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Overview

Brief Summary

Description

"Wagner's mastiff bat is considered endangered by the state of Florida, where habitat destruction and the use of pesticides may be contributing to its decline. It is a medium-sized bat with long, narrow wings. These bats leave their day roosts after dark and fly high, covering long distances quickly as they feed on insects. Eumops glaucinus is a freetailed bat. Like other bats in the family Molossidae, its tail extends beyond the tail membrane, or uropatagium (the skin that stretches between the back legs)."

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  • Original description: Wagner, A., 1843.  Diagnosen neuer Arten brasilischer Handflugler, p. 368.  Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, Berlin, Germany, 9(1):365-368.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found from Jalisco (Mexico) to Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, northern Argentina and Brazil; Jamaica; and Cuba (Simmons 2005). Southern portion of western distribution expanded (Barquez et al. 2006). There are no valid records from Belize (Miller pers. comm.).
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Geographic Range

Found in South Florida, Cuba, Jamaica; from Central Mexico to Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Northern Argentina and Southern Brazil

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

E. glaucinus is medium sized compared to other species in its genus. Its color varies from black or brownish grey to chestnut. The venter is notably lighter. The snout is elongate with no noseleaf. The ears are wider than long and extend past the snout when brought forward. The tragus is 4-5mm and square across the top. The cranium is robust and longer than it is wide. A sagittal crest is present, along with a prominent occipitotemporal crest. Dental formula= 1/2 1/1 2/2 3/3 =30. The molars are succesively smaller in the toothrow with the third molar much smaller than the first two. The plagiopatagium extends to the heel. The uropatagium is moderately wide with the tail extending well beyond the margin. E. glaucinus has a pungent musky odor that has an unknown function.

Range mass: 30.2 to 46.6 g.

Average mass: 36.6 g.

Average length: 135.5 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Size

Size in North America

Length:
Average: 139.7 mm males; 138 mm females
Range: 123-165 mm males; 117-156 mm females

Weight:
Average: 34.1 g males; 36.1 g females
Range: 25-47 g males; 28.2-55.4 g females
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A typical inhabitant of subtropical forests but found in a variety of habitats in various geographic regions. E. glaucinus is frequently found in urban areas throughout its range (Brand 2002). Each colony of E. glaucinus consists of one male and several females. Members of this species become inactive in cooler climates but they are not known to hibernate. E. glaucinus is carnivourous insectivore (Brand 2002). Found to inhabit holes in trees (Barquez 1983). Also colected in the transition of tropical to template forest (Sanchez-Hernandez, 1978).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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A typical inhabitant of subtropical Forests but found in a variety of habitats in various geographic regions. Florida: subtropical forest; Cuba: primarily urban; Mexico: tropical forest; Costa rica: subtropical moist forest and urban; Venezuela: tropical moist forest; Argentina: deserts, scrublands, montane forest. E. glaucinus is frequently found in urban areas throughout its range.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: desert or dune ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest

Other Habitat Features: urban

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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

These bats fly high and in straight lines to detect insects in the absence of clutter. They use echolocation to find insects at a distance of 3-5 m. They catch insects on the wing. Insects commonly eaten include: Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (true flies), Hemiptera (true bugs), Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and Orthoptera (grasshoppers).

Animal Foods: insects

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore )

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Associations

Predation

Known Predators:

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Known prey organisms

Eumops glaucinus preys on:
Insecta

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Mating System: polygynous

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average weaning age: 5-6 weeks.

Key Reproductive Features: year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

Females lactate 5-6 weeks

Parental Investment: altricial

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Barquez, R., Mancina, C., Rodriguez, B., Miller, B. & Diaz, M.

Reviewer/s
Medellín, R. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
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In Florida Eumops glaucinus has been place on the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Endangered List. Pesticides are thought to be the reason for the species extinction from Miami FL.

US Migratory Bird Act: no special status

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Population

Population
This bat roosts in colonies (Goodwin 1946). Belwood (1981) suggested that a colony consists of a male and its harem. In Cuba, there's evidence of reproductive activity troughtout most of the year (Best et al. 1997). In Mexico pregnant females were observed from March to late june (Best et al. 1997). It is common in Cuba (Mancina pers. comm.). Found from lowlands up to 900 m.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Listed as least concern in Argentina. No major threats are known.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Found in protected areas.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Eumops glaucinus potentially eats insects that are harmful to agriculture.

Positive Impacts: controls pest population

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Wikipedia

Wagner's bonneted bat

Wagner's bonneted bat or Wagner's mastiff bat[2] (Eumops glaucinus), is a species of bat in the family Molossidae. it is found in the Americas from Argentina and Peru north to Mexico, and Cuba.[1] Populations in Florida in the United States are now recognized as the Florida bonneted bat (E. floridanus.)[3]

Description[edit]

Eumops glaucinus is a medium-sized mastiff bat, but its size varies across its range. It is roughly 24 or 25 centimeters long and between 30 and 47 grams in weight, with pregnant females sometimes heavier. The male is generally larger than the female. The species has a short, shiny pelage of bicolored hairs that are lighter at the bases, and the overall coat color can be black, brown, grayish, or cinnamon. The underparts are duller and paler.[2]

The bat has a long snout. It lacks a leaf-shaped nose appendage and protruding upper lip, but it has a keel above the eye. The ears are about 2 centimeters in length and are wider than long. They are joined to form the "bonnet" shape. The wingspan is about 41 to 47 centimeters. The wings are narrow, as in other mastiff bats. The wings are adapted to long but rapid flights, especially in open areas.[2]

This bat has a musky odor. The male has a gular-thoracic gland of unknown function; it may be used to mark females or territory.[2]

Systematics[edit]

The Florida bonneted bat (E. floridanus) was treated as a subspecies[2] and later elevated to species status. Though E. glaucinus is variable, it was treated as one species,[4] but suspected to be a species complex.[1] The complex was then defined as a group of four species: E. glaucinus, E. floridanus, E. ferox, and an unnamed species from Ecuador.[3]

Ecology[edit]

This bat is common in subtropical and tropical forest habitat, but it has often been recorded living in urban areas, including large cities. It appears to be attracted to the heat of metal roofs. It can also be found in deserts, swamps, and scrubland. It roosts in the canopies of trees and in cavities in the trunks, including abandoned woodpecker nests. It has been observed in royal palm (Roystonea regia), degame (Calycophyllum candidissimum), gumbo-limbo (Bursera simaruba), and Cuban palm (Copernicia gigas).[2] It has been recorded at elevations up to 2750 meters.[5]

This species may live near other bats, such as the velvety free-tailed bat (Molossus molossus), the broad-eared bat (Nyctinomops laticaudatus), the little goblin bat (Mormopterus minutus), and Pallas's long-tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina).[2]

Behavior[edit]

The bat lives in small mixed-sex colonies, sometimes one male and a harem. It is nocturnal. It feeds on insects, including beetles, flies, bugs, orthopterans, and moths. It has been reared in captivity on a diet of vitamin-supplemented raw ground beef.[2]

The bat tends not to flee when threatened, but produces a loud, high-pitched scream.[2] It also makes this piercing call while in flight at night.[2]

This species flies high in the air, rarely near the ground, and it can take off from horizontal surfaces. It flies rapidly, usually in a straight line, echolocating and hawking to catch insects.[2]

Breeding occurs year-round in at least some regions. Most females bear one young at a time.[2]

Fossil History[edit]

The origin of E. glaucinus is found in the Blancan of the Pliocene roughly 3.3 million years ago.[6][7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Barquez, R., et al. 2008. Eumops glaucinus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Downloaded on 24 October 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Best, T. L., et al. (1997). Eumops glaucinus. Mammalian Species 551, 1-6.
  3. ^ a b McDonough, M. M., et al. (2008). Speciation within bonneted bats (genus Eumops): the complexity of morphological, mitochondrial, and nuclear data sets in systematics. Journal of Mammalogy 89(5), 1306-15.
  4. ^ Timm, R. M. and H. H. Genoways. (2004). The Florida bonneted bat, Eumops floridanus (Chiroptera: Molossidae): distribution, morphometrics, systematics, and ecology. Journal of Mammalogy 85 852-65.
  5. ^ Tamsitt, J. R. and D. Valdivieso. (1963). Records and observations on Colombian bats. Journal of Mammalogy 44, 168-80.
  6. ^ PaleoDB collection 19638, entry by John Alroy, Ph.D., February 18, 1993.
  7. ^ Czaplewski, N. J. (1993). "Late Tertiary bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) from the southwestern United States". Southwestern Naturalist 38 (2): 111–118. doi:10.2307/3672062. JSTOR 3672062. 
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