DistributionRead full entry
Range DescriptionThis species is found in southern China (last record in 1998; Ying-xiang pers. comm.), Cambodia (Walston 2001; Olson pers. obs.), Lao PDR (Duckworth 1997; Khounboline 2005), Peninsular Malaysia (last record in 1985; Asakawa et al. 1986), Myanmar (Lynam et al. 2005), Thailand (Lynam et al 2005) and Viet Nam (Roberton et al. in prep.). Only one record from Cambodia was reported by Walston (2001), but the advent of camera-trapping led to many more recent records (CI, WCS, WWF, unpublished per J. Walston pers. comm., Olson pers. comm. 2006). There is some confusion as to whether this species has been found on Singapore, and some authors are explicit that it does not occur there (Harrison 1966), and the only specimen checked has not turned out to represent this species (Lyman et al. 2005). There are historical records from Peninsular Malaysia (including one from Penang Island) (Veron 2004). However, the only recent record from Peninsular Malaysia appears to be a road-kill from Sungai Petani in 1985 (Asakawa et al. 1986). There are also several records from southern China (southern Yunnan and southwestern Guangxi; Wang Ying-xiang 1987, 2003; Zhang Yong-zu 1997; Wang Sung 1998; Sheng Helin et al. 1999).
It was recorded by Lynam et al. (2005) in Htuang Pru Reserve Forest and Hukaung Valley Wildlife Sanctuary in Myanmar, and Taphyra National Park in Thailand. In Thailand, the species has been found in several protected areas, and there is a southern record from Bam Nang Nom (Ra Nong Province). This species is a lowland species, with almost all field records from below 300 m (Lyman et al. 2005). In fact, Lyman et al. (2005) report that they "are not aware of any site in non-Sundaic Southeast Asia lying predominantly under 300 m, supporting 500+ sq. km of (semi-) evergree forest, and having received heavy camera trapping or spotlighting effort, that has not recorded the species." A freshly-killed (by hunters) specimen was reported from Ban Thalang (Thalang village; formerly Ban Namtheun; 1751'N, 10503'E, ca. 520 m) on the Nakai Plateau of central Lao PDR PDR, significantly higher in altitude than other recent records of this species, and this level area also hold population of plains birds at anomalously high altitude (Khounboline 2005). The species is potentially more widespread in Myanmar, as there have been few surveys below 300 m using appropriate techniques (Than Zaw et al. in press). There are only five confirmed records from Viet Nam, with the furthest north being Phong Nha NP (Roberton et al. In prep). If the species was once present further north in Viet Nam, it is doubtful that any significant populations could still survive (Timmins and Roberton pers. comm.2006). The lack of records in Viet Nam seems to reflect a genuine scarcity in the species and not a lack of appropriate surveys. There are no recent records from China, with the last record from 1998 (Wang Ying-xiang pers. comm.2006).
The species is potentially more widespread in Lao PDR, as there have been few surveys below 300 m using appropriate techniques (Duckworth pers comm. 2006). The records from Xe Pian National Protected area suggest that its reasonably common in level lowland forest (Austin 1999). It is probably rare on the Nakai Plateau of central Lao PDR PDR (Khounboline 2005).
In Cambodia, there are three records from camera traps in the southwest. The species has been commonly photo-trapped in several sites in northern and eastern Cambodia (CI, WCS, WWF, unpublished per J. Walstone pers. comm.). Albeit considered widely distributed geographically in Peninsular Malaysia, it was considered rare (Medway 1977). There are no recent records from the area. The species is likely to be very localized on Peninsular Malaysia, as there has been appropriate surveys at low altitudes without results (Azlan pers comm. 2006).