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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Little is known about the natural ecology and behaviour of the Asiatic bear. Their diet varies depending on the season but, in common with most other bears, they are predominately herbivorous feeding on acorns, beech and other nuts as well as fruits and berries (6) These bears spend around half of their time in the trees (4), and construct platforms from branches and vegetation upon which they rest and feed (5). Females give birth to a litter of around 2 cubs in the safety of a winter den (6), often located within a tree hollow (5). Cubs stay with their mother for 1 to 1.5 years but, with the exception of these groupings, Asiatic black bears are fairly solitary (4). At the northern extreme of its range, black bears may go into hibernation to survive the cold winters, although further to the south, bears migrate to warmer areas and thus avoid the need for hibernation (4).
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Description

This Asiatic bear has a similar appearance to its better-known American relative (the American black bear, Ursus americanus) with a stocky body, round head and large ears (4). The black coat is shaggy and there is a ruff of longer hairs around the neck (2). There is a crescent-shaped yellow/cream marking on the chest, which has led to this bear being called the 'moon bear' in some areas (5). The muzzle is also pale in colour (4).
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Distribution

Ursus thibetanus is widely distributed. Asiatic black bears can be found north of Pakistan, south of Afghanistan, east of the Himalayans, north of Vietnam, south of China, and in Thailand.

Biogeographic Regions: palearctic (Native ); oriental (Native )

  • Than, U., S. Simcharoen, B. Kanchanasakha. 1998. Carnivores of Mainland South East Asia. Bangkok: Siam Tong Kit Printing Co., Ltd..
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Range Description

Fossil remains of the Asiatic black bear have been found as far west as Germany and France, but in historic times the species has been limited to Asia. This species occupies a narrow band from southeastern Iran (Gutleb and Ziaie 1999) eastward through Afghanistan and Pakistan, across the foothills of the Himalayas, to Myanmar. It occupies all countries in mainland Southeast Asia except Malaysia. It has a patchy distribution in southern China, and is absent in much of east-central China. Another population cluster exists in northeastern China, the southern Russian Far East, and into North Korea. A small remnant population exists in South Korea. They also live on the southern islands of Japan (Honshu and Shikoku) and on Taiwan and Hainan. The species now occurs very patchily through much of its former range, especially in Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, mainland southeast Asia and China. Its distribution in parts of China and Myanmar remains very poorly known.

The distribution of the Asiatic black bear roughly coincides with forest distribution in southern and eastern Asia (FAO 2006), except that in central and southern India this species is replaced by the sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), in southern Thailand and into Malaysia it is replaced by the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) and north and west of the Russian Far East it is replaced by the brown bear (Ursus arctos). However, the Asiatic black bear overlaps the ranges of each of these species, especially the sun bear in a large portion of Southeast Asia.
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Range

Found through much of southern Asia, from Afghanistan to Taiwan. Also found in northeastern China, far eastern Russia and Japan (5). The Baluchistan bear (Ursus thibetanus gedrosianus) is a Critically Endangered subspecies of the Asiatic black bear that is found in south Pakistan and Iran (2).
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Physical Description

Morphology

The size differs between males and females. Males typically weigh 110 to 150 kg, while females weigh 65 to 90 kg. The head and body measure 120 to 180 cm in length, while the tail is an additional 6.5 to 10.6 cm. The head is large and rounded, and the eyes are small. The ears are large and are set farther apart than on an American black bear. The body is heavy, the legs are thick and strong, and the paws are broad. The stance is plantigrade. The tail is short and is barely visible under a long, coarse coat. The black pelage has a light beige to white “V” shape on the chest area, a small beige to white colored crescent across the throat, and a small spot of white on the chin. The white fur on the muzzle seldom reaches the orbits of the bear.

The skull of U. thibetanus is typical of the Suborder Caniformia, bearing a long rostrum. However, the orbits are typically smaller than those of most caniforms. The width of the mastoid rarely exceeds the length of the palate. The auditory bullae are flat. The muzzle is long and narrow, and does not extend very far over the canines. The dental formula is usually 3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 2/3 = 42. However, the premolars can sometimes be lost as the bear ages. The postcarnassial teeth are enlarged, and occlusal surfaces are adapted to crushing. Normally, there is a diastema between the premolars. The upper carnassial of U. thibetanus is triangular.

Range mass: 65 to 150 kg.

Average mass: 100 kg.

Range length: 120 to 180 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

  • Lekagul, B., J. McNeely. 1988. Mammals of Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Darnsutha Press.
  • Nowak, R. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fifth Edition. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Czaplewski, N., T. Vaughan, J. Ryan. 2000. Mammalogy. United States of America: Thomson Learning, Inc..
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Ecology

Habitat

Asiatic black bears live in moist forests, on steep mountains, and in areas where the vegetation is thick. They live at higher elevations in the summer, and descend during the winter. Occasionally, they come out of the forests to forage on plains.

Range elevation: 0 to 3600 m.

Average elevation: 1000 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Asiatic black bears occupy a variety of forested habitats, both broad-leaved and coniferous, from near sea level to an elevation of 4,300 m (in northeastern India, A. Choudhury, Rhino Foundation for Nature pers. comm.). They also infrequently use open alpine meadows. Individual bears move to different habitats and elevations seasonally (Izumiyama and Shiraishi 2004), tracking changes in food abundance. Foods include succulent vegetation (shoots, forbs and leaves) in spring, turning to insects and a variety of tree and shrub-borne fruits in summer, and finally nuts in autumn (Bromlei 1965, Reid et al. 1991, Huygens et al. 2003). In some places the diet contains a sizeable portion of meat from mammalian ungulates (which they either kill or scavenge, Hwang et al. 2002)

In temperate forests, Asiatic black bears rely heavily on hard mast in autumn, in part to put on sufficient fat reserves for winter denning (hibernation). Therefore, these bears tend to focus their activities in habitats with high abundance of oak acorns, beechnuts, walnuts, chestnuts, hazelnuts, or stone pine seeds (Schaller et al. 1989, Hashimoto et al. 2003). When Asiatic black bears feed in hard mast trees they often break branches and pile them up in the canopy, forming what appears to be a platform or “nest”. Males may socially exclude females from rich stands of hard mast (Huygens and Hayashi 2001, Hwang 2003).

In northern latitudes, where food becomes unavailable in winter, both sexes hibernate. In the most northerly parts of their range, bears enter dens as early as October and exit as late as the end of May (Seryodkin et al. 2003). They den in rock crevices, in hollow trees or stumps, under upturned trees, in dug-out earthen dens, or in ground nests. In Russia, Asiatic black bears have been reported to select flat river bottoms for denning (Seryodkin et al. 2003), whereas in central China they move to high elevation rocky outcrops on steep slopes (Reid et al. 1991). Hunters often have knowledge of the sorts of places and types of dens that the bears tend to use. Denning and active black bears are also subject to predation by other Asiatic black bears, brown bears, and tigers (Seryodkin et al. 2005).

In the tropics, Asiatic black bears generally do not hibernate, except females giving birth during winter (Hwang and Garshelis 2007). They still make use of hard mast, but additionally consume numerous species of soft fruits. In Thailand, for example, Asiatic black bears were found to feed on >160 species of tree-borne fruits. Sympatric sun bears also eat most of these same fruits. Both species most often climb (apparently for feeding) trees in the cinnamon (Lauraceae) and teak (Labiatae) families. Both species live together in lowland habitats (<1,200 m), but Asiatic black bears predominate at higher elevations (R. Steinmetz, in prep.).

Asiatic black bears also use regenerating forests, which may have a high production of berries or young bamboo shoots. They also feed in plantations, where they may damage trees by stripping the bark and eating cambium, and in cultivated areas, especially corn and oat fields and fruit orchards (Carr et al. 2002, Yamazaki 2003, Mizukami et al. 2005, Gong and Harris 2006, Vinitpornsawan et al. 2006).

Asiatic black bears generally breed during June–July and give birth during November–March; however, timing of reproduction is not known for all portions of the range. Age of first reproduction is 4–5 years, and they normally produce litters of 1 or 2 cubs every other year (at most). Maximum lifespan is over 30 years, but average lifespan is less in the wild.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Inhabits temperate, subtropical and tropical forests (2).
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Trophic Strategy

Asiatic black bears most often feed diurnally. However, their nocturnal activity increases through autumn. This occurs because the bears must increase their food intake in order to store body fat for insulation and caloric needs for use during harsh winters and hibernation. Asiatic black bears seem to be able to shift their circadian rhythm in order to obtain desired foods; for example, when raiding crops, they are more likely to do so at night in order to avoid contact with humans. Asiatic black bears posses an acute sense of smell that lets them locate grubs and other insects up to 3 feet (approximately 1 meter) below the ground. Asiatic black bears are omnivorous, though they are primarily vegetarians. A recent study showed that nuts from Fagaceae trees occupied the highest proportion of autumn foods. When food production and availability is poor, Asiatic black bears have been known to strip the bark off of trees in order to supplement their deficient diet with nutrients. Their normal diet consists of fruits, roots and tubers, as well as small invertebrates and vertebrates, and carrion. However, cases in which they eat buffalo by breaking the neck have been documented. They also eat other prey they find that tigers have killed.

Asiatic black bears have been known to eat any available food source, including the livestock and produce of farms. Their proclivity for domestic animals and crops has made humans target them, and Asiatic black bears are often killed while trying to feed.

Animal Foods: mammals; carrion ; insects; terrestrial worms

Plant Foods: roots and tubers; wood, bark, or stems; fruit

Primary Diet: omnivore

  • Hashimoto, Y., M. Kaji, H. Sawada, S. Takatsuki. 2003. Five-year study on the autumn food habiots of the Asiatic black bear in relation to nut production. Ecological Research, 18: 485-492.
  • Hayashi, S., Y. Yoshida, M. Horiuchi, T. Tsubota, T. Murase, T. Okano, M. Sato, K. Yamamoto. 2002. Analysis of causes of bark stripping by the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus). Honyurui Kagaku, 42(1): 35-43.
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Associations

Threatened Vertebrate Associates in the Hindu Kush Alpine Meadow Ecoregion

The Hindu Kush alpine meadow has an expanse of some 10,900 square miles, situated in northeastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. Most of the lands lie within the Hindu Kush Mountain Range in  the altitude bracket between 3000 to 4000 meters, and correspondingly most of the precipitation is in the form of snow. This ecoregion is classified within the Montane Grasslands and Shrublands biome.

This ecoregion manifests a low rate of vertebrate endemism; however there are ten special status mammals found here, ranging from the status of Endangered to Near Threatened. The Hindu Kush alpine meadow ecoregion consists of higher elevation terrain of moderate to severe slopes. Vegetation is often sparse or almost lacking, with resulting pastoral usage of low intensity grazing of goats and sheep in some areas. Soils are largely leptosols, but many areas are covered by large expanses of rock outcrop or rocky scree. In the limited areas of arable soils, wheat is sometimes farmed, although growing of opium poppies is the only cash crop. Most of the water available for plant and animal life is supplied by snowmelt. The Helmand River, Afghanistan's largest watercourse, represents the chief catchment within the ecoregion, with headwaters rising in the Hindu Kush Range, and eventual discharge to the endorheic Sistan Basin.

Special status mammals found in the Hindu Kush alpine meadow are: the Near Threatened argali (Ovis ammon), the Vulnerable Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus), the Near Threatened European otter (Lutra lutra), the Near Threatened leopard (Panthera pardus), the Endangered markhor (Capra falconeri), the Near Threatened mountain weasel (Mustela altaica), the Near Threatened Schreiber's long-fingered bat (Miniopteris schreibersi), the Endangered snow leopard (Uncia uncia), the Near Threatened striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) and the Endangered Moschus leucogaster. Special status birds in the Hindu Kush alpine meadow are represented by the Endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopteris).

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Threatened Vertebrate Associates in the Hindu Kush Alpine Meadow Ecoregion

The Hindu Kush alpine meadow has an expanse of some 10,900 square miles, situated in northeastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. Most of the lands lie within the Hindu Kush Mountain Range in  the altitude bracket between 3000 to 4000 meters, and correspondingly most of the precipitation is in the form of snow. This ecoregion is classified within the Montane Grasslands and Shrublands biome.

This ecoregion manifests a low rate of vertebrate endemism; however there are ten special status mammals found here, ranging from the status of Endangered to Near Threatened. The Hindu Kush alpine meadow ecoregion consists of higher elevation terrain of moderate to severe slopes. Vegetation is often sparse or almost lacking, with resulting pastoral usage of low intensity grazing of goats and sheep in some areas. Soils are largely leptosols, but many areas are covered by large expanses of rock outcrop or rocky scree. In the limited areas of arable soils, wheat is sometimes farmed, although growing of opium poppies is the only significant cash crop. Most of the water available for plant and animal life is supplied by snowmelt. The Helmand River, Afghanistan's largest watercourse, represents the chief catchment within the ecoregion, with headwaters rising in the Hindu Kush Range, and eventual discharge to the endorheic Sistan Basin.

Special status mammals found in the Hindu Kush alpine meadow are: the Near Threatened argali (Ovis ammon), the Vulnerable Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus), the Near Threatened European otter (Lutra lutra), the Near Threatened leopard (Leopardus pardus), the Endangered markhor (Capra falconeri), the Near Threatened mountain weasel (Mustela altaica), the Near Threatened Schreiber's long-fingered bat (Miniopteris schreibersi), the Endangered snow leopard (Uncia uncia), the Near Threatened striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) and the Endangered Moschus leucogaster. Special status birds in the Hindu Kush alpine meadow are represented by the Endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopteris).

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Asiatic black bears are the prey of Siberian Tigers. Asiatic black bears feed upon the carrion that the tigers kill, and if the bears are caught while feeding, they are killed and eaten by the tigers.

Asiatic black bears feed upon grubs and insects, placing them on the third trophic level. As omnivores, they are secondary consumers.

Studies conducted in various locations in Japan show that there are a few typical parasites of Asiatic black bears, occurring in the esophageal and tracheal connective tissue, lungs, and ventral body hair.

Three common nematode parasites found in the esophageal and tracheal connective tissue of Asiatic black bears are Baylisascaris transfuga , Cercopithifilaria japonica , and the filarial nematode Dirofilaria ursi. The biting louse Trichodectes pinguis is found in the ventral body hairs, as well as numerous species of the hard tick Haemaphysalis megaspinosa. There has been one instance in which Hepatozoon canis was found in the lungs of an Asiatic black bear. This was the first time this parasite has been found in any species of bear.

  • Yokohata, Y., O. Fujita, M. Kamiya, T. Fujita, K. Kaneko, M. Ohbayashi. 1990. Parasites from the Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus) on Kyushu Island, Japan. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 26(1): 137-138.
  • Uni, S., M. Mastsubayashi, E. Ikeda, Y. Suzuki. 2003. Characteristics of a hepatozoonosis in lungs of Japanese black bears. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 65(3): 385-388.
  • Uni, S., Y. Suzuki, M. Harada, I. Kimata, M. Iseki. 1995. Prevalence of nematodes in the Asiatic Black Bear, Ursus thibetanus, in Central Honshu, Japan, with an amended description of Cercopithifilaria japonica (syn. Dipetalonema (Chenofilaria) japonica). Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 44(5): 371-376.
  • 2004. "Ecosystem processes" (On-line). Accessed February 11, 2004 at http://www.cord.edu/faculty/landa/courses/e103w00/sessions/ecosystem.html.
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The main predator of U. thibetanus is the Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris). The fact that tiger kills are a favorite food of U. thibetanus leaves it susceptible to tiger attacks when the tiger returns to its kill and finds the bear feeding on the carrion.

Known Predators:

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Exceptional sight, hearing, and smell are characteristics of U. thibetanus. No studies are available as to the exact form of communication between Asiatic black bears. However, extensive research has been conducted on other members of the family Ursidae that have senses similar to those of the Asiatic black bear. Using evidence from these studies, it can be inferred that Asiatic black bears communicate vocally and use their heightened sense of hearing to aid in listening to these vocalizations. For example, when bear cubs are separated from their mothers, they make crying calls. Low guttural noises can be indications of a bear being apprehensive, and clicking the teeth together is an indication of aggressiveness.

Bears often communicate visually with each other by the way in which they move or behave in the presence of other bears; for example, the behavior of a bear can convey either dominant or subordinate status to another. To indicate subordinate status, a bear moves away, or sits or lies down. To convey dominance, a bear walks or runs towards a rival.

Bears use their acute sense of smell in order to communicate with other members of their species; they do so by urinating, defecating, and by rubbing against trees to leave their scent for other bears to detect.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

Little is known about lifespan in U. thibetanus, especially out in the wild. There are few resources available for information on lifespan in the wild or in captivity.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
25 (high) years.

Range lifespan

Status: captivity:
33 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
33.0 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 39.2 years (captivity) Observations: As in other bears, there is usually a delayed implantation (Ronald Nowak 1999). One captive specimen lived 39.2 years (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Reproduction

Little is known about Asiatic black bears in the wild; most of what is known about their social and reproductive behavior has been collected by observing the bears in zoos and environments other than their natural habitat.

In captive environments, the mating pattern of Asiatic black bears is classified as promiscuous. Females enter periods of estrus and non-estrus at irregular intervals, and undergo mating for 12 to 35 days. For males above the age of 6 years, larger bears spend more days mating than smaller males. There is a social hierarchy related to the age and body weight of male bears and only larger males mate with the females. Those of small size (those weighing less than 80 kg) have reduced chances of mating.

In the wild, Asiatic black bears typically forage alone. However, during breeding season, pairs can be seen hunting and gathering together.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

The reproductive patterns vary widely in the different populations of U. thibetanus. In Siberia, mating takes place in June or July, with the births occurring in February, typically. In Pakistan, mating occurs in October, and births occur in February. Across the species, breeding usually begins when U. thibetanus is 3 to 4 years old. The pregnancy lasts from 7 to 8 months, and cubs are born in a cave or hollow tree in early winter. There are usually 2 cubs per litter, and the cubs typically weigh about 8 to 10.5 ounces. Asiatic black bears are thought to have delayed implantation where the embryo floats freely in the womb before it implants in the uterine lining, though this is not known definitively. Studies conducted on pregnant and nonpregnant bears show that concentrations of serum progesterone (P4) and prolactin (PRL) might be connected with the process of delayed implantation in U. thibetanus. Lower concentrations of both P4 and PRL are found in nonpregnant bears. Increased concentrations of these cause the activation of the corpus luteum, which prepares the uterus for implantation. Rising levels of both P4 and PRL are found to occur approximately two months after copulation. Therefore the duration of the delayed implantation in U. thibetanus is around two months. It is not yet known whether delayed implantation occurs all of the time in U. thibetanus, or only under certain circumstances. It is also not yet known what causes the levels of the particular hormones under study to change, though it may be due to environmental cues or in response to other hormones circulating in the body.

Breeding interval: The breeding interval is not known for sure; Asiatic Black Bears have been seen with two litters of cubs, but in the wild they typically only have one litter of cubs at a time. Since the young stay with the mother for 2 to 3 years, the breeding interval could therefore be 1 litter every 2 to 3 years, or more.

Breeding season: Late Summer; From June to October, depending on which population is being observed

Average number of offspring: 2.

Range gestation period: 7 to 8 months.

Average weaning age: 3.5 months.

Range time to independence: 2 to 3 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 3 to 4 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 3 to 4 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous ; delayed implantation

Average birth mass: 463 g.

Average number of offspring: 2.

The cubs of U. thibetanus cannot open their eyes until 1 week has passed, and they are not fully weaned until just over 3 months. The cubs live with their mother until they are 2 to 3 years old. Not much is known about the type of care that parents provide in the wild, due to the lack of studies of behavior outside of captive environments.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female)

  • Than, U., S. Simcharoen, B. Kanchanasakha. 1998. Carnivores of Mainland South East Asia. Bangkok: Siam Tong Kit Printing Co., Ltd..
  • Nowak, R. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fifth Edition. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Izumiyama, S., T. Yoshida, H. Hayashi, O. Huygens. 2001. Denning Ecology of Two Populations of Asiatic Black Bears in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Mammalia, 65: (4): 417-428.
  • Sato, M., T. Tsubota, T. Komatsu, G. Wantanabe, K. Taya, T. Murase, I. Kita, T. Kudo. 2001. Changes in sex steroids, gonadotropins, prolactin, and inhibin in pregnant and nonpregnant Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus). Biology of Reproduction, 65(4): 1006-1013.
  • Yamamoto, K., T. Tsubota, I. Kita. 1998. Observation of sexual behavior of captive Japanese black bears, Ursus tibetanus japonicus. Journal of Reproduction & Development, 44(5): 13-18.
  • 2004. "Asiatic Black Bears" (On-line). Accessed February 01, 2004 at http://www.asiatic-black-bears.com/.
  • International Fund for Animal Welfare, 2003. "Asiatic black bear or Moon bear" (On-line). Accessed March 07, 2004 at http://www.ifaw.org/ifaw/general/default.aspx?oid=12973.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ursus thibetanus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 11 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AACCGATGACTATTCTCTACAAATCATAAAGATATTGGCACTCTCTATCTTCTATTCGGTGCATGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGTACTGCTCTC---AGCCTTTTGATTCGTGCCGAACTAGGTCAGCCCGGGACCCTGTTGGGGGAT---GATCAGATCTACAATGTAGTCGTAACTGCCCATGCATTCGTGATAATCTTCTTTATGGTTATGCCTATTATAATTGGGGGGTTTGGGAACTGATTAGTGCCCTTAATA---ATTGGTGCTCCTGACATAGCGTTTCCTCGAATGAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTGCTGCCACCATCTTTCTTGTTGCTTCTAGCTTCTTCTATAGTAGAAGCAGGTGCAGGAACTGGGTGGACTGTCTACCCCCCTCTAGCGGGCAATCTGGCCCATGCAGGAGCATCAGTAGACCTA---ACAATCTTTTCTCTACACTTAGCAGGCATCTCTTCTATTCTGGGAGCCATCAATTTCATCACTACTATCATTAACATAAAACCTCCTGCAATATCTCAATACCAAACCCCTCTGTTTGTGTGATCAGTCCTAATCACGGCAGTGCTTCTTCTTTTATCTCTGCCAGTCTTGGCGGCT---GGGATTACCATACTACTTACAGATCGAAACCTCAACACTACCTTTTTTGACCCAGCCGGAGGGGGAGATCCTATTCTGTACCAACACTTGTTTTGATTCTTCGGACACCCTGAGGTTTATATCCTAATTCTTCCAGGGTTCGGAATGATCTCTCACATTGTCACTTATTACTCAGGAAAAAAA---GAGCCTTTCGGCTACATGGGTATAGTCTGAGCGATAATATCCATTGGATTCTTAGGATTTATCGTGTGAGCTCATCATATGTTTACCGTAGGTATAGATGTCGACACACGAGCTTACTTCACTTCAGCTACCATAATTATTGCAATCCCAACAGGAGTCAAAGTATTTAGCTGACTA---GCTACCCTGCACGGAGGG---AATATTAAATGATCTCCTGCTATAATATGAGCCCTAGGCTTTATTTTTCTGTTTACAGTAGGGGGCCTTACAGGAATTGTCCTAGCTAATTCGTCTCTAGACATTGTTCTCCATGACACATATTATGTGGTAGCCCATTTCCACTATGTG---CTGTCAATAGGAGCTGTCTTTGCCATTATAGGAGGATTTGTCCACTGATTTCCACTGTTTTCAGGCTATACACTTAATAATACATGAGCAAAGATTCACTTCATAATCATATTCGTTGGGGTTAATATAACTTTCTTTCCCCAACATTTCCTGGGCCTGTCGGGAATGCCTCGG---CGATATTCCGACTATCCAGATGCCTACACA---ATATGAAATACAGTATCTTCTATAGGATCATTTATTTCACTAACAGCAGTTATACTAATAATTTTCATGATTTGGGAGGCCTTTGCGTCAAAGCGAGAGGTA---GCAGTGGTAGAACTCACTTCAACCAAT
-- end --

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ursus thibetanus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

The habitat of U. thibetanus is threatened by uncontrolled harvesting and deforestation. There is no special effort being put forth to help the continuing decline in numbers of Asiatic black bears. Diversity of habitats and food is important in providing alternative foods when one food source fails. As a result of deforestation and other human activities, however, the diversity of habitats is being destroyed. Even in the protected areas, there is not enough variety to fully support the Asiatic black bears. As a result, each population of Asiatic black bears is becoming increasingly isolated.

Population studies in 2001 in Japan found that different populations of Asiatic black bears were becoming genetically isolated from each other. Even between the two closest populations, there was a low but significant amount of genetic differentiation. In the individual populations, genetic diversity was decreasing. Since each population was changing and evolving separately, genetic isolation between the populations is a problem that needs to be addressed, and conservation efforts must be initiated.

US Federal List: endangered

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

  • Saitoh, T., Y. Ishibashi, H. Kanamori, E. Kitahara. 2001. Genetic status of fragmented populations of the Asian black bear Ursus thibetanus in western Japan. Population Ecology, 43(3): 221-227.
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2cd+3d+4d

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Garshelis, D.L. & Steinmetz, R. (IUCN SSC Bear Specialist Group)

Reviewer/s
McLellan, B.N. & Garshelis, D.L. (Bear Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Widespread illegal killing of bears and trade in parts, combined with loss of habitat indicate that this species is likely declining in most parts of its range, especially in Southeast Asia and China. Questionnaire surveys also indicate declining numbers in Taiwan, with areas of local extirpation caused by habitat degradation and illegal hunting. Japan appears to be the only range country that has documented an increasing number of Asiatic black bears, reflected by an increasing area of occupied range (Oi and Yamazaki 2006).

Although actual data on population sizes or trends are lacking, it seems likely, given the rate of habitat loss and uncontrolled exploitation that the world population has declined by 30–49% over the past 30 years (3 bear generations) and that this rate will continue during the next 30 years unless abated by the implementation of significant conservation measures.

History
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
  • 1994
    Vulnerable
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN 1990)
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Status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU - A1cd) on the IUCN Red List 2002 and listed on Appendix I of CITES (1). Subspecies: Baluchistan bear (U.t.gedrosianus) is Critically Endangered (CR B1+2abc, C2a) (3).
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Population

Population
No rigorous population estimates exist for this species. Japan formerly posed estimates of 8–14,000 bears on Honshu Island, but these are no longer considered valid. Russian biologists have presented a number of density estimates, yielding a rangewide estimate of about 5–6,000, but the reliability of these is unclear (Aramilev 2006). Likewise, rough density estimates have been made for some portions of India and Pakistan, which have been extrapolated country-wide (7-9000 in India: Sathyakumar 2006, 1000 in Pakistan: Sheikh 2006), but without corroborating methodology or data. A host of recent countrywide estimates have been posed for Asiatic black bears in China, ranging from 15–46,000 (summarized by Garshelis 2002, Gong and Harris 2006), with an official government estimate (in 2003) of about 28,000; none of these estimates have been substantiated.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat loss due to logging, expansion of human settlements, roadway networks, and hydro-power stations, combined with hunting for skins, paws and especially gall bladders are the main threats to this species.

Habitat loss and degradation is most severe in the southern portion of the range. In India, <10% of the species’ range is within protected areas (PAs), and areas outside PAs are subject to development projects and extraction of wood for fuel and livestock fodder (Sathyakumar 2006). In Bangladesh, where forest cover is now <7% of the land area, Asiatic black bears survive only in small remnant patches in the east, generally near the Myanmar border. Myanmar, although still well forested (nearly 50%), is fourth in the world in the annual rate of loss of forested area (among countries occupied by all species of bears, it is second only to Indonesia: FAO 2006). Thailand has lower forest cover (<30%), but much of its remaining forests are within PAs, and about half of these are occupied by black bears (Vinitpornsawan et al. 2006). Forest area has recently been increasing in Viet Nam, but much of the present remaining forest is highly degraded from both legal and illegal lumbering (Nguyen Xuan Dang 2006).

Forest area is increasing rapidly in China, which is now first in the world in terms of area gained per year. This increasing forest area stems from mandated government programs aimed mainly toward reducing flooding and erosion; the replanted trees may or may not be particularly suitable for bears. However, good forest habitat does persist in northeastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Russia, and Japan. In Japan, black bear range has expanded with increasing forest area and diminishing rural human populations (Oi and Yamazaki 2006). Meanwhile, the number of people killed or injured by Japanese black bears has been on the rise (presumably reflective of the increasing bear population), and the same may be true in some parts of China (J. Gong, Sichuan Forestry Dept., Chengdu pers. comm.).

The major threat to bears in China and Southeast Asia is the commercial trade in live bears and bear parts, especially gall bladders (bile). China initiated commercial bear farming in 1984, ostensibly to satisfy the demand for bile by practitioners of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM; and also Traditional Korean Medicine, TKM). The bile is periodically drained, so the captive bears do not have to be killed; it was claimed that this practice would thereby reduce the taking of wild bears. However, these farms were initially stocked with wild bears, and although the Chinese farms are purportedly now mainly self-propagating (with some continuing exceptions), there is no evidence that their existence has reduced the killing (poaching) of wild bears. In Viet Nam, many small-scale bile farms have been started, which were stocked by several thousand bears removed from the wild (from Viet Nam as well as from neighbouring countries). The condition in which these bears are kept precludes successful breeding and cub rearing; in fact, most of these farms do not attempt to breed their bears. Moreover, although this practice has been illegal since 1992, with regulations strengthened in 2002, the number of wild-caught farmed bears in Viet Nam is estimated to have increased by an order of magnitude in less than a decade (J. Robinson and G. Cochrane, Animals Asia Foundation pers. comm.).

A surplus of bile is produced by the 8000–10,000 bears currently kept on Chinese bear farms, spurring efforts to find markets in non-traditional uses of bile (e.g., lotions, shampoos, cosmetics); meanwhile, many practitioners of TCM/TKM believe that bile from wild bears is more effective at healing various ailments, and are thus willing to pay higher prices for this product and may be disinclined to use substitutes (Chang et al. 1995, Kang and Phipps 2003). The market for bear paws also appears to be increasing commensurate with an increasing number of wealthy people who find it within their means to indulge in this very expensive delicacy.

The demand for these bear products has fuelled a growing network of international trade throughout Southeast Asia, and has turned many subsistence hunters into commercial hunters. Most commercial trade routes eventually terminate in China (Saw Htun 2006; C. Shepherd, TRAFFIC SE Asia pers. comm.). However, it is difficult to assess the true extent of this trade because only a small fraction of the parts are confiscated. Moreover, with no reliable population estimates or monitoring system it is not possible to evaluate the actual impacts on populations. Nevertheless, it seems highly probable that this commercially-driven trade in parts is unsustainable and therefore causing populations to decline.

The capture of live bears presents yet another threat to this species. In several Southeast Asian countries Asiatic black bears are routinely confiscated from people attempting to raise them as pets. In Pakistan, several thousand bears were taken from the wild for exhibitions (referred to as bear baiting) in which individual bears (with canines and claws removed) fight with dogs. This practice was made illegal in 2001, but continues to some extent.
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The Asiatic black bear has been hunted for centuries for its skin, paws and for the gall bladder, which is used in Oriental medicine (2). Recent deforestation across the Asian Continent is a major threat to the survival of the species (5). Habitat is cleared by logging practices, development and an encroaching human population. These bears may be regarded as a pest and consequently persecuted in some areas as they can destroy crops (5). In China, bears were taken from the wild to be kept in captivity as an important source of bile for medicine (5).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The most beneficial conservation measure for Asiatic black bears would be to substantially lessen the demand for bear products, and thus reduce hunting and trade. The species is protected under both international and national laws, but often these laws are not enforced. It has been included on CITES Appendix I since 1979. The so-called Baluchistan bear, a subspecies (U. thibetanus gedrosianus) living in the arid thorn forest in the Baluchistan region of southern Pakistan and Iran, was listed as Critically Endangered (B1+2abc, C2a) in the 1996 IUCN Red List, and is nationally listed as critically endangered in Pakistan. Authorities have proposed a protected area to assist in the recovery of this very small, isolated population (Sheikh 2006).

In most range countries Asiatic black bears are listed as a protected species. For example, they are protected under Class 2 of China's Wildlife Protection Law (a limited number of permits are issued to kill nuisance animals), and under Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. In South Korea they are designated as a national monument (No. 329) within the Cultural Properties Protection Law and also as an Endangered Wild Animal. In Japan, this species is listed under the Law for Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, which for trade requires certification of legal take; however, gall bladders and paws are exempted. Throughout Southeast Asia this species is totally protected in every range country, with the exception of Myanmar, where this species is classified as “normally protected”, meaning that it may be killed with a special license (although such licenses are rarely issued; Saw Htun, Wildlife Conservation Society, Myanmar pers. comm.). In Afghanistan, U. thibetanus is listed as a protected species, imposing a Government ban on all hunting and trading of this species within the country.

Sport hunting of Asiatic black bears is legal only in Japan and Russia. Russia reports a legal harvest of 75-100 bears/year and an estimated illegal take of about 500 bears/year. Sport harvests of black bears in Japan average about 500/year and have been slowly declining since the late 1980s due to diminishing interest in hunting (Oi and Yamazaki 2006). However, a high number (generally 1,000–2,000, but as many as 4,000) of nuisance black bears are killed annually (using guns, traps, and snares) in towns or agricultural areas of Japan.

Farming bears for bile presents another conservation difficulty that needs to be resolved. In Viet Nam, bears are still being removed from the wild to supply farms. In China, whereas the farms themselves may not require restocking from the wild, the excessive bile produced may fuel the market, and thus may actually increase demand for bile from wild bears. In South Korea, where wild Asiatic black bears have been nearly extirpated, 2000 bears are kept and propagated in captivity and it is believed that bile and other parts from this captive population supply an illicit market.

Efforts are underway in South Korea to restore the wild bear population through restocking, initially with captive-born bears, but more recently with orphaned wild bears from Russia. Some Southeast Asian countries, like Cambodia and Thailand are also considering reintroducing bears from captivity.

Throughout much of the southern portion of the range of this species, efforts to reduce habitat degradation outside PAs and to increase the number and/or area of PAs would be highly beneficial. An increasing number of PAs are being established in China, India, and a few other countries within the range of Asiatic black bears (Chape et al. 2003), mainly to protect other species, but serving as well to increase protection for bears. Additionally, the recently amended (2003) Indian Wild Life (Protection) Act provides options for new categories of PAs that could be established to form travel corridors between existing PAs.
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Conservation

The Asiatic black bear is protected by law in all of the countries where it occurs, with the exception of Japan (2). It is also listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), which bans international trade in this species (1). Law enforcement is extremely limited in much of its range and the control of poaching and smuggling is an important conservation priority (5). The protection of habitat is also vital to the survival of this species. The American black bear co-exists with its human neighbours fairly successfully (2), and education will play an important role if the same is going to happen for this bear.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

There have been documented cases of unprovoked attacks by Asiatic black bears on humans, as well as cases of provoked attacks on humans when a bear felt endangered. Most attacks on humans take place in the late summer, around the time of the mating season.

Asiatic black bears sometimes prey on livestock and crops, thus making themselves susceptible to being killed by humans when caught.

Negative Impacts: injures humans (bites or stings); crop pest

  • Chauhan, N. 2003. Human casualties and livestock depredation by black and brown bears in the Indian Himalaya, 1989-98.. Ursus, 14(1): 84-87.
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The bile and gallbladders of Asiatic black bears are harvested for medical use in some oriental countries. These organs are thought to reduce inflammation and reduce fevers.

Asiatic black bears are also hunted for their paws, skin, and meat.

Positive Impacts: body parts are source of valuable material; source of medicine or drug

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Wikipedia

Asian black bear

The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus) is also known as moon bear and white-chested bear. It is a medium-sized bear species and largely adapted to arboreal life.[2][3] It is found in the Himalayas, in the northern parts of the Indian Subcontinent, Korea, northeastern China, the Russian far east, the Honshū and Shikoku islands of Japan and Taiwan. It is classified as "Vulnerable" by the IUCN, mostly because of deforestation and hunting for its body parts.[1]

The species is morphologically very similar to some prehistoric bears, and is thought by some scientists to be the ancestor of other extant bear species (aside from pandas and spectacled bears).[2] Though largely herbivorous, Asian black bears can be very aggressive toward humans, and have frequently attacked people without provocation. The species was described by Rudyard Kipling as "the most bizarre of the ursine species."[4]

Characteristics[edit]

The white V shaped chest mark of an Asian black bear

Asian black bears are similar in general appearance to brown bears, but are more lightly built and are more slender limbed. The lips and nose are larger and more mobile than those of brown bears. The skulls of Asian black bears are relatively small, but massive, particularly in the lower jaw. Adult males have skulls measuring 311.7 to 328 mm (12.27 to 12.91 in) in length and 199.5–228 mm (7.85–8.98 in) in width, while female skulls are 291.6–315 mm (11.48–12.40 in) long and 163–173 mm (6.4–6.8 in) wide. Compared to other bears of the genus Ursus, the projections of the skull are weakly developed; the sagittal crest is low and short, even in old specimens, and does not exceed more than 19–20% of the total length of the skull, unlike in brown bears, which have sagittal crests comprising up to 41% of the skull's length.[3]

Although mostly herbivorous, the jaw structure of Asian black bears is not as specialised for plant eating as that of pandas: Asian black bears have much narrower zygomatic arches, and the weight ratio of the two pterygoid muscles is also much smaller in Asian black bears. The lateral slips of the temporal muscles are thicker and stronger in black bears.[5]

A black bear with broken hind legs can still climb effectively. In contrast to polar bears, Asian black bears have powerful upper bodies for climbing trees, and relatively weak hind legs. which are shorter than those in brown bears and American black bears.[4][3] They are the most bipedal of all bears, and have been known to walk upright for over a quarter mile.[6] The heel pads on the forefeet are larger than those of most other bear species. Their claws, which are primarily used for climbing and digging, are slightly longer on the fore foot (30–45 mm) than the back (18–36 mm),[7] and are larger and more hooked than those of the American black bear.[8] The ears, which are bell shaped, are proportionately longer than those of other bears, and stick out sideways from the head.[4]

On average, adult Asian black bears are slightly smaller than American black bears, though large males can exceed the size of several other bear species.[9] They measure 70–100 cm (28–40 in) at the shoulder, and 120–195 cm (47–77 in) in length. The tail is 11 cm (4.4 inches) long. Mature males typically weigh between 100–200 kg (220-440 lbs), with an average weight of about 135 kg (about 300 lbs). Females weigh about 65–90 kg (143–198 lbs), with large ones up to 140 kg (308 lbs).[4][10][11][12] The famed British sportsman known as the "Old Shekarry" wrote of how a black bear he shot in India probably weighed no less than 363 kg (800 lbs) based on how many people it took to lift its body,[13] though Gary Brown, author of The Great Bear Almanac writes that the largest Asian black bear on record weighed 200 kg (440 lbs).[4] Zoo-kept specimens can weigh up to 225 kg (500 lbs).[14] Although their senses are more acute than those of brown bears,[15] their eyesight is poor, and their powers of hearing moderate, the upper limit being 30 kHz.[16]

Taxonomy[edit]

Ancestral and sister taxa[edit]

Biologically and morphologically, Asian black bears represent the beginning of the arboreal specialisations attained by sloth bears and sun bears.[3] Asian black bears have karyotypes nearly identical to those of the five other ursine bears, and, as is typical in the genus, they have 74 chromosomes.[17] From an evolutionary perspective, Asian black bears are the least changed of Old World bears, with certain scientists arguing that it is likely that all other lineages of ursine bear stem from this species.[2] Scientists have proposed that Asian black bears are either a surviving, albeit modified, form of Ursus etruscus, specifically the early, small variety of the middle Villafranchian[18] or a larger form of Ursus minimus, an extinct species that arose four million years ago. With the exception of the age of the bones, it is often difficult to distinguish the remains of Ursus minimus with those of modern Asian black bears.[2]

Asian black bears are close relatives to American black bears, with which they share a European common ancestor;[19] the two species are thought to have diverged 3 million years ago, though genetic evidence is inconclusive. Both American and Asiatic species are considered sister taxa, and are more closely related to each other than other species of bear.[20] The earliest American black bear fossils, which were located in Port Kennedy, Pennsylvania, greatly resemble the Asiatic species.[18] The first mtDNA study undertaken on Asian black bears suggested that the species arose after the American black bears, while a second study could not statistically resolve the branching order of sloth bears and the two black species, suggesting that these three species underwent a rapid radiation event. A third study suggested that American black bears and Asian black bears diverged as sister taxa after the sloth bear lineage and before the sun bear lineage.[17] Further investigations on the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence indicate that the divergence of continental and Japanese black bear populations might have occurred when bears crossed the land bridge between the Korean peninsula and Japan 500,000 years ago, which is consistent with paleontological evidence.[21]

Subspecies[edit]

Asiatic black bear subspecies
Subspecies nameDistributionDescriptionCommon name
Ursus thibetanus formosanus Swinhoe, 1864
Formosan Black Bear01.jpg
TaiwanIt lacks the thick neck fur of other subspecies[7]Formosan black bear
Ursus thibetanus gedrosianus Blanford, 1877Southern Baluchistan[22]A small subspecies with relatively short, coarse hair, often reddish-brown rather than black.[7][22]
Ursus thibetanus japonicus Schlegel, 1857
Asiatic Black Bear.jpg
Honshū and Shikoku. Extinct on Kyushu.A small subspecies weighing between 60–120 kg for the adult male and 40–100 kg for the adult female. The average body length is 110–140 cm.[17] It lacks the thick neck fur of other subspecies, and has a darker coloured snout[7]Japanese black bear
Ursus thibetanus laniger Pocock, 1932
Himalayan bear.jpg
Kashmir, Himalayas and Sikkim[22]Distinguished from U. t. thibetanus by its longer, thicker fur and smaller, whiter chest mark[22]Himalayan black bear
Ursus thibetanus mupinensis Heude, 1901Himalaya and IndochinaLight colored, similar to Ursus thibetanus lanigerInchochinese black bear
Ursus thibetanus thibetanus Cuvier, 1823Assam, Nepal, Burma, Mergui, Thailand and Annam[22]Distinguished from the Himalayan race by its short, thin coat with little to no underwool[22]Tibetan black bear
Ursus thibetanus ussuricus Heude, 1901


Ursus thibetanus ussuricus Kaliningrad Zoo.JPG

Southern Siberia, northeastern China and Korean peninsulaThe largest subspecies[3][7]Ussuri black bear

Until the Late Pleistocene, two further subspecies ranged across Europe and western Asia. These are Ursus thibetanus mediterraneus in western Europe and the Caucasus and Ursus thibetanus permjak from eastern Europe, especially the Ural Mountains.[23]

Hybrids[edit]

Asian black bears are reproductively compatible with several other bear species, and have on occasion produced hybrid offspring. According to Jack Hanna's Monkeys on the Interstate, a bear captured in Sanford, Florida was thought to have been the offspring of an escaped female Asian black bear and a male American black bear, and Scherren's Some notes on hybrid bears published in 1907 mentioned a successful mating between an Asian black bear and a sloth bear.[24] In 1975, within Venezuela's "Las Delicias" Zoo, a female black bear shared its enclosure with a male spectacled bear, and produced several hybrid descendants.[25] In 2005, a possible black bear/ sun bear, hybrid cub was captured in the Mekong River watershed of eastern Cambodia.[26] An Asian black bear/brown bear hybrid, taken from a bile farm, is housed at the Animals Asia Foundation's China Moon Bear Rescue as of 2010.[27]

Behaviour[edit]

Asian black bear cub on a tree

Asian black bears are diurnal, though they become nocturnal near human habitations. They may live in family groups consisting of two adults and two successive litters of young. They will walk in a procession of largest to smallest. They are good climbers of rocks and trees, and will climb to feed, rest, sun, elude enemies and hibernate. Some older bears may become too heavy to climb.[28] Half of their life is spent in trees and they are one of the largest arboreal mammals.[17] In the Ussuri territory, black bears can spend up to 15% of their time in trees.[3] Asian black bears break branches and twigs to place under themselves when feeding on trees, thus causing many trees in their home ranges to have nest-like structures on their tops.[17] Asian black bears will rest for short periods in nests on trees standing fifteen feet or higher.[28] Asian black bears do not hibernate over most of their range. They may hibernate in their colder, northern ranges, though some bears will simply move to lower elevations. Nearly all pregnant sows hibernate. Black bears prepare their dens for hibernation in mid October, and will sleep from November until March. Their dens can either be dug out hollow trees (sixty feet above ground), caves or holes in the ground, hollow logs, or steep, mountainous and sunny slopes.[28] They may also den in abandoned brown bear dens. Asiatic black bears tend to den at lower elevations and on less steeper slopes than brown bears. Female black bears emerge from dens later than do males, and female black bears with cubs emerge later than barren females.[29] Asian black bears tend to be less mobile than brown bears. With sufficient food, Asian black bears can remain in an area of roughly 1–2 sq km, and sometimes even as little as 0.5–1 sq km.[28]

Asian black bears have a wide range of vocalisations, including grunts, whines, roars, slurping sounds (sometimes made when feeding) and "an appalling row" when wounded, alarmed or angry. They emit loud hisses when issuing warnings or threats, and scream when fighting. When approaching other bears, they produce "tut tut" sounds, thought to be produced by bears snapping their tongue against the roof of their mouth.[16] When courting, they emit clucking sounds.[28]

Reproduction and life cycle[edit]

A 44-day-old Asian black bear
Sow nursing cubs

Within Sikhote-Alin, the breeding season of black bears occurs earlier than in brown bears, starting from mid June to mid August. Birth also occurs earlier, in mid January. By October, the uterine horns of pregnant females grow to 15–22 mm. By late December, the embryos weigh 75 grams.[3] Sows generally have their first litter at the age of three years.[17] Pregnant females generally make up 14% of populations. Similar to brown bears, Asian black bears have delayed implantation.[17] Sows usually give birth in caves or hollow trees in winter or early spring after a gestation period of 200–240 days. Cubs weigh 13 ounces at birth, and will begin walking at four days of age, and open their eyes three days later.[28] The skulls of newborn black bear cubs bear great resemblance to those of adult sun bears.[3] Litters can consist of 1–4 cubs, with 2 being the average.[28] Cubs have a slow growth rate, reaching only 2.5 kg by May.[3] Black bear cubs will nurse for 104–130 weeks, and become independent at 24–36 months. There is usually a 2–3 year interval period before females produce subsequent litters.[28] The average lifespan in the wild is 25 years, while the oldest Asian black bear in captivity died at the age of 44.[4]

Feeding[edit]

Black bear feeding on berries

Asian black bears are omnivorous, and will feed on insects, beetle larvae, invertebrates, termites, grubs, carrion, bees, eggs, garbage, mushrooms, grasses, fruits, nuts, seeds, honey, herbs, acorns, cherries, dogwood, oak nuts and grain.[28] Though herbivorous to a greater degree than brown bears,[3] and more carnivorous than American black bears,[6] Asian black bears are not as specialised in their diet as pandas are: while pandas depend on a constant supply of low calorie, yet abundant foodstuffs, black bears are more opportunistic and have opted for a nutritional boom-or-bust economy. They thus gorge themselves on a variety of seasonal high calorie foods, storing the excess calories as fat, and then hibernate during times of scarcity.[30] Black bears will eat pine nuts and acorns of the previous year in the April–May period. In times of scarcity, they enter river valleys to gain access to hazelnuts and insect larvae in rotting logs. From mid-May through late June, they will supplement their diet with green vegetation and fruit. Through July to September, they will climb trees to eat bird cherries, pine cones, vines and grapes. On rare occasions they will eat dead fish during the spawning season, though this constitutes a much lesser portion of their diet than in brown bears.[3] In the 1970s, black bears were reported to kill and eat Hanuman langurs in Nepal.[31] They appear to be more carnivorous than most other bears, including American black bears, and will kill ungulates with some regularity, including domestic livestock.[32] Wild ungulate prey can include muntjacs, serow, takin,[33] wild boar[34] and adult water buffaloes, which they kill by breaking their necks.[35]

Interspecific predatory relationships[edit]

The dentition of an Asiatic black bear (below), compared with that of a tiger (above)

Asian black bears may be occasionally attacked by tigers and brown bears, although leopards,[36] and packs of wolves[3] and dholes[15] can also be threats. Eurasian lynxes are a potential predator of cubs.[3] Black bears usually dominate Amur leopards in physical confrontations in heavily vegetated areas, while leopards are uppermost in open areas, though the outcome of such encounters is largely dependent on the size of the individual animals.[37] Leopards have been known to prey on cubs younger than two years old.[36]

The Asian black bear's range overlaps with that of sloth bears in central and southern India, sun bears in Southeast Asia and brown bears in the southern part of the Russian Far East.[38] Ussuri brown bears may attack black bears,[29] though Himalayan brown bears seem to be intimidated by the black species in direct encounters.[39] They will eat the fruit dropped by black bears from trees, as they themselves are too large and cumbersome to climb.[39][40]

Tigers will occasionally prey on black bears. Russian hunters may occasionally find black bear carcasses showing evidence of tiger predation, and their remains may occur in tiger scats. If they manage to escape a tiger, black bears will attempt to rush up a tree and wait for the tiger to leave, though some tigers will pretend to leave, and wait for the bear to descend.[41] One Manchurian tiger was reported to have lured an Asiatic black bear by imitating the species' mating call.[28] Tigers regularly prey on young bears but adult bears are occasionally taken as well.[41] Black bears are usually safe from tiger attacks once they reach five years of age.[42] Although black bears prefer to avoid tigers, they can be extremely tenacious when attacked: Jim Corbett observed a fight between a tiger and the largest black bear he had ever seen, which resulted in the bear managing to chase off the tiger, despite having half its nose and scalp torn off.[43] However, black bears may be less vulnerable than brown bears to tiger predation, due to their habit of living in hollows or in close set rocks, thus making them harder to pursue.[36] At least one fatal attack on a juvenile bear has been recorded in Jigme Dorji National Park, as Bhutan's tiger populations have begun to colonise higher altitude areas.[42] Black bears may steal tiger kills: Jim Corbett twice saw black bears carry off tiger kills when the latter was absent.[42][43]

However, larger black bears tend to dominate adult tigers, especially when the bear enters the tiger's territory.[citation needed]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Black bears typically inhabit deciduous forests, deserts, mixed forests and thornbrush forests. They rarely live in elevations of more than 12,000 feet (3,700 m). They usually inhabit elevations around 11,480 feet (3,500 m) in the Himalayas in the summer, and will climb down to 4,920 feet (1,500 m) in winter. They sometimes occur at sea level in Japan.[28]

The fossil record indicates that black bears once ranged as far west as Germany and France, though the species now occurs very patchily throughout its former range, which is now limited to the Asian continent. Black bears occupy a narrow band from southeastern Iran eastward through Afghanistan and Pakistan, across the foothills of the Himalayas in India, to Myanmar. With the exception of Malaysia, black bears occur in all countries in mainland Southeast Asia. They are absent from much of east-central China, though they have a patchy distribution in the southern and northeastern part of the country. Other population clusters exist in the southern Russian Far East and into North Korea. South Korea has a small remnant population. Black bears also occur in Japan's islands of Honshu and Shikoku and on Taiwan and Hainan.[38]

There is no definitive estimate as to the number of Asiatic black bears: Japan posed estimates of 8–14,000 bears living on Honshū, though the reliability of this is now doubted. Although their reliability is unclear, rangewide estimates of 5–6,000 bears have been presented by Russian biologists. Rough density estimates without corroborating methodology or data have been made in India and Pakistan, resulting in the estimates of 7–9,000 in India and 1,000 in Pakistan. Unsubstantiated estimates from China give varying estimates between 15–46,000, with a government estimate of 28,000.[38]

China[edit]

Three subspecies of Asiatic black bear occur in China: the Tibet subspecies (U. thibetanus thibetanus), the Si Chuan subspecies (U. thibetanus mupinensis), and the northeast subspecies (U. thibetanus ussuricus), which is the only subspecies of bear in northeastern China. Asiatic black bears are mainly distributed in the conifer forests in the cold and temperate zones of northeast China, the main areas being Chang Bai, Zhang Guangcai, Lao Ye, and the Lesser Xingan Mountains. Within Liaoning province, there are about 100 black bears, which only inhabit the five counties of Xin Bin, Huan Ren, Ben Xi, Kuan Dian, and Fen Cheng. Within Jilin province, black bears occur mainly in the counties of Hu Chu, Dun Hua, Wan Quing, An Tu, Chang Bai, Fu Song, Jiao He, Hua Dian, Pan Shi, and Shu Lan. In Heilongjiang province, Asiatic black bears occur in the counties of Ning An, BaYan, Wu Chag, Tong He, Bao Qing, Fu Yaun, Yin Chun, Tao Shan, Lan Xiang Tie Li, Sun Wu, Ai Hui, De Du, Bei An, and Nen Jiang. This population has a northern boundary of about 50° N and the southern boundary in Feng Cheng is about 40°30" N.[44]

Russia[edit]

In Russia, the black bear's northern range runs from Innokenti Bay on the coast of the Sea of Japan southwest to the elevated areas of Sikhote Alin crossing it at the sources of the Samarga River. At this point, the boundary directs itself to the north, through the middle course of the Khor, Anyui and Khungari rivers, and comes to the shore of the Amur, crossing the it at the level of the mouth of the Gorin. Along the Amur river, the species' presence has been noted as far as 51° N. Lat. From there, the territorial boundary runs southwest of the river's left bank, passing through the northern part of Lake Bolon and the juncture point of the Kur and Tunguska. Black bears are encountered in the Urmi's lower course. Within the Ussuri krai, the species is restricted to broad leaved Manchurian type forests.[3]

Legal status[edit]

The Asian black bear is listed as a protected animal in China's National Protection Wildlife Law, which stipulates that anyone hunting or catching bears without permits will be subject to severe punishment.[17]

Although the black bear is protected in India, due to being listed as Vulnerable in the Red Data Book in Appendix I of CITES in India and in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act and its 1991 amendment, it has been difficult to prosecute those accused of poaching black bears due to lack of witnesses and lack of Wildlife Forensic Labs to detect the originality of confiscated animal parts or products. Moreover, due to India's wide stretching boundaries with other nations such as Pakistan, Tibet, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar, it is difficult to police such borders, which are often in mountainous terrain.[17]

Five black bear populations, occurring in Kyushu, Shikoku, West-Chugoku, East-Chugoku and Kii areas, were listed as endangered by the Environmental Agency in the Japanese Red Data Book in 1991. Small isolated populations in the Tanzawa and Shimokita areas of mainland Honshū were listed as endangered in 1995. Beyond recognising these populations as endangered, there is still a lack of efficient conservation methods for Japanese black bears.[17]

Black bears occur as an infrequent species in the Red Data Book of Russia, thus falling under special protection and hunting is prohibited. There is currently a strong movement to legalize the hunting of Russian black bears, which is supported by most of the local scientific community.[17]

As of January 30, 1989, Taiwan's Formosan black bears have been listed as an endangered species under the Natural and Cultural Heritage Act on, and was later listed as a Conserved Species Category I.[17]

The Vietnamese Government issued Decision 276/QD, 276/1989, which prohibits the hunting and exporting of black bears. The Red Book of Vietnam lists Vietnamese black bears as endangered.[17]

Threats[edit]

A bile bear in a "crush cage" on Huizhou Farm, China.[45]

The main habitat threat to Chinese black bears is overcutting of forests, largely due to human populations increasing to over 430,000 in regions where bears are distributed, in the Shaanxi, Ganshu, and Sichuan provinces. 27 forestry enterprises were built in these areas between 1950 and 1985 (excluding the lumbering units belonging to the county). By the early 1990s, the black bear distribution area was reduced to only one-fifth of the area that existed before the 1940s. Isolated bear populations face environmental and genetic stress in these circumstances. However, one of the most important reasons for their decrease involves overhunting, as black bear paws, gall bladders and cubs have great economic value. Black bear harvests are maintained at a high level due to the harm they cause to crops, orchards and bee farms. During the 1950s and 1960s, 1000 bears were harvested annually in the Heilongjiang Province. However, purchased furs were reduced by 4/5, even by 9/10 yearly in the late 1970s to the early 1980s. Bears have also been declining annually in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Nations Autonomous Prefecture and the Yunnan Province.[17]

Poaching for gall bladders and skin are the main threat faced by black bears in India.[17] In Pakistan it is listed as an endangered species.[citation needed]

Although the poaching of bears is well known throughout Japan, authorities have done little to remedy the situation. The killing of nuisance bears is practiced year-round, and harvest numbers have been on the increase. Box traps have been widely used since 1970 to capture nuisance bears. It is estimated that the number of shot bears will decrease in time, due to the decline of old traditional hunters and the increase of a younger generation less inclined to hunt.[17] Logging is also considered a threat.[17]

Although black bears have been afforded protection in Russia since 1983, illegal poaching, fuelled by a growing demand for bear parts in the Asian market, is still a major threat to the Russian population. Many workers of Chinese and Korean origin, supposedly employed in the timber industry, are actually involved in the illegal trade. Some Russian sailors reportedly purchase bear parts from local hunters to sell them to Japanese and Southeast Asian clients. Russia's rapidly growing timber industry has been a serious threat to the Asian black bear's home range for three decades. The cutting of trees containing cavities deprives black bears of their main source of dens, and forces them to den on the ground or in rocks, thus making them more vulnerable to tigers, brown bears and hunters.[17]

In Taiwan, black bears are not actively pursued, though steel traps set out for wild boars have been responsible for unintentional bear trappings.[17] Timber harvesting has largely stopped being a major threat to Taiwan's black bear population, though a new policy concerning the transfer of ownership of hill land from the government to private interests has the potential to affect some lowland habitat, particularly in the eastern part of the nation. The building of new cross island highways through bear habitat is also potentially threatening.[17]

Vietnamese black bear populations have declined rapidly due to the pressures of human population growth and unstable settlement. Vietnamese forests have been: of the 87,000km2 of natural forests, about 1,000km2 disappear every year. Hunting pressures have also increased with a coinciding decline of environmental awareness.[17]

South Korea remains one of two countries to allow bear bile farming to continue legally. As reported in 2009, approximately 1,374 bears reside in an estimated 74 bear farms where they are kept for slaughter to fuel the demands of traditional Asian medicine.[46] In sharp contrast, fewer than 20 bears can be found at Jirisan Restoration Center, located in Korea's Jirisan National Park.

Relationships with humans[edit]

Kintoki Wrestling with a black Bear, woodblock print by Torii Kiyomasu I, c. 1700, Honolulu Academy of Arts

In folklore and literature[edit]

In Japanese culture, the black bear is traditionally associated with the mountain spirit (yama no kami) and is characterized variously as "mountain man" (yamaotoko), "mountain uncle" (yama no ossan), "mountain father" (yama no oyaji), a loving mother and a child. Being a largely solitary creature, the bear is also viewed as "lonely person" (sabishigariya).[47] Black bears feature very little in lowland Japanese folklore, but are prominent in upland Japan, a fact thought to reflect the bear's greater economic value in upland areas. According to the local folklore in Kituarahara-gun in Niigata, the black bear received its white mark after being given a silk-wrapped amulet by yama no kami, which left the mark after being removed.[9] In Hindu mythology, the black bear Jambavantha (also known as Jambavan or Jamvanta) is believed to have lived from Treta Yuga to Dvapara Yuga. In the epic Ramayana, Jambavantha assists Rama in finding his wife Sita and battle her abductor, Ravana.[48]

Asian black bears are briefly mentioned in Yann Martel's novel The Life of Pi, in which they are described by the protagonist's father as being among the most dangerous animals in his zoo.

Attacks on humans[edit]

An Asian black bear, shot after charging the "Old Shekarry", as illustrated in Wild sports of the world: a boy's book of natural history and adventure

Though usually shy and cautious animals, Asian black bears are more aggressive toward humans than the brown bears of Eurasia[4] and American black bears. David W. Macdonald theorises that this greater aggression is an adaptation to being sympatric with tigers.[19] According to Brigadier General R.G. Burton:

The Himalayan black bear is a savage animal, sometimes attacking without provocation, and inflicting horrible wounds, attacking generally the head and face with their claws, while using their teeth also on a prostrate victim. It is not uncommon to see men who have been terribly mutilated, some having the scalp torn from the head, and many sportsmen have been killed by these bears.

A Book of Man Eaters, Chapter XVII Bears

In response to a chapter on black bears written by Robert Armitage Sterndale in his Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon on how black bears were no more dangerous than other animals in India, a reader responded with a letter to The Asian on May 11, 1880:[49]

Mr. Sterndale, in the course of his interesting papers on the Mammalia of British India, remarks of Ursus Tibetanus, commonly known as the Himalayan Black Bear, that 'a wounded one will sometimes show fight, but in general it tries to escape.' This description is not, I think, quite correct. As it would lead one to suppose that this bear is not more savage than any other wild animal—the nature of most of the feræ being to try to escape when wounded, unless they see the hunter who has fired at them, when many will charge at once, and desperately. The Himalayan Black Bear will not only do this almost invariably, but often attacks men without any provocation whatever, and is altogether about the most fierce, vicious, dangerous brute to be met with either in the hills or plains of India. [...] These brutes are totally different in their dispositions to the Brown Bear (Ursus Isabellinus), which, however desperately wounded, will never charge. I believe there is no case on record of a hunter being charged by a Brown Bear; or even of natives, under any circumstances, being attacked by one; whereas every one of your readers who has ever marched in the Himalayas must have come across many victims of the ferocity of Ursus Tibetanus.

At the turn of the 20th century, a hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir received dozens of black bear victims annually. When black bears attack humans, they rear up on their hind legs and knock victims over with their paws. Then they bite them on an arm or leg and snap on the victim's head, this being the most dangerous part of the attack.[50] Bear attacks have been increasing in Kashmir since the Kashmir conflict. In November 2009, in the Kulgam district of Indian-administered Kashmir, a black bear attacked four insurgents after discovering them in its den, and killed two of them.[51]

In India, attacks on humans have been increasing yearly, and have occurred largely in the northwestern and western Himalayan region. In the Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh, the number of black bear attacks on humans have gradually increased from 10 in 1988–89 to 21 in 1991–92. There are no records of predation on humans by Asiatic black bears in Russia, and no conflicts have been documented in Taiwan.[17] Recent bear attacks on humans have been reported from Junbesi in Langtang National Park, Nepal, and occurred in villages as well as in the surrounding forest.[52]

Li Guoxing, the second person in history to have received a facial transplant, was a victim of a black bear attack.[53][54] Nine people were killed by black bears in Japan between 1979–1989.[47] In September 2009, a black bear attacked a group of tourists, seriously injuring four at a bus station in the built-up area of Takayama, Gifu.[55] The majority of attacks tend to occur when black bears are encountered suddenly, and in close quarters. Because of this, black bears are generally considered more dangerous than brown bears, which live in more open spaces and are thus less likely to be surprised by approaching humans.[56] They are also likely to attack when protecting food.[28]

A trio of captive Asiatic black bears around their keeper in Florence

On May the 7th 2013, a group of bears attacked villages in Orissa, killing eight and injuring "a dozen more". The bears are said to have adopted such aggressive behavior due to excessive consumption of the mahua flower.[57]

Livestock predation and crop damage[edit]

In the past, the farmers of the Himalayan lowlands feared black bears more than any other pest, and would erect platforms in the fields, where watchmen would be posted at night and would beat drums to frighten off any interlopers. However, some black bears would grow accustomed to the sound and encroach anyway.[39]

Of 1,375 livestock kills examined in Bhutan, black bears accounted for 8% of attacks. Livestock predation, overall, was greatest in the summer and autumn periods, which corresponded with a peak in cropping agriculture; livestock are turned out to pasture and forest during the cropping season and, subsequently, are less well guarded than at other times.[58]

Livestock killed by black bears in Himachal Pradesh, India increased from 29 in 1988–1989 to 45 in 1992–1993.[59]

In the remoter areas of Japan, black bears can be serious crop predators: black bears feed on cultivated bamboo shoots in spring, on plums, watermelons and corn in the summer, and on persimmons, sweet potatoes and rice in the autumn. Japanese black bears are estimated to damage 3,000 bee hives annually. When feeding on large crops such as watermelons or pumpkins, black bears will ignore the flesh, and eat the seeds, thus adversely affecting future harvests.[47] Black bears can girdle and kill trees by stripping their bark for the sap. This can cause serious economic problems in Asia's valuable timber forests.[28] In the late 1970s, 400-1,200 hectares of land had been affected by bears bark stripping Japanese conifers. There is evidence that 70 year old conifers (commanding the highest market values) may also have been bark stripped.[47]

Black bears will prey on livestock if their natural food is in poor supply.[28] They have been known to attack bullocks, either killing them outright, or eating them alive.[56]

Tameability and trainability[edit]

Along with sun bears, Asian black bears are the most typically used species in areas where bears are either used in performances or as pets.[60] Asian black bears have an outstanding learning ability in captivity, and are among the most common species used in circus acts.[61] According to Gary Brown:

The Asiatic black bears are the comedians of the performing bears. They appear to appreciate applause and will intentionally move into their prescribed position late to attain laughter and attention.

—Brown, Gary The Influence of Bears on Humans from The Great Bear Almanac, Lyons & Burford, Publishers, 1993

[61]

Black bears are easily tamed, and can be fed with rice, maize, sweet potato, cassava, pumpkin, ripe fruit, animal fat and sweet foods. Keeping captive black bears is popular in China, especially due to the belief that milking the bear's gall bladder leads to quick prosperity. Bears are also popular as pets in Vietnam.[17]

Hunting and exploitation[edit]

Main article: Bile bear

Hunting[edit]

An Asian black bear hunt, as illustrated by Samuel Howitt

According to The great and small game of India, Burma, and Tibet, regarding the hunting of black bears in British India:

Black bear stalking in the forests bordering the valley of Kashmir requires much more care than is expended in approaching brown bear on the open hills above, the senses of sight and hearing being more strongly developed in the black than in the brown species. Many of these forests are very dense, so that it requires the eye of a practised shikari to detect the dark forms of the bears while searching for chestnuts on the ground without the advancing party being detected by the vigilant animals.

The great and small game of India, Burma, and Tibet p. 367
Asian black bear skin

The book also describes a second method of black bear hunting involving the beating of small patches of forest, when the bears march out in single file. However, black bears were rarely hunted for sport, because of the poor quality of their fur and the ease by which they could be shot in trees, or stalked, as their hearing was poor.[15][62]

Black bears here afford no sport; it is not shooting at all, it is merely potting a black thing in a tree... I can assure the reader that if he has a fondness for stalking, he will despise bear-killing, and will never shoot at them if there is a chance of anything else. If a man were to hunt for nothing else but bears, and kill a hundred in his six months' leave, he would not have enjoyed such real sport as he would, had he killed ten buck ibex or markhoor.

The rifle in Cashmere p. 73-74

[62]

Although easy to track and shoot, black bears were known by British sportsmen to be extremely dangerous when injured. Brigadier General R.G. Burton wrote of how many sportsmen had been killed by black bears after failing to make direct hits.[56]

Today, black bears are only legally hunted for sport in Japan and Russia. In Russia, 75–100 black bears are legally harvested annually, though 500 a year are reportedly harvested illegally.[1] Russian sport hunting of black bears became legalised in 2004. According to a 2008 article written in The Sun, Russia's Slavic Hunting Club offers four day trips with four guaranteed black bear kills for the sum of £16,000. The article indicated that clients receiving permits for black bear hunts included people from Britain, the USA, Germany, Spain, Poland and Finland.[63] After the introduction of Buddhism in Japan, which prohibited the killing of animals, the Japanese compromised by devising different strategies in hunting bears. Some, such as the inhabitants of the Kiso area in the Nagano Prefecture, prohibited the practise altogether, while others developed rituals in order to placate the spirits of killed bears. In some Japanese hunting communities, black bears lacking the white chest mark are considered sacred. In the Akita Prefecture, bears lacking the mark were known by matagi huntsmen as minaguro (all black) or munaguro (black chested), and were also considered messengers of yama no kami. If such a bear was shot, the huntsman would offer it to yama no kami, and give up hunting from that time on. Similar beliefs were held in Nagano, where the completely black bears were termed nekoguma or cat-bear. Matagi communities believed that killing a bear in the mountains would result in a bad storm, which was linked to the belief that bear spirits could affect weather. The matagi would generally hunt bears in spring or from late autumn to early winter, before they hibernated. In mountain regions, bears were hunted by driving them upland to a waiting hunter who would shoot it. Bear hunting expeditions were preceded by rituals, and could last up to two weeks. After killing the bear, the matagi would pray for the bear's soul.[9] Bear hunts in Japan are often termed kuma taiji, meaning "bear conquest". The word taiji itself is often used in Japanese folklore to describe the slaying of monsters and demons.[47]

Traditionally, the Atayal, Taroko, and Bunun tribes of Taiwan consider black bears to be almost human in their behaviours, and thus unjust killing of bears is equated with murder and will cause misfortunes such as disease, death, or crop failure. The Bunun people call black bears Aguman or Duman which means devil. Traditionally, a Bunun hunter who has accidentally trapped a bear has to build a cottage in the mountains and cremate the bear within it. The hunter must stay in the cottage alone, away from the village until the end of the millet harvest, as it is believed that the killing of a black bear will cause the millet crop to burn black. In the Tungpu area, black bears are considered animals of the "third category": animals with the most remote relationship to humans and whose activity is restricted outside human settlements. Therefore, when black bears encroach upon human settlements, they are considered ill omens. In this situation, the community can either destroy trespassing bears or settle somewhere else. The Rukai and Paiwan people are permitted to hunt black bears, though they believe that doing so will curse the hunters involved: Rukai people believe that hunting bears can result in disease. Children are forbidden from eating bear meat, which is itself not permitted to be taken within homes.[64]

Products[edit]

Accounts on the quality of the black bear's fur vary. According to Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon, "Their skins are always poor and mangy, and generally so greasy that they are very difficult to keep until you can make them over to the dresser",[49] which is corroborated by The great and small game of India, Burma, and Tibet, which states "... the skins are never of any particular value, and in autumn, owing to the masses of yellow fat that are accumulated beneath them, are absolutely useless."[15] The first part of volume II of Mammals of the Soviet Union on the other hand states that Asian black bears yield fur, meat and fat of greater quality than those of brown bears.[3] In British India, grease was the only practical use for black bear carcasses. Bears living near villages were considered the most ideal, as they were almost invariably fatter than their forest dwelling counterparts.[62]

Asiatic black bears have been hunted for their parts in China since the Stone Age.[44] Bile is most appreciated as it supposedly cures many diseases, effectively treats the accumulation of blood below the skin, and counters toxic effects.[citation needed] Also, bear bone glue is used as a tonic, and bear fat is also used as a traditional medicine and a tonic. Black bear meat is also edible. Due to their many uses black bears are worth about 20–30 million dong (US$1,500–2,250) each in Vietnam.[17]

References[edit]

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