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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Galictis vittata occurs at lower elevations from eastern Mexico south throughout Central America into South America as far south as Bolivia, northern Argentina, and Santa Catarina, Brazil. The geographic range of G. vittata was estimated at 13,083,600 km2 (Arita et al., 1990).
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Geographic Range

Galictis vittata (grison) is found in Central and South America, from southern Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia.

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

The grison has a long muscular body with short legs and a short tail. The upper part of the body is grizzled grey in color. The underbody, including the legs and feet, are black. The face of is tricolor, with a grizzled grey forehead and a black face and neck. A white stripe runs from the forehead over the ears and to the shoulders, and separates the grey forehead from the black face. The fur is long and soft. The ears are very small, and the eyes are small and black. The feet are broad and have very long claws. The grison's eyeshine is a bright blue-green color. The length of the body, including the tail, is approximately 67 cm.

Range mass: 1 to 3 kg.

Average length: 67 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species occurs in a wide range from tropical forests, from sea level to 1,200 meters (Nowak, 2005), to grasslands and even cultivated areas, although not in great numbers (De la Rosa and Nocke, 2000). This is a very opportunistic species, eating whatever is available. The diet includes small mammals, birds and their eggs, lizards, amphibians and fruits (Nowak, 2005).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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The grison occupies a large range of habitats. It can be found in grasslands, evergreen forests, rain forests, and savannas. It is often found near water. They live under tree roots, in crevices of rocks, and they have also been know to occupy burrows dug by armadillos. They live anywhere from the lowlands to approximately 1500 m in elevation.

Range elevation: 1500 (high) m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest

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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

The grison is carnivorous, feeding on small mammals such as chinchillas, viscachas, agoutis, mice. The grison has also been known to feed on reptiles, birds and some fruits.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
10.5 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 12.5 years (captivity) Observations: One wild born specimen was 12-13 years old when it died in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Reproduction

Grisons are polygynous. The female gives birth to her young in October. The grison typically gives birth to two young but may give birth to up to four young.

Average gestation period: 40 days.

Average number of offspring: 2.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Galictis vittata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Cuarón, A.D., Reid, F. & Helgen, K.

Reviewer/s
Duckworth, J.W. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Least Concern as it has a wide distribution and there do not appear to be any major threats to the species.
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The grison has a large range but is rare throughout this range.

CITES: appendix iii

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Population

Population
Galictis vittata has a low density throughout its range (Arita et al., 1990). Some subspecies are considered uncommon or rare (Timm et al. 1989). The densities estimated for the species were 1- 2.4 individuals/km2 (Eisenberg et al. 1979).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The species is tolerant to some disturbance, but hunting has shown negative effects (Bisbal, 1993). In some parts of their range the males are trapped for their body parts and they are also sold as pets (De la Rosa and Nocke, 2000).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In Costa Rica, it is considered endangered (Timm et al. 1989) and is listed on CITES Appendix III (Fuller et al. 1987). In Belize it is protected by the Wildlife Protection Act, and in Nicaragua it is protected from hunting (Fuller et al. 1987).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

The grison has been known to cause damage to domestic animals.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

The grison is tamed easily. The grison is helpful in controlling rodent infestations. They are also used by man to hunt chinchillas.

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Wikipedia

Greater grison

The greater grison (Galictis vittata), is a species of mustelid native to South and Central America.

Description[edit]

The greater grison is a slender animal with short legs, a long neck, and a short, bushy tail. They are similar in appearance to the closely related lesser grison, from which they can be most readily distinguished by their greater size, with a head-body length ranging from 45 to 60 centimetres (18 to 24 in). Adults weigh between 1.5 and 3.8 kilograms (3.3 and 8.4 lb) in the wild, but may become larger when reared in captivity.[2]

The back, flanks, top of the head, and the tail, are grizzled grey in color, while the rest of the body is much darker, and usually solid black. A narrow whitish stripe separates the darker and lighter fur on the head and shoulder, but not further back, where the two colors may, in some individuals, blur into one another. The tail is 14 to 20 centimetres (5.5 to 7.9 in) long, and covered with bushy hair similar in color to that on the animal's back. The head is flattened and broad, with short, rounded ears, and dark brown to black eyes. The legs are muscular, with five webbed toes, each ending in a sharp, curved claw.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Greater grisons are native to Central and South America, ranging from southern Mexico in the north, to central Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia in the south. They inhabit a wide range of forest and cerrado habitats, and are usually seen near rivers and streams. They are typically found at elevations below 500 metres (1,600 ft), but they may be found as high as 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) in some parts of the Bolivian Andes.[2] In some regions, they may also be found in cultivated areas, such as plantations and rice paddies.[1] Four living, and one fossil subspecies are recognised:[3]

Behaviour[edit]

Greater grisons are primarily terrestrial, although they can climb trees and swim well. They are mostly diurnal, and only occasionally active at night.[4] They live alone or in pairs, with home ranges of at least 4.2 square kilometres (1.6 sq mi), and a very low population density, such that they are rarely encountered in the wild. They spend the night sleeping in cavities in hollow logs or beneath tree roots, or else in the abandoned burrows of other animals.[4]

Little is known of their diet, although it consists largely of small vertebrates, such as fish, amphibians, birds, and other mammals.[5] While hunting, they move in a zigzag pattern, making short bounds and occasionally stopping to look around with their heads raised and sniff the air. When moving more cautiously, they press their bodies close to the ground in a movement that has been described as 'snake-like'. They have been reported to respond to threats with a series of grunts that rise in intensity and frequency until they become rapid barks, and finally a single loud scream with their teeth bared.[2]

Biology[edit]

Like many other mustelids, greater grisons possess anal scent glands that secrete a yellowish or greenish musk. Although not especially noxious in comparison with that of other species, this can be sprayed at attackers, as well as being used to mark the grison's territory.[2]

Litters of up to four young are born from March to September, after a gestation period of 39 days. Newborn young weigh less than 50 grams (1.8 oz), and are initially blind, although with a short coat of hair already bearing the adult pattern. Their eyes open after two weeks, and they begin to eat solid food at three weeks, reaching the adult size in just four months.[4] They have lived for at least ten years in captivity.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cuarón, A.D., Reid, F. & Helgen, K. (2008). Galictis vittata. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Yensen, E. & Tarifa, T. (2003). "Galictis vittata". Mammalian Species: Number 727: pp. 1–8. doi:10.1644/727. 
  3. ^ Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  4. ^ a b c Wilson, D.E. & Mittermeier, R.A., ed. (2009). Handbook of the Mammals of the World, Volume 1: Carnivora. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 636–637. ISBN 978-84-96553-49-1. 
  5. ^ Bisbal, F.J. (1986). "Food habits of some Neotropical carnivores in Venezuela (Mammalia, Carnivora)". Mammalia 50 (3): 329–340. 
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