Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Riffel (1991) presents a distribution map for the species. The species certainly occurs in hills and mountains of Java and Bali, but there is insufficient evidence to say that it is not present on the adjacent plains (W. Duckworth pers. comm.). There are only two records for Bali, which was omitted from the range in most of the standard sources before 1991. An individual was found on a forest trail approximately 300 m south of Lake Buyan in Central Bali at an elevation of 1,180 m, and the other record is a 1979 specimen with no precise locality information, held in Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (Riffel, 1991). There are two subspecies: M. o. orientalis in eastern Java, and M. o. sundaicus in western Java (Long 1992). The Small Carnivore conservation Action Plan 1989 has a record for a point without a name (perhaps Dieng Plateau) in Central Java. It was recorded, with no detail, in a survey in Gunung Halimun Nature Reserve in 1990-1991 (Yossa et al. 1991). There are several recent records for Gunung Gede, a known historical site (Brickle 2007). There are several other recent unpublished records but no-one has attempted to collate them and evaluate current distribution and status.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The ecology of this species is largely unknown, and there are few data on habitat requirements, as most museum material outside Indonesia is labelled "Java" only (Riffel, 1991). The specimen from Bali was found in habitat described as "secondary forest and rubber plantation", with nearby human settlements, 2 to 3 km east of the site where it was recorded, thus giving some indication that this species is not reliant on primary forest (Riffel, 1991). There are also records from deep within primary forest (Brickle, 2007), suggesting a wide tolerance of habitat.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Duckworth, J.W. & Brickle, N.W.

Reviewer/s
Belant, J. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Data Deficient as there is almost no available contemporary information on status, threats or distribution. More survey work is necessary to obtain data improve the state of knowledge of this species prior to applying the Red List Criteria. There is a possibility that this species could be threatened, therefore this species is a priority for further research and survey work.

History
  • 1996
    Lower Risk/near threatened
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
  • 1994
    Insufficiently Known
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Insufficiently Known
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Insufficiently Known
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
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Population

Population
Riffel (1991) traced a few recent records; it does not seem to be very rare, but may not be very common either.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Nothing is currently known about potential threats as little is known about habitat requirements, population status, or current exploitation activities. Much of the forest habitat of Java has been converted to other uses, particularly agriculture, but it is unclear to what level, if any, this species depends upon extensive, old-growth, or any sort of forest; some other Melogale spp. are very adaptable to forest fragmentation and degradation (see account for M. moschata), but the same cannot be assumed for this species. Although there are a few records to date from non-forest areas, they could simply have been dispersing individuals. There is no information on its susceptibility to whatever hunting levels occur in its range. It is not significantly traded, but it is no doubt caught in non-selective traps. In sum, several plausible threats operate but it is unclear if any are threats at the population level.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The conservation status of this species is virtually unknown (Riffel, 1991). This species is known from the following protected areas G. Gede-Pangrango National Park where three individuals were collected in 1970, and there are several recent sight-records (Brickle 2007), Meru Betiri National Park (Seidensticker et al., 1980) where the Javan ferretbadger was reported to occur near Sukamade in the centre of the reserve, and Gunung Halimun Nature Reserve, where a survey conducted by the Biological Science Club revealed the species continuing occurrence in that area (Yossa et al., 1991).
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Wikipedia

Javan ferret-badger

The Javan ferret-badger (Melogale orientalis) is a species of mammal in the family Mustelidae.[2] It is endemic to Java and Bali in Indonesia. A nocturnal and secretive forest dweller, it has been little studied. The IUCN has classified its status as being "data deficient".

Description[edit]

An adult Javan ferret-badger weighs between 1 and 2 kg (2.2 and 4.4 lb) with a body length of 35 to 40 cm (14 to 16 in) and a tail of 14.5 to 17 cm (6 to 7 in). The head is small with a narrow, blunt snout, long whiskers and large eyes. The body is low-slung with brown silky fur tinged with red and in some lights looks tawny or greyish. The back of the head and throat are darker brown and there are white markings on the face, neck, throat, chest and abdomen.[3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The Javan ferret-badger is endemic to the islands of Java and Bali in Indonesia. Its exact range is unknown, but it is present in hilly and mountainous areas and may also occur at lower altitudes. In Bali it has been recorded from a forest track at 1,180 m (3,871 ft) and at another site, the precise location of which was not recorded. In Java there are two subspecies, M. o. orientalis in the eastern part of the island and M. o. sundaicus in western Java. It is found in primary forest and in Bali has also been recorded in an area of secondary forest and rubber plantations not far from human habitations.[1]

Behaviour[edit]

Like other ferret-badgers, the Javan ferret-badger is a fossorial animal that makes use of pre-existing burrows in the forest floor. It is mainly nocturnal, and small groups of adults and juveniles forage together. It is often found in dense undergrowth and it may be able to scramble about in trees and bushes. Its diet is mainly carnivorous and consists of small animals, birds, amphibians, eggs, carrion and invertebrates, and it also eats fruit.[3]

In the Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park, Javan ferret-badgers seem fairly common and have been observed scavenging for food scraps after nightfall at picnic areas and turning over the leaf litter. They seemed undisturbed by the presence of humans and one young individual even fed on biscuits held out on an observer's hand.[4]

Status[edit]

Very little is known of the status, population trend, habitat requirements and level of exploitation of the Javan ferret-badger and the IUCN has listed it as being "Data deficient".[1] Java is a densely populated island and much of the primary forest has been fragmented and degraded, but the animal is believed to be at least partially adaptable as to habitat as it has been found in secondary forests and plantations. It has been observed in the Mount Halimun Salak National Park in western Java as well as sightings in the Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Duckworth, J.W. & Brickle, N.W. (2008). Melogale orientalis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2014-06-14. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is data deficient.
  2. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 613. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  3. ^ a b Denryter, Kristin (2013). "Melogale orientalis: Javan ferret-badger". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 2014-06-14. 
  4. ^ Duckworth, J.; Roberton, S.; Brickle, N. (2008). "Further notes on Javan ferret badger Melogale orientalis at Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park, Java". Small Carnivore Conservation 39: 39–40. 
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