Sometimes taxonomists create new names for groups that already have a name. They may do this because they are unaware of the original name, or they may think the organism before them belongs to a different group when in fact it does not. If two or more names are found to apply to the same group, they are considered synonyms. In most cases, the first name takes priority and is considered to be the valid or accepted name. However, there can be exceptions, and it's not always easy to determine which of a series of synonyms should be considered valid or accepted. Here we list the synonyms provided to EOL by our classification partners. We also include other versions of the name that most likely refer to the same group, for example, misspellings in the literature or different variations of the authorship associated with the name.

Preferred marks the preferred name from each source.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)

Name Relationship
Littorina Ferussac, 1822 Preferred
Littorivaga Dall, 1918 Junior synonym
Neritoides T. Brown, 1827
Litorina Menke, 1828
Litormia Moerch, 1849
Neritrema Recluz, 1869
Litonia Weinkauff, 1878
Isonema Hall, 1891
Algaroda Dall, 1918
Littorivage Dall, 1918
Neritotrema Wenz, 1939
Ezolittorina Habe, 1958
Melarhaphe Menke, 1828


Name Relationship
Littorina Férussac 1822 Preferred
Littorina sayi Reeve, 1858 Synonym
Littorina lunata H. C. Lea, 1845
Littorina littoralis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Littorina naticoides Orbigny, 1842
Littorina obligatus (Say, 1822)
Littorina castanea Deshayes in Deshayes & Milne Edwards, 1843
Littorina apicina Menke, 1850
Littorina lastistrigata Von Martens, 1901
Littorina tenebrosus (Montagu, 1803)
Littorina strigata Philippi, 1847
Littorina puncticulata Philippi, 1847
Littorina groenlandica (Menke, 1830)
Littorina striata Schumacher, 1817
Littorina sitchana (Philippi, 1847)
Littorina albida Philippi, 1848
Littorina gundlachi Philippi, 1849
Littorina penicilata Carpenter, 1864
Littorina davidus (Roding, 1798)
Littorina phillippi Carpenter, 1857
Littorina conspersa Philippi, 1847
Littorina fusca Pfeiffer, 1840
Littorina punctata Pfeiffer, 1840
Littorina carinata d'Orbigny, 1841
Littorina obesa (G.B. Sowerby I, 1832)
Littorina natalensis (Philippi, 1847)
Littorina undulata Gray, 1839
Littorina kraussi Rosewater, 1970
Littorina glabrata Philippi, 1846
Littorina petraeus (Montagu, 1803)
Littorina rudis (Maton, 1797)
Littorina peconica S. Smith, 1860
Littorina parvula Philippi, 1849
Littorina arctica (Møller, 1842)
Littorina vestita (Say, 1822)
Littorina jugosa (Montagu, 1803)
Littorina palliata (Say, 1821)
Littorina flavescens Philippi, 1847
Littorina guttata Philippi, 1847
Littorina alba Von Martens, 1901
Littorina hidalgoi Arango, 1880
Littorina mauritiana (Lamarck, 1822)
Littorina africana (Krauss in Philippi, 1847)
Littorina dubiosa C. B. Adams, 1852
Littorina sulcata Lamarck, 1822
Littorina lineata Orbigny, 1841
Littorina subsuturalis Von Martens, 1901
Littorina millegrana Phillipi
Littorina carolinensis Conrad, 1863
Littorina lineata Gmelin, 1791
Littorina nigrolineata Philippi, 1846
Littorina saxoides Nardo, 1847
Littorina australis Gray, 1826
Littorina biangulata Martens, 1897
Littorina cinerea Pease 1869
Littorina granocostata Reeve, 1857
Littorina melanacme E.A. Smith, 1876
Littorina nodosa Gray, 1839
Littorina sundaica van Regteren Altena, 1945
Littorina urieli Biggs, 1966
Littorina rubropicta Martens, 1887
Littorina arenica Jay, 1839
Littorina canariensis d'Orbigny 1839
Littorina planaxis G.B. Sowerby I, 1844
Littorina patula Gould 1849
Littorina lepida Gould 1849
Littorina etolonensis Sinelnikova in Gladenkov & Sinelnikova 1990
Littorina petricola Dall 1909
Littorina vulgaris J. Sowerby, 1832
Littorina communis Brown, 1843
Littorina armoricana Locard 1886
Littorina souverbiana Crosse, 1862
Littorina heterospiralis Grabau & King, 1928
Littorina itelmenica Sinelnikova in Gladenkov & Sinelnikova, 1990
Littorina balteata Reeve, 1857
Littorina cincta Gould, 1847
Littorina subtenebrosa Middendorff 1848
Littorina castanea A. Adams & Reeve, 1850
Littorina sitchensis Nevill, 1885
Littorina saxatile La Roque, 1953
Littorina fabula Kobelt, 1907
Littorina simplex Reeve 1857
Littorina australis Gray, 1839
Littorina novaehiberniae Lesson, 1831
Littorina sieboldii Philippi, 1846
Littorina philippiana Reeve, 1857
Littorina newcombi Reeve, 1857
Littorina fraseri Reeve, 1857
Littorina borbonica Barnard, 1951
Littorina filosa G.B. Sowerby I, 1832
Littorina luteola Quoy & Gaimard, 1833
Littorina melanostoma Gray, 1839
Littorina penitaria Nevill, 1885
Littorina diemenensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1833
Littorina perplexa Turton, 1932
Littorina infans E.A. Smith, 1892
Littorina adonis Yokoyama, 1927
Littorina vidua Gould, 1859
Littorina dilatata d'Orbigny, 1842
Littorina floccosa Beck in Mörch, 1876
Littorina thersites Reeve, 1857
Littorina foveata C.B. Adams, 1852
Littorina decollata Philippi, 1847
Littorina beccarii Tapparone-Canefri, 1875
Littorina setosa E. A. Smith, 1875
Littorina lemniscata Philippi 1846
Littorina eudeli G.B. Sowerby III, 1915
Littorina miliaris Quoy & Gaimard, 1833
Littorina coriacea Melvill & Standen, 1907
Littorina nervillei Dautzenberg 1893
Littorina preconica S. Smith, 1860
Littorina jamaicensis C.B. Adams, 1850
Littorina arboricola Reeve, 1857
Littorina bartonensis Brown, 1843
Littorina monilifera Souleyet in Eydoux & Souleyet, 1852
Littorina vitiensis Godeffroy, 1874
Littorina beanii MacGillivray, 1843
Littorina vadorum Sacchi, 1954
Littorina lamellosa Souverbie, 1861
Littorina excavata C.B. Adams, 1852
Littorina pyramidalis Quoy & Gaimard, 1833
Littorina galapagiensis Stearns, 1892
Littorina praesqualida Sinelnikova in Gladenkov & Sinelnikova 1990
Littorina philippii Carpenter, 1857
Littorina granicostata E.A. Smith, 1887
Littorina parva Teilman-Friis, 1898
Littorina planaxis Jay, 1839
Littorina kurila Middendorff 1848
Littorina affinis d'Orbigny, 1839
Littorina indistincta Turton, 1932
Littorina helenae E.A. Smith, 1890
Littorina insularis E.A. Smith, 1889
Littorina kowiensis Turton, 1932
Littorina picta Philippi 1846
Littorina litorea (Turton, 1819)
Littorina danieli Locard 1886
Littorina araucana d'Orbigny 1840
Littorina sulculosa Philippi, 1846
Littorina glaucocincta Mörch, 1876
Littorina trochoides Gray, 1839
Littorina mariana Arnold 1910
Littorina interrupta (C.B. Adams in Philippi, 1847)
Littorina carinifera (Menke, 1830)
Littorina porcata Philippi 1846
Littorina zonaria Bean 1844
Littorina caliginosa Gould, 1849
Littorina riisei Mörch, 1876
Littorina grandis Middendorff, 1848
Littorina granularis Gray, 1839
Littorina radiata Souleyet in Eydoux & Souleyet, 1852
Littorina unifasciata Gray, 1826
Littorina pallescens Philippi, 1846
Littorina rietensis Turton, 1932
Littorina picea Reeve, 1857
Littorina sphaeroidalis Locard 1886
Littorina albicans Metcalfe, 1852
Littorina knysnaensis Philippi, 1847
Littorina aestuarii Jeffreys, 1865
Littorina atyphus Stearns, 1892
Littorina imbricata Gray, 1839
Littorina cingulata Philippi, 1846
Littorina atrata C.B. Adams, 1852
Littorina naticoides Reid & Golikov, 1991
Littorina luctuosa Reeve, 1857
Littorina erronea Nevill, 1885
Littorina cincta Quoy and Gaimard, 1833
Littorina marnat Potiez & Michaud 1838
Littorina bizonalis Récluz, 1869
Littorina saxatilis Johnston, 1842
Littorina pittsburgensis Clark 1915
Littorina conica Philippi, 1846
Littorina fortunei Reeve, 1857
Littorina acutispira E.A. Smith, 1892
Littorina feejeensis Reeve, 1857
Littorina glans Reeve, 1857
Littorina novaezelandiae Reeve, 1857

Paleobiology Database

Name Relationship
Littorina Ferussac 1821 Preferred
Littorina diemenensis Quoy 1833
Littorina rudis (Maton, 1797)
Littorina lineolata Dautzenberg and Fischer 1915


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