Sometimes taxonomists create new names for groups that already have a name. They may do this because they are unaware of the original name, or they may think the organism before them belongs to a different group when in fact it does not. If two or more names are found to apply to the same group, they are considered synonyms. In most cases, the first name takes priority and is considered to be the valid or accepted name. However, there can be exceptions, and it's not always easy to determine which of a series of synonyms should be considered valid or accepted. Here we list the synonyms provided to EOL by our classification partners. We also include other versions of the name that most likely refer to the same group, for example, misspellings in the literature or different variations of the authorship associated with the name.

Preferred marks the preferred name from each source.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)

Name Relationship
Littorina Ferussac, 1822 Preferred
Littorivaga Dall, 1918 Junior synonym
Neritoides T. Brown, 1827
Litorina Menke, 1828
Litormia Moerch, 1849
Neritrema Recluz, 1869
Litonia Weinkauff, 1878
Isonema Hall, 1891
Algaroda Dall, 1918
Littorivage Dall, 1918
Neritotrema Wenz, 1939
Ezolittorina Habe, 1958
Melarhaphe Menke, 1828

World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)

Name Relationship
Littorina Férussac 1822 Preferred
Littorina striata King, 1832 Synonym
Littorina mariae Sacchi and Rastelli, 1966
Littorina rudis (Maton, 1797)
Littorina nigrolineata Philippi, 1846
Littorina saxoides Nardo, 1847
Littorina neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758)
Littorina petraea (Montagu, 1803)
Littorina tenebrosa (Montagu 1803)
Littorina palliata (Say, 1821)
Littorina meleagris (Potiez and Michaud, 1838)
Littorina irrorata (Say, 1822)
Littorina mauritiana (Lamarck, 1822)
Littorina natalensis (Philippi, 1847)
Littorina obesa (G.B. Sowerby I, 1832)
Littorina undulata Gray, 1839
Littorina africana (Krauss in Philippi, 1847)
Littorina pintado (Wood, 1828)
Littorina kraussi Rosewater, 1970
Littorina scabra (Linnaeus, 1758)
Littorina glabrata Philippi, 1846
Littorina angulifera (Lamarck, 1822)
Littorina ziczac (Gmelin, 1791)
Littorina picta Philippi 1846
Littorina australis Gray, 1826
Littorina biangulata Martens, 1897
Littorina cinerea Pease 1869
Littorina erronea Nevill, 1885
Littorina eudeli G.B. Sowerby III, 1915
Littorina feejeensis Reeve, 1857
Littorina granicostata E.A. Smith, 1887
Littorina granocostata Reeve, 1857
Littorina insularis E.A. Smith, 1889
Littorina melanacme E.A. Smith, 1876
Littorina miliaris Quoy & Gaimard, 1833
Littorina monilifera Souleyet in Eydoux & Souleyet, 1852
Littorina nodosa Gray, 1839
Littorina novaezelandiae Reeve, 1857
Littorina radiata Souleyet in Eydoux & Souleyet, 1852
Littorina sundaica van Regteren Altena, 1945
Littorina urieli Biggs, 1966
Littorina vitiensis Godeffroy, 1874
Littorina imbricata Gray, 1839
Littorina australis Gray, 1839
Littorina albicans Metcalfe, 1852
Littorina novaehiberniae Lesson, 1831
Littorina pallescens Philippi, 1846
Littorina sieboldii Philippi, 1846
Littorina arboricola Reeve, 1857
Littorina philippiana Reeve, 1857
Littorina intermedia Philippi 1846
Littorina newcombi Reeve, 1857
Littorina fraseri Reeve, 1857
Littorina borbonica Barnard, 1951
Littorina filosa G.B. Sowerby I, 1832
Littorina cingulata Philippi, 1846
Littorina luteola Quoy & Gaimard, 1833
Littorina conica Philippi, 1846
Littorina melanostoma Gray, 1839
Littorina fortunei Reeve, 1857
Littorina carinifera (Menke, 1830)
Littorina rubropicta Martens, 1887
Littorina sulculosa Philippi, 1846
Littorina arenica Jay, 1839
Littorina canariensis d'Orbigny, 1840
Littorina affinis d'Orbigny, 1840
Littorina planaxis Sowerby G.B. I, 1844
Littorina planaxis Jay, 1839
Littorina planaxis Philippi, 1847
Littorina patula Gould 1849
Littorina pittsburgensis Clark 1915
Littorina lepida Gould 1849
Littorina grandis Middendorff, 1848
Littorina etolonensis Sinelnikova in Gladenkov & Sinelnikova 1990
Littorina praesqualida Sinelnikova in Gladenkov & Sinelnikova 1990
Littorina petricola Dall 1909
Littorina mariana Arnold 1910
Littorina vulgaris J. Sowerby, 1832
Littorina bartonensis Brown, 1843
Littorina communis Brown, 1843
Littorina litorea [sic]
Littorina armoricana Locard 1886
Littorina sphaeroidalis Locard 1886
Littorina parva Teilman-Friis, 1898
Littorina souverbiana Crosse, 1862
Littorina heterospiralis Grabau & King, 1928
Littorina itelmenica Sinelnikova in Gladenkov & Sinelnikova, 1990
Littorina balteata Reeve, 1857
Littorina cincta Gould, 1847
Littorina kurila Middendorff 1848
Littorina subtenebrosa Middendorff 1848
Littorina sitchana (Philippi, 1847)
Littorina castanea A. Adams & Reeve, 1850
Littorina sitchensis Nevill, 1885
Littorina saxatile La Roque, 1953
Littorina arctica (Møller, 1842)
Littorina groenlandica (Menke, 1830)
Littorina preconica S. Smith, 1860
Littorina beanii MacGillivray, 1843
Littorina bizonalis Récluz, 1869
Littorina fabula Kobelt, 1907
Littorina vadorum Sacchi, 1954
Littorina nigrolineata Gray 1839
Littorina saxatilis Johnston, 1842
Littorina castanea Deshayes in Deshayes & Milne Edwards, 1843
Littorina zonaria Bean 1844
Littorina simplex Reeve 1857
Littorina danieli Locard 1886
Littorina nervillei Dautzenberg 1893
Littorina naticoides Reid & Golikov, 1991
Littorina philippii Carpenter, 1857
Littorina pyramidalis Quoy & Gaimard, 1833
Littorina neglecta Bean, 1844
Littorina atrata C.B. Adams, 1852
Littorina excavata C.B. Adams, 1852
Littorina porcata Philippi 1846
Littorina albicarinata Mclean, 1970
Littorina modesta Philippi, 1846
Littorina puncticulata Philippi, 1847
Littorina aspera Philippi, 1846
Littorina dubiosa C. B. Adams, 1852
Littorina galapagiensis Stearns, 1892
Littorina atyphus Stearns, 1892
Littorina penitaria Nevill, 1885
Littorina diemenensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1833
Littorina luctuosa Reeve, 1857
Littorina araucana d'Orbigny 1840
Littorina perplexa Turton, 1932
Littorina picea Reeve, 1857
Littorina rietensis Turton, 1932
Littorina kowiensis Turton, 1932
Littorina indistincta Turton, 1932
Littorina acutispira E.A. Smith, 1892
Littorina infans E.A. Smith, 1892
Littorina adonis Yokoyama, 1927
Littorina cincta Quoy and Gaimard, 1833
Littorina unifasciata Gray, 1826
Littorina vidua Gould, 1859
Littorina trochoides Gray, 1839
Littorina angustior Mörch, 1876
Littorina dilatata d'Orbigny, 1842
Littorina helenae E.A. Smith, 1890
Littorina riisei Mörch, 1876
Littorina jamaicensis C.B. Adams, 1850
Littorina thersites Reeve, 1857
Littorina carinata d'Orbigny, 1841
Littorina foveata C.B. Adams, 1852
Littorina lemniscata Philippi 1846
Littorina glans Reeve, 1857
Littorina interrupta (C.B. Adams in Philippi, 1847)
Littorina floccosa Beck in Mörch, 1876
Littorina glaucocincta Mörch, 1876
Littorina aestuarii Jeffreys, 1865
Littorina marnat Potiez & Michaud 1838
Littorina granularis Gray, 1839
Littorina decollata Philippi, 1847
Littorina knysnaensis Philippi, 1847
Littorina lamellosa Montrouzier, 1861
Littorina caliginosa Gould, 1849
Littorina coriacea Melvill & Standen, 1907
Littorina setosa E. A. Smith, 1875
Littorina (Algamorda) Dall, 1918
Littorina beccarii Tapparone Canefri, 1875
Littorina hisseyiana Tenison-Woods, 1876
Littorina basterotii Payraudeau, 1826
Littorina insularum Locard, 1892
Littorina marmorata Pfeiffer, 1839
Littorina patula Thorpe, 1844
Littorina peconica Smith S., 1860
Littorina striata Danilo & Sandri, 1856
Littorina tristis Mousson, 1874
Littorina lineolata D'Orbigny, 1840
Littorina nebulosa (Lamarck, 1822)
Littorina (Fossarilittorina) Rosewater, 1981
Littorina guttata (Philippi, 1847)
Littorina hidalgoi Arango, 1880
Littorina mespillum (Mühlfeld, 1824)
Littorina fusca Pfeiffer, 1840
Littorina naticoides d'Orbigny, 1841
Littorina gundlachi (Philippi, 1849)
Littorina pullata (Carpenter, 1864)
Littorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822)
Littorina (Austrolittorina) Rosewater, 1970
Littorina zebra (Wood, 1828)
Littorina coccinea (Gmelin, 1791)
Littorina fasciata Gray, 1839
Littorina flava King, 1832
Littorina columellaris d'Orbigny, 1840
Littorina fusciventris Boettger, 1891
Littorina penicillata Carpenter, 1864
Littorina schmitti Bartsch & Rehder, 1939

Paleobiology Database

Name Relationship
Littorina Ferussac 1821 Preferred
Littorina diemenensis Quoy 1833
Littorina rudis (Maton, 1797)
Littorina lineolata Dautzenberg and Fischer 1915


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