Overview

Distribution

Paradoxurus zeylonensis is found in south and southeast Asia, specifically in Sri Lanka and Ceylon. (Ellerman 1966, Macdonald 1985, Parker 1990)

Biogeographic Regions: palearctic (Native )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

This species is endemic to Sri Lanka (Wilson and Reeder 2005) and has been recorded in Uda Walawe National Park (Hoffman 1990), the Sinharaja Forest area, Wasgomuwa and Yala National Parks (Ratnayeke pers. comm.). It is currently confined to a small range defined by where natural habitats remain (Schreiber et al. 1989). The species occurs in three distributional isolates.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Paradoxurus zeylonensis is mainly arboreal, keeping mostly to large tree branches. They have been observed to sleep in the roof of bungalows adjacent to the jungle and in hollow tree branches. (Phillips 1935)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is forest-dependent, yet tolerant of minor habitat modification where some continuous forest remains. It is arboreal, nocturnal, and solitary; its diet consists of fruits, berries, invertebrates, and a wide range of small vertebrates (Pocock 1939). Schreiber et al. (1989) report that "this species is much less a follower of man or an inhabitant of agricultural areas than the common palm civet (P. hermaphroditus), and that very little is known of the natural history of this species." It is found in lowland rain forest, evergreen mountain forests, and also dense monsoon forest (at Wilpattu) (Schreiber et al, 1989). No elevation range information is known, though the species occurs mainly in highlands.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

The golden palm civet is mainly frugivorous, with preferences for mango, coffee, melon, pineapple and bananas. This species has also been observed to eat small mammals, birds, snakes, lizards, frogs, moths, and other insects when it is able to catch them. (Anderson 1984, Parker 1990, Phillips 1935)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Very little is known about the reproduction of P. zeylonensis. Young have been found in October and November, and so it is thought that reproduction occurs in the latter months of the year. It is also thought that females may have more than one litter per year. Two or three young are produced in each litter. The gestation period and life span of this species are unknown, as are the ages of weaning and sexual maturity. (Anderson 1984, Parker 1990, Phillips 1935)

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
B1ab(i,iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Muddappa, D., Wozencraft, C., Yonzon, P., Jennings, A. & Veron, G.

Reviewer/s
Duckworth, J.W. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence is less than 20,000 km², its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in the hill regions of Sri Lanka. The species is know to persist on only three distributional isolates, within which populations are fragmented in remaining forested habitat (estimated to be less than 10 locations as defined by threat). An effect of the fragmentation and continued population decline is the reduction is the number of mature (breeding) individuals. Further research and monitoring are recommended for this species to better understand population level effects of fragmentation.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
According to Phillips (1984) it is not uncommon but is distributed locally, both in the highlands and in the low country, particularly in the highlands around Kandy and in the Dimbulla and Dickoya districts of the Central Province. According to Wijesinghe (1987), it is still widely distributed on the island but is more common in the wetter zone than in the dry zone. It is thought to be quite common, especially in the Sinharaja Forest area. Additional records from this forest come from Karunaratne et al. (1981) and from Baker (1971) who caught a live specimen there which was held in captivity (Schreiber et al. 1989).

Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
As the species is dependant on forest cover, deforestation is a significant threat to this species – and its tolerance to fragmentation is unknown. Lowland forest (that is found in the wet zone) has almost totally disappeared from Sri Lanka with the main exception being the Sinharaja Forest (Schreiber et al, 1989). It is trapped for its meat in some areas (Schreiber et al., 1989).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is reported inside and outside of protected areas (Muddappa pers. comm.). Schreiber et al. (1989) lists the following recommended conservation actions: "Investigations in Wilpattu and Gal Oya National Parks and Sinharaja Forest to obtain an estimate of the population size there, as well as surveys in other established reserves in Sri Lanka, particularly in the new parks in the Mahaweli basin; Support for the current moves to consolidate the protection status of Sinharaja Forest Man and the Biosphere Reserve, the country’s last sizeable area of lowland rain forest; Research into the species’s ecological and conservation requirements to ascertain why it seems to be less successful in adapting to changes of its habitat than its congener P. hermaphroditus; Continued efforts to establish a breeding colony in captivity."
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

The golden palm civet's habit of roosting in the roof of bungalows located near the edge of the jungle may be annoying to humans, but no damage by these creatures was reported. The frugivorous habits of P. zeylonensis may be destructive if these animals live near land where fruits eaten by this species are being raised as crops (bananas, mangos, etc). However, this was not mentioned to be a large problem in any of the literature found on this species. (Phillips 1935)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

As the young are easily tamed, although no detailed information was given on any tamed animals. (Phillips 1935)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Golden palm civet

The golden palm civet (Paradoxurus zeylonensis) is a palm civet endemic to Sri Lanka. It is listed as Vulnerable by IUCN because it occurs in less than 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi), its distribution is severely fragmented, and the extent and quality of its habitat in Sri Lanka's hill regions are declining.[2]

Characteristics[edit]

The golden palm civet is brown on the upper side, but individually variable from dark sepia to ochreous, rusty or golden-brown. The tips of the contour hairs are frequently lustrous, sometimes greyish. The legs are about the same tint as the back, but the tail and the face are sometimes noticeably paler, buffy-grey. The face does not have a pattern, and the vibrissae are dirty white. The hair in front of the shoulders radiates from two whorls and grows forward along the sides of the neck and the nape to the head. It also grows forward on the fore throat, radiating from a single whorl. The dorsal pattern consists of faint bands and spots that are slightly darker than the ground colour. The lower side is slightly paler and sometimes greyer than the upper.[4]

The golden palm civet has two morphs — one golden and one dark brown, both of which are recorded from Sri Lanka. In 2009, several museum specimens were studied, and on this basis it was suggested to split these color morphs into separate species:[3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The golden palm civet is found in lowland rain forest, evergreen mountain forests, and also dense monsoon forest.[5]

Ecology and behaviour[edit]

The golden palm civet is forest-dependent, yet tolerant of minor habitat modification where some continuous forest remains. It is arboreal, nocturnal, and solitary; its diet consists of fruits, berries, invertebrates, and a wide range of small vertebrates.[2]

In culture[edit]

In Sri Lanka the golden palm civet is called Pani uguduwa පැනි උගුඩුවා, Sapumal kalawaddhaසපුමල් කලවැද්දා, or Ranhothambuwa රන් හොතබුවා/Hotambuwa හොතබුවා, by the Sinhala speaking community. Both golden and Asian palm civet are sometimes collectively called kalawedda in Sinhala and maranai (மரநாய்) in Tamil.[3]

However, the term Hotambuwa is mostly used to refer altogether a different species Ruddy Mongoose (Herpestes smithii). Due to similar appearance and coloration, they are mistaken as the same animal.

This civet appears in 3 rupee Sri Lankan postal stamp.[6] However, it is named as 'Golden Palm Cat' in the stamp.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 551. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ a b c Muddappa, D., Wozencraft, C., Yonzon, P., Jennings, A. , Veron, G. (2008). "Paradoxurus zeylonensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 
  3. ^ a b c Groves, C. P.; Rajapaksha, C.; Manemandra-Arachchi, K. (2009). "The taxonomy of the endemic golden palm civet of Sri Lanka". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 155: 238–251. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00451.x. 
  4. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1939). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. Taylor and Francis, London. Pp. 381–383.
  5. ^ Schreiber, A., Wirth, R., Riffel, M. and Van Rompaey, H. (1989). Weasels, civets, mongooses, and their relatives. An Action Plan for the conservation of mustelids and viverrids. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
  6. ^ Golden Palm Cat Stamp
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!