In the Mediterranean, occurs in Italy (including an isolated population in the south), Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovenia, Montenegro, Albania, Serbia, Macedonia, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, Syria, Israel. Its vertical range is from sea level to 2,300 m (Kryštufek 1999).
Forest dormice (Dryomys nitedula) occur in the Palearctic region. They are present throughout Europe and range as far south as northern Africa and as far east as Japan.
Biogeographic Regions: palearctic (Native )
- Haberl, W. 1999. "The Dormouse Hollow: Dryomys" (On-line ). The Dormouse Hollow. Accessed 10/20/2002 at http://www.gliratium.org/dormouse.
Head and body length of forest dormice ranges from 80 to 130 mm. Tail length ranges from 60 to 113 mm. Body weights range from 18 to 34 g. Dryomys is considered to be very similar to Eliomys, but is smaller. The braincase of forest dormice is more rounded and the auditory bullae are smaller when compared with Eliomys.
Forest dormice are squirrel-like in appearance, with a grayish brown to yellowish-brown dorsum and buff white underside. They have a flat and bushy tail that is more uniform in color than Eliomys.
Range mass: 18 to 34 g.
Range length: 80 to 130 mm.
Habitat and Ecology
Forest dormice are found in dense forests, usually deciduous and mixed forests, as well as thickets at elevations of up to 3500 m. Forest dormice utilize cultivated areas such as gardens and also rocky meadows. They choose dense shrubbery or lower branches of trees in which to make a nest.
Range elevation: 3,500 (high) m.
Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial
Terrestrial Biomes: forest
Other Habitat Features: agricultural
- Kashtalian, A. 1999. Dormice of Belarus: ecology, distribution and history of study. IVth International Conference on Dormice (Rodentia, Gliridae). Accessed November 01, 2002 at http://www.trakya.edu.tr/conference/df6.htm.
Forest dormice are omnivores. They eat leaves as well as choice flowers, fruits, and nuts. They also eat arthropods, eggs, and young birds. Animal matter is observed to be preferred dietary item during the summer.
Animal Foods: birds; eggs; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods
Plant Foods: leaves; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit
Primary Diet: omnivore
Forest dormice may play a role in controlling poulations of arthropods that make up a significant part of their diet. They also eat seeds and fruits, and therefore may aid in the dispersal of seeds. Because this species provides food for predators such as owls, forest dormice may have some positive impact on populations of these predators.
Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds
Dryomys nitedula is nocturnal, occurs at low densities, and individuals are very careful to not travel away from brushy cover. These behaviors make these animals difficult prey to find. Remains of forest dormice have been found in the pellets of owl such as Strix aluco and Bubo bubo in eastern Europe.
- Obuch, J. 1999. Dormice in the diet of owls in the Middle East. IVth International Conference on Dormice (Rodentia, Gliridae). Accessed 11/01/02 at http://www.trakya.edu.tr/conference/d21.htm.
Known prey organisms
This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
Life History and Behavior
Communication and Perception
Dryomys has been observed to emit a variety of vocalizations. Most notable of those is a delicate, melodious squeak that appears to function as an alarm call. Research on captive individuals has demonstrated that D. nitedula has the ability to emit repeated series of ultrasounds. The signals were given off by both sexes in situations suggesting a social character of the communication. These communications were entirely inaudible to the human ear.
Although not specifically reported for this species, it is likely that tactile, chemical, and visual signals are part of the repetoir of communication. Mammals typically use tactile communication during mating, conflict, and rearing of young. Chemical communication can be important in individual identification, as well as in reproductive contexts. Visual signals are often given, by means of body posturing, to indicate hostile or friendly intent.
Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical
Perception Channels: visual ; ultrasound
- Boratynski, P., A. Rachwald, W. Nowakowski. 1999. Ultrasound communication calls in Forest Dormouse (*Dryomys nitedula*). IVth International Conference on Dormice (Rodentia, Gliridae). Accessed 11/01/02 at http://www.trakya.edu.tr/conference/d13.htm.
Dryomys nitedula can be expected to live up to 5.5 years in the wild.
Status: wild: 5.5 years.
Status: wild: 4.0 years.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Not much information is available on the mating system of this species.
The breeding season for forest dormice varies throughout the species' range. In Israel, the breeding season extends from March to December. On average, each female gives birth 2 to 3 times a year. In Europe, the breeding season lasts from May to August, and usually just one litter occurs each year. The gestation period is between 21 and 30 days. Usually 2 to 5 individuals are born per litter, although occassionally up to 7 may be possible.
Each offspring weighs approximately 2 g at birth. Eyes do not open until around day 16 of life, and independence from the mother is not achieved until the young are 4 to 5 weeks of age. In Europe the young will wait until after their first winter to mate.
Breeding interval: In Israel the species will breed 2 to 3 times per year. In Europe the species breeds only once per year.
Breeding season: In Israel, the mating season extends from March to December. In Europe the mating season occurs from May to August.
Range number of offspring: 2 to 7.
Range gestation period: 21 to 30 days.
Range time to independence: 4 to 5 weeks.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 years.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 years.
Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); fertilization ; viviparous
Average birth mass: 1.73 g.
Average number of offspring: 3.
There is little information available on the parental care of this speices. Neonates are altricial, and do not open their eyes until they are about 16 days old. Young are dependent upon their mother until they are 4 to 5 weeks of age. Until they are independent, it is likely that the mother provides them with food (milk), grooming, and protection. Male parental care has not been reported, but cannot be ruled out, either.
Parental Investment: no parental involvement; altricial ; pre-fertilization (Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)
- Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Haberl, W. 1999. "The Dormouse Hollow: Dryomys" (On-line ). The Dormouse Hollow. Accessed 10/20/2002 at http://www.gliratium.org/dormouse.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dryomys nitedula
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Dryomys nitedula is regarded as endangered in the Czech Republic and as rare in most other European countries. IUCN designated forest dormice as lower risk, but the species is not listed by CITES. The threat to the population stems mainly from the destruction of forest habitat throughout their range.
The UK has developed a National Dormouse Monitoring Programme, which exists primarily to monitor hazel dormice. Hazel dormice are a cherished child storybook star in England and Wales, but the program elements are a standard for all species of dormice. Researchers have placed dormouse nest boxes on trees in woodland areas where dormice have been known to occur, and return to those boxes to count, sex, and weigh the dormice. Research is done in order to form a database for the species and monitor the health of the population.
English Nature has been running a reintroduction program that has been reintroducing captive-bred dormice since 1994 to areas where populations were at one time plentiful. Also the English government has begun to award farmers incentives to replant hedgerows which are very important to the habitat of forest dormice. Such conservation efforts would also be helpful in maintaining populations of other species of dormice, such as D. nitedula.
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: no special status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern
In Europe west of Russia it is generally rare, although in some southeastern areas (e.g. Bulgaria, Turkish Thrace, Moldova) it is locally common, reaching densities of 23-25 individuals per hectare in Moldova (Kryštufek 1999). At the western border of its distribution, populations have declined due to deforestation. There is only one population remaining in Switzerland (Tester and Müller 2000), and the German population has not been surveyed in over 30 years (H. Meinig pers. comm. 2006). However, there have been no reports of declines elsewhere in Europe as yet (Kryštufek 1999, EMA Workshop 2006).
This species is widespread and common in mountainous areas of Azerbaijan and is widespread in Turkey. In Israel in 1961 only 35 animals were observed during 350 hours of field surveys (Harrison and Bates 1991). Reported as quite common in Syria in evergreen forests and orchards (Shehad et al. 2003).
In Mongolia, a survey along the Bulgan River drainage basin estimated there to be 20 individuals per hectare (Stubbe and Chotolchu, 1968). In 1988, only a few old nests were found in the vicinity of Bag Shar Bolog, although the population is believed to be fairly stable (M. Stubbe pers. comm.).
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Populations of D. nitedula have been known to cause economic damage by raiding fruit orchards and gnawing at the bark of coniferous trees.
Negative Impacts: crop pest
The forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula) is a species of rodent in the Gliridae family found in eastern Europe, the Balkans and parts of western Central Asia. It is categorized as being of least concern in the IUCN List of Threatened Species due to its wide range and stable population trend. Forest dormice have a diploid count (2n) of 48 chromosomes. Even though this species lives in a variety of geographic locations, its greatest population density is in the forests of central Moldova, in Transcaucasia, in the mountains of Central Asia. In most other locations, population density of this species is rather low. Population density is dependent on many factors. But the main features that this species depends on for choosing a location are the presence of the appropriate food sources as well as good foliage that can be used for a habitat. The reason why the forests in central Moldova have the highest population density is they provide the largest diversity of food sources which are available throughout the year. This location also provides the best type of foliage for the forest dormice to build their nests as well as swing from branches. The combination of both of these aspects allows for this species to have its highest needs met. Therefore, during mating season they produce offspring who also stay in the same general area when they mature. It makes sense not to move from an area if it is providing for your most basic needs.
The common name for Eliomys is the garden dormouse. Dryomys are often compared to Eliomys as they have many similarities. However, Dryomys is smaller in size. Two more differences between the two are the braincase for Dryomys is more rounded and the auditory bullae is smaller than that of Eliomys. In addition, their tails are slightly different. The Dryomys's tail is more uniform in color than that of Eliomys. The forest dormouse competes in artificial and natural nests with hazel dormice, fat dormice, and birds. Its biggest competitors are those species which eat similar types of food and who live in the same kind of habitat.
Its appearance is squirrel-like. On average, the forest dormouse is 110 mm long with a fluffy grey tail nearly as long as its body. The head and body length can range from 80 mm to 130 mm, while the length of the tail can range from 60 mm to 113 mm. The range of its body mass is between 18 grams and 34 grams. The fur on the upper parts of the body is grayish-brown while the underparts are yellowish-white. A black stripe surrounds the eye and extends to the small ear. The whiskers form a bushy tuft about 10mm long. There are six pads on each paw. It has bilateral symmetry and is endothermic.
Distribution and habitat
The range of the forest dormouse is from Switzerland in the west, through central, eastern and southern Europe, the Balkan Peninsula, northward to the Baltic Sea and eastward to the Volga River and the Ural Mountains in Russia. Isolated populations occur outside this range, including in Israel, central Iran, Afghanistan, the Tien Shan mountains and Sinkiang in China. The forest dormouse lives in a wide range of habitats, including broad-leaved, mixed and coniferous woodlands. It is also found in rocky areas, dwarf montane woodland, evergreen shrubland and wood-steppe. It is reported to be found at altitudes up to 3,500 m.
This species is most likely to be found in dense forests. Forest dormice tend to create their natal nests on top of lower tree branches or in the midst of thick shrubbery. These nests are usually one to seven meters above ground level. They are spherically shaped with a diameter between 150mm to 250mm. Typically these nests only have one entrance and it faces the tree trunk. The outside of the nest is made from leaves and twigs. The inside of the nest has a lining that is created from bark and moss pieces. Forest dormice tend to pay great attention to detail when they create these natal nests. They want to make sure their young are protected.
Depending on where this species is geographical located determines whether or not it hibernates and for how long. In Israel, forest dormice stay active throughout the year. However, during the winter they do go through a period of torpor for a certain amount of time each day. Forest dormice located in the north tend to hibernate from October until April. During this period of hibernation, northern dormice will sit on their back legs and curl up into a ball. Its tail will wrap around its body and its hands may touch its cheeks. In all hibernating species, body temperature decreases from the range of 35-37°C to about 5°C.
Not much is known about the mating rituals of this species. It is known that this species is dependent on maternal care for the first couple of weeks after birth. Female forest dormice have eight mammary glands. Forest dormice breed during various times of the year depending on their geographical location. For example, forest dormice who live in Israel have a breeding season that starts in March and lasts until December. However, in Europe breeding season is much shorter as it starts in March and only lasts until the end of August. There is a correlation between length of the breeding season and number of litters produced per year. For this reason, forest dormice who live in the south who have a longer breeding season usually produce two litters while the dormice who live in the north and have a very short breeding season usually only have time to produce one litter. The gestation period lasts about four weeks, and usually four or five young are born per litter. From time to time, it is possible for the female to give birth to up to seven young at one time. When the young are born, they weigh about 2 grams. The young dormice open their eyes at two weeks, and start eating solid food a week later. During the dependency period, the mother provides food, milk, grooming, and protection to the young. They leave the nest after about another three weeks and become sexually mature in the following year. There has not been much evidence for paternal care. However, it should not be ruled out. The average lifespan of forest dormice in the wild is five and a half years. The gender ratio is about 1:1, with insignificant predominance of females.
When it comes out of hibernation in the spring, the forest dormouse eats small invertebrates, baby birds, buds, shoots and the green parts of plants. Later in the year, the dormouse predominately eats fruits, nuts and seeds. In fact, this species eats fruits from about twenty different tree and bush species including: apricots, apples, cherries, plums, cherry plums, pears, peaches, blackberries. The population does not fluctuate much because the young reared each year only just makes up for those that die during hibernation. Sixty percent of young individuals and the majority of elderly adults (over the age of four) do not survive the winter. Another cause of mortality is storms which may cause the death of juveniles in unprotected nests. Dormice are also preyed upon by pine marten, stone martens, wildcats, owls and crows. Two of its main predators are tawny owls (Strix aluco) and Eurasian eagle-owls (Bubo bubo). However, due to individuals being extremely careful not to travel away from brushy cover forest dormice are difficult prey to find.
Forest dormice are very aggressive. Not even in captivity are they tame. It has been noted that they may allow humans to pet them. However, when efforts are made to hold them, they bite with their sharp teeth. If agitated while resting they may wake up suddenly, leap high, spit, and hiss. Forest dormice may have a negative impact for humans due to raiding fruit orchards and chewing on the bark of coniferous trees. They have also been known to be vectors for such diseases as tick-born encephalitis, leptospirosis, and possibly the Black Death. They may have a positive impact by controlling arthropod populations and scattering seeds.
Forest dormice spend a great amount of time in trees. They are capable of climbing with excellent agility as well as leap to and from branches as great as 2 meters apart from one another. This species has a natural tendency to create temporary nests which are fragile. This species does not spend much time in these temporary nests because much more energy is placed in making the natal nests.
This species is nocturnal. It is also very territorial. Adults live in low densities, usually only two to three per acre. Their territory range is from 65 to 100 m (213 to 328 ft) in diameter.
Forest dormice produce a variety of noises for a variety of reasons. The most significant is the sound for an alarm call which is a melodious squeak. They also have the ability to produce ultrasounds which are used for communication. The different communication methods that forest dormice use are visual, tactile, acoustic, and chemical. It is not known exactly how these forms of communication are used specifically for this species. However, it is known that most mammals use tactile communication during mating, conflict, and raising young. Chemical communication can play a significant role in being able to identify a specific individual. Visual cues are given off by body posture as a way to designate whether it is a hostile or friendly environment. The different perception methods that forest dormice use are visual, tactile, ultrasound, and chemical.
This species is considered endangered in the Czech Republic and as rare in a majority of the other European countries. The population is mostly threatened by the destruction of forests which is their habitat. There are many programs in place to help maintain and increase the forest dormice population. There is an international law to protect this species and it is under the EU Habitats and Species Directive (Annex IV) and the Berne Convention (Appendix III). All countries must abide by this law. In addition, a country may choose to create a national law or program in order to further provide methods to make sure this species is protected. For example, the English government rewards farmers who replant hedges. Hopefully, this will increase available shrubbery for dormice to occupy. Another program is administered by English Nature. This is a reintroduction program whose purpose is to place captive-bred dormice in locations where the population has been dwindling. In addition to these programs, the UK has created a National Dormouse Monitoring Programme. Its main purpose is to observe hazel dormice. However, the program components are used to observe and track all species of dormice.
Recently, a fossil of a dormouse-like mammal was discovered. This fossil is thought to be the earliest eutherian ancestor. The fossil was complete and well preserved in a lake bed located in China. It was given the name Eomaia, which means ancient mother. The fossil has skeletal features that are closer to modern placentals than to marsupials. This is significant as it indicates the split between these two groups that occurred more than 125 million years ago. Before this fossil was discovered, the oldest recorded fossil of a placental mammal was teeth aging 110 million years old. The oldest skull and skeleton fossil for a placental mammal is only 75 million years old.
- Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 1768. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- "Dryomys nitedula". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2007. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1996. Retrieved 2008-08-14.
- Mitsainas, Georue GP. "Chromosomal Studies on Greek Populations of Four Small Rodent Species." Folia Zoologica 57.4 (2008): 337-46.
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