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DistributionThis species occurs in the central portion of Central America, in montane and foothill forests, from northern Nicaragua to Costa Rica and into the Chiriqui Mountains in western Panama, possibly also extending north into Honduras and Guatemala (Reid 2009; see below). Northern olingos are recorded at elevations as low as sea level, but are most commonly encountered in forests above 1000 m, and extend elevationally at least as high as 1700 m (USNM 324293), and probably as high as the upper limit of forest on the highest peaks in Costa Rica. Forested areas above 1000 m in Central America can be understood to be the core distribution of this species. Vouchered records are from the north-central mountains of Nicaragua (Allen 1908, AMNH, USNM); the mountains of Costa Rica, including the slopes stretching down to the Atlantic coast (Allen 1877, Allen 1908, Harris 1932, Goodwin 1946, Wilson 1983, Timm et al. 1989, Reid 1997, Timm and LaVal 2000, de la Rosa and Nocke 2000, Wainwright 2007, Reid 2009) and a few records of observations from the Pacific slopes (Puntarenas Province: Daily et al. 2003; Guanacaste Province: González-Maya and Belant 2010); and in the Chiriqui Mountains of western Panama (Enders 1936, ANSP, USNM). Reid (2009) included the Azuero Peninsula of Panama in a distribution map for Bassaricyon, but we can trace no record from this region and the basis of this record is unclear (F. Reid, R. Samudio, J. Pino, in litt., 2012–2013). The eastern limits of occurrence for this species are not yet firmly established, but the boundary of occurrence between Bassaricyon gabbii and Bassaricyon medius orinomus apparently lies between 81 and 80 degrees longitude in central Panama. Ours is the first study to document the marked taxonomic distinction between Bassaricyon gabbii of (especially montane) central Mesoamerica, including western Panama, and Bassaricyon medius orinomus of eastern Panama, the Central American member of a group of closely related lowland taxa that also includes Bassaricyon medius medius (of northern South America west of the Andes) and Bassaricyon alleni (of South America east of the Andes). The nature of the interactions between Bassaricyon gabbii and Bassaricyon medius orinomus at this boundary (whether involving, e.g., parapatry, sympatric overlap, or limited hybridization) is unknown and a priority for field study (see Figures 11–12). There are unverified records of olingos occurring north of Nicaragua, in Honduras and Guatemala, and these records may represent Bassaricyon gabbii. Ordóñez Garza et al. (1999–2000) reported a night sighting of an olingo in Honduras at “La Picucha, Montaña de Babilonia, 1380 m, Parque Nacional Sierra de Agalta, Departamento de Olancho” and discussed a museum specimen of an olingo (later apparently lost) obtained from hunters in Guatemala near the Honduras border at “Montaña Cerro Negro Norte… Río Bobos… 300–500 m” in the Sierra del Merendón, Departamento de Izabal” (Ordóñez Garza et al. 1999–2000, McCarthy and Pérez 2006). Neither of these localities is immediately adjacent to large contiguous areas of Bassaricyon gabbii occurrence as predicted by our range modeling analyses (Figure 11), but both areas could represent relevant habitats for the Northern Olingo, and verifying the occurrence of olingo populations in Honduras or Guatemala should be considered an important goal in Mesoamerican mammalogy.