The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • Balph, D., D. Hafner, J. Ferron, K. Holekamp, G. Michener. 1984. Spatial and Social Behavior in a Population of Uinta Ground Squirrels: Interrelation with Climate and Annual Cycle. Pp. 336-349 in J Murie, G Michener, eds. The Biology of Ground-Dwelling Squirrels. United States of America: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • CITES Secretariat, October 12, 1999. "CITES" (On-line). Accessed December 12, 1999 at
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • Eshelman, B. D., and C. S. Sonnemann. 2000. Spermophilus armatus. Mammalian Species 637:1-6.
  • Hall, R. 1981. The Mammals of North America. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Helgen, K. M., F. R. Cole, L. E. Helgen, and D. E. Wilson. 2009. Generic revision in the Holarctic ground squirrel genus Spermophilus. Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 90, no. 2. 270-305
  • Hudson, J. W., and D. R. Deavers. 1973. Metabolism, pulmocutaneous water loss and respiration of eight species of ground squirrels from different environments. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (A) 45:69-100.
  • Lovegrove, B. G. 2000. The Zoogeography of Mammalian Basal Metabolic Rate. American Naturalist 156:201-219.
  • MacClintock, D. Squirrels of North America. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co..
  • Mace, G. 1979. The Evolutionary Ecology of Small Mammals. University of Sussex.
  • Michener, G. R. 1985. Chronology of Reproductive Events for Female Richardson Ground- Squirrels. Journal of Mammalogy 66:280-288.
  • Murie, J. O., D. A. Boag, and V. K. Kivett. 1980. Litter Size in Columbian Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus columbianus). Journal of Mammalogy 61:237-244.
  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Nowak, R., H. Campbell, J. Chapmann, A. Gardner, V. Geist. 1987. Wild Animals of North America. Washington D.C: The National Geographic Society.
  • Original description: Kennicott, R., 1863.  Descriptions of four new species of Spermophilus, in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, p. 158.  Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 15:157-158.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Slade, N. A., and D. F. Balph. 1974. Population of Uinta ground squirrels. Ecology 55:989-1003.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Syntype: Kennicott, R. 1863 Jun 30. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 15: 158.
  • Thorington, Richard W., Jr., John L. Koprowski, Michael A. Steele, and James F. Whatton. 2012. Squirrels of the World. vii + 459
  • Waterman, J. M. 1996. Reproductive biology of a tropical, non-hibernating ground squirrel. Journal of Mammalogy 77:134-146.
  • Whitaker, J. 1996. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals. New York: Alfred A. Knopt Inc..
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World


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