) (MacKinnon 1981), though they are less common at altitudes above 1,500 m asl (Burton in press). They usually live in groups of from one to six animals, but the social composition of these groups is incompletely known (Macdonald 1991; Macdonald et al, 1996). In one population (Tanjung Peropa Wildlife Reserve) the sex ratio of adults was found to be 1:1.25 (n=25) and group size varies between 2 and 9, with an average of 5 individuals (n=16) (Jamalundin in prep). Groups generally consisted of 1-3 young, 1-2 subadults and 1-3 adults. They forage during the day, this activity being concentrated in the early morning and evening. Although roots, fallen fruit, leaves and young shoots constitute the bulk of their diet, invertebrates, small vertebrates and carrion are also eaten.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Trophic Strategy

Most feeding activity occurs during the daylight hours, with more activity in the early morning and late afternoon. Celebes wild boars are omnivorous and their diet consists of roots, fruits, leaves, shoots, carrion, and insects.

Animal Foods: carrion ; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods

Plant Foods: leaves; roots and tubers; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

Other Foods: fungus

Primary Diet: omnivore

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Associations

No information could be found on the specific ecosystem roles of S. celebensis. However, it is likely that their foraging behavior has some impact on local plant and insect communities. Because pigs root, it is likely that they help to aerate the soil.

Ecosystem Impact: soil aeration

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The only known predator of this species is humans through hunting. It is likely that there are other predators, however, as the striped pattern of young pigs is typically interpreted as a form of camouflage.

Known Predators:

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

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Known predators

Sus celebensis is prey of:
Homo sapiens

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Known prey organisms

Sus celebensis preys on:
fungi
Arthropoda
Insecta

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

There is no information on the communication habits of the S. celebensis. However, as mammals, it is likely that they utilize some combination of visual, accoustic, tactile, and chemical communication.

Communication Channels: tactile

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

Data are lacking on longevity in the wild, but most members of the genus Sus are thought to live a maximum of 10 years in the wild. Rarely has this species been raised in captivity outside Sulawesi, and as far as it is known, pure-bred animals have never been produced in captivity. The longevity of this species in captivity is greater than 9 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
10 years.

Range lifespan

Status: captivity:
more than 9 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
10.0 years.

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Reproduction

There have not been any studies of this behavior at this time but, it is part of the action plan proposed by the IUCN.

Although information is lacking on this species, the mating system of the genus Sus is typically polygynous. Males are reported to compete for access to females, and are generally unable to effectively secure access to mates until they reach their full adult size. Adult males may have reproductive access to as many as 10 females, but around 3 is more typical. It is reasonable to assume that S. celebensis is similar to congeners in mating system.

Although not reported in the literature, one might speculate that the warts found on males of this species, as secondary sexual characteristics, play some role in reproduction. These may be attractive to females, or they may function in competition between males.

Mating System: polygynous

Breeding may occur at any time in the year, but there is a peak in February, with most births occurring in April or May. Females build large nests made of grasses, leaves, branches and twigs, piled over a shallow depression of two meters. Unlike most ungulates, members of the genus Sus give brith to their offspring in a nest, where the offspring remain for some time.

Although many important details on the reproduction of S. celebensis are lacking, the remainder of the genus Sus has well documented reproductive patterns. Females are reported to have an estrous cycle of approximately 21 days, during which the females are only sexually receptive for 2 or 3 days. Gestation ranges from 100 to 140 days. Piglets weigh from 500 to 1,500 g at birth, and are weaned in 3 to 4 months. It is likely that S. celebensis falls within this range of variation.

In the genus Sus, young often become independent of the mother prior to the birth of her next litter. However, female young may have a prolonged association with their mother. Females usually give birth about once per year.

Within the genus Sus, sexual maturity may be reached by a few months of age. However, most females don't breed until they are about 18 months old. Males, although capable of breeding at younger ages, are usually not able to secure access to mates until they reach their full adult size, around the age of 5 years.

Breeding interval: These animals probably produce only one litter per year.

Breeding season: This species does not have a strict breeding season, although most matings occur in February..

Range number of offspring: 1 to 8.

Average number of offspring: 2-3.

Average gestation period: 4-5 months.

Average weaning age: 3-4 months.

Range time to independence: 1 (high) years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 18 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous

Parental behavior in this species is not well documented. As part of the IUCN action plan, this area still needs to be looked in to and studied in more detail.

In spite of lack of specific information on S. celebensis, it is possible to draw inferences about the species from patterns common in the genus and in other mammals.

Unlike many artiodactyls, pigs are born in a nest. They are somewhat altricial compared to other ungulates. The mother cares for her young, providing them with food (milk), protection, and necessary grooming. All that young pigs learn about life, they learn from their mothers. Male pigs are reported to be solitary except near the time of mating, and so do not typically participate in parental care.

In many species of Sus, females are known to maintain relationships with their mothers. Although not specifically reported for S. celebensis, it is possible that such relationships occur. These extended relationships may be responsible for the association of multiple females with their young which are sometimes seen. In such associations, females of unknown relatedness come together after their young are weaned to form larger social groups.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; altricial ; pre-fertilization (Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Female); post-independence association with parents

  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Macdonald, A. 1993. Pig, Peccaries and Hippos. IUCN, 5.7: 155-160.
  • Huffman, B. 1999. "Celebes Pig: Sulawesi Warty Pig Sus celebensis " (On-line). Ultimate Ungulate Page. Accessed May 28, 2004 at http://www.ultimateungulate.com/Artiodactyla/Sus_celebensis.html.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Sus celebensis is a common species, and is not listed by the IUCN. It is locally abundant, and cannot be regarded as seriously threatened throughout its range at the present time. Budiarso states that he recorded 2,317 pigs harvested in the regions of Northern Sulawesi during 12 months in 1990 to 1991, and found that females are more susceptible to these commercial hunting operations which may make heavily exploited populations vulnerable. With the expansion of human settlements , S. celebensis is threatened by a combination of habitat loss and genetic contamiantion and/or disease through increased contact with imported domestic pigs Sus scrofa.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: near threatened

  • Budiarso, W. 1991. The importance of Sulawesi wild pig *Sus celebensis* as a source of meat in North Sulawesi.. Universitas Sam Patulangi and World Wild Fund for Nature Indonesia Program: 19.
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Burton, J. & Macdonald, A.A.

Reviewer/s
Leus, K. & Oliver, W. ( Pig, Peccary & Hippo Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is probably in significant decline (but probably at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because of widespread over-hunting and habitat loss through much of its range, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable under criterion A2cd.
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Population

Population
A recent island wide survey (Riley 2002) found no records of pigs in three areas in the north east peninsula of Sulawesi, and low densities in the central region of the island. Populations in both these regions appear to have been affected by demand for pig meat in Minahasa and Palu areas, respectively. While the south-east area had the highest population densities, the demand for pig meat locally was lowest. Densities ranged from 0.4-2.0 animals/km² (Panua Nature Reserve) in the north peninsula to 5.1-14.5 animals/km² (Tanjung Peropa Nature Reserve) in the south-east peninsula. A recent study in the latter site found densities in lowland forest to be 23.5 animals/km² (Jamaludin et al. in prep). This data highlights the increasing pressure from hunting on the pigs of Sulawesi, as reported elsewhere (Clayton et al. 1997, 2000; Lee et al. 2005).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
S. celebensis does not have any important natural predators on Sulawesi and its offshore islands other than the reticulated python (Python reticulates). Changing land-use and hunting pressure have caused a reduction in its former range. This pig species is not considered threatened over much of its range at the present time (Burton and Macdonald 2006). However, wide scale deforestation for timber and conversion of land for agriculture, coupled with human population expansion and immigration have resulted in a marked contraction of its range in some places. In addition, resources are insufficient to enforce controls on hunting, and there are reports that subsistence and/or organized commercial hunting is continuing even within designated reserves and national parks (Smiet 1982, Blouch 1990). The high volume of trade in this species raises concerns about the sustainability of this current harvesting rate. Completion of the Trans-Sulawesi Highway (1980) probably increased importation of wildlife within and into North Sulawesi from the rest of the island. Data was recently collected from market surveys from northeast Sulawesi and road blocks on the Trans-Sulawesi Highway (Lee et al. 2005). In the study it was noted that "trade in the Sulawesi pig is alarmingly high for such a large-bodied animal". The expansion of human settlements also brings an increased threat of genetic contamination and/or disease to the wild pig populations. Future threats will include the loss of this species high genetic diversity through the decline into small isolated populations (Burton and Macdonald 2006).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species occurs in some protected areas. Those where significant populations of warty pigs are found include Lore Lindu (2,310 km2), Bogani Nani-Wartabone (2,871 km2), Morowali (2,250 km2) and many other smaller sites. Within all of these areas the species is technically fully protected by law. A Wildlife Crimes Unit Program was developed for wildlife trade monitoring and law enforcement in North Sulawesi. This has been active since 2001, however, overall trade in wild mammals has increased by 30% during this time, mainly from unprotected species (Lee et al. 2005). This Unit cannot control the levels of trade in the warty pig because hunting of this species is not prohibited outside of protected areas. The species has only very rarely been kept in captivity outside its country of origin; and, as far as is known, pure-bred animals have never been produced in captivity (Burton and Macdonald 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

There are no know adverse affects that S. celebensis has on human economies. It might be speculated, however, that in agricultural areas, these pigs might present a problem as crop pests.

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Wild piglets that are caught by villagers in Sulawesi are kept and are usually raised for slaughter for eating or sold at the local market. The Minahasa people consider wild pig meat to be superior to the domestic pork and are willing to pay 20 to 50% more for it. However, resources are insufficient to enforce controls on hunting and there are reports that organized commercial hunting is continuing even on designated reserves and national parks. Brief surveys of three villages markets in northeast Sulawesi concluded that about 2 to 20 wild pigs per week were being brought by these commercial hunters and slaughtered by butchers when needed.

Positive Impacts: food

  • Blouch, R. 1990. Report from the Field: Indonesia. Smithsonian Institute Conservation and Restoration Centre Newsletter, 1: 6-8.
  • Smite, F. 1982. Threats to the Spice Islands. Oryx, 16: 323-328.
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Wikipedia

Celebes warty pig

The Celebes Warty Pig (Sus celebensis), Sulawesi warty pig or Sulawesi Pig, lives on Sulawesi in Indonesia. It survives in most habitats and can live in altitudes of up to 2,500 metres.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Burton, J. & Macdonald, A.A. (2008). Sus celebensis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 5 April 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of near threatened.
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