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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 1593 specimens in 39 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 393 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -3 - 168
  Temperature range (°C): -1.377 - 12.348
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.682 - 17.836
  Salinity (PPS): 7.618 - 35.363
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.958 - 8.061
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.048 - 1.480
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.228 - 20.289

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -3 - 168

Temperature range (°C): -1.377 - 12.348

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.682 - 17.836

Salinity (PPS): 7.618 - 35.363

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.958 - 8.061

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.048 - 1.480

Silicate (umol/l): 2.228 - 20.289
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Known predators

Littorina (Littorina, Tegula) is prey of:
Eurytium
Thais lapillus
Leptasterias
Pisaster
Searlesia
Thais lima
Gobioidei
Pleuronectiformes
Tadorna
Tringa
Calidris
Calidris alpina
Carcinus
Tautogolabrus
Actinopterygii
Aves
Mammalia
Acanthina
Cribina

Based on studies in:
USA: Georgia (Marine)
USA: New England (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Washington (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Alaska, Torch Bay (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Washington, Cape Flattery (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: California, Cabrillo Point (Littoral, Rocky shore)
Scotland, Ythan estuary (Littoral, Mudflat)
USA: Maine, Gulf of Maine (Littoral, Rocky shore)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat.
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat. 110(973):351-369, from p. 355 (1976).
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat. 110(973):351-369, from p. 360 (1976).
  • D. C. Edwards, D. O. Conover, F. Sutter, Mobile predators and the structure of marine intertidal communities, Ecology 63(4):1175-1180, from p. 1178 (1982).
  • H. Milne and G. M. Dunnet, Standing crop, productivity and trophic relations of the fauna of the Ythan estuary. In: The Estuarine Environment, R. S. K. Barnes and J. Green, Eds. (Applied Science Publications, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1972), pp. 86-106, from
  • J. M. Teal, Energy flow in the salt marsh ecosystem of Georgia, Ecology 43(4):614-624, from p. 616 (1962).
  • R. T. Paine, Food webs: linkage, interaction strength and community infrastructure, J. Anim. Ecol. 49:667-685, from p. 670 (1980).
  • W. G. Hewatt, Ecological studies on selected marine intertidal communities of Monterey Bay, California, Am. Midl. Nat. 18(2):161-206, from p. 196 (1937).
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Known prey organisms

Littorina (Littorina, Tegula) preys on:
Spartina
algae
bacteria
Bacillariophyceae
Enteromorpha
Chaetomorpha
Cladophora
detritus
encrusting and mat-forming algae

Based on studies in:
USA: Georgia (Marine)
USA: New England (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Washington (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Alaska, Torch Bay (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Washington, Cape Flattery (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Maine, Gulf of Maine (Littoral, Rocky shore)
Barbados (Littoral, Rocky shore)
Scotland, Ythan estuary (Littoral, Mudflat)
USA: California, Cabrillo Point (Littoral, Rocky shore)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat.
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat. 110(973):351-369, from p. 355 (1976).
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat. 110(973):351-369, from p. 360 (1976).
  • D. C. Edwards, D. O. Conover, F. Sutter, Mobile predators and the structure of marine intertidal communities, Ecology 63(4):1175-1180, from p. 1178 (1982).
  • F. Briand, unpublished observations
  • H. Milne and G. M. Dunnet, Standing crop, productivity and trophic relations of the fauna of the Ythan estuary. In: The Estuarine Environment, R. S. K. Barnes and J. Green, Eds. (Applied Science Publications, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1972), pp. 86-106, from
  • J. M. Teal, Energy flow in the salt marsh ecosystem of Georgia, Ecology 43(4):614-624, from p. 616 (1962).
  • R. T. Paine, Food webs: linkage, interaction strength and community infrastructure, J. Anim. Ecol. 49:667-685, from p. 670 (1980).
  • W. G. Hewatt, Ecological studies on selected marine intertidal communities of Monterey Bay, California, Am. Midl. Nat. 18(2):161-206, from p. 196 (1937).
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

classification

The genusname Littorina and typespecies Turbo littoreus Linnaeus, 1758 was stated as valid by the ICZN (Op. 1159).
  • Backeljau, T. (1986). Lijst van de recente mariene mollusken van België [List of the recent marine molluscs of Belgium]. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen: Brussels, Belgium. 106 pp.
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:1068
Specimens with Sequences:737
Specimens with Barcodes:640
Species:22
Species With Barcodes:20
Public Records:673
Public Species:18
Public BINs:14
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Littorina

Not to be confused with the Italian city of Latina (originally Littoria). For the Italian MU trains named "Littorina", see Multiple unit or Railcar.

Littorina is a genus of small sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Littorinidae, the winkles or periwinkles. [2]

These small snails live in the tidal zone of rocky shores.

Overview[edit]

Anatomy of Littorina

In Europe there are about nine species in this genus, one of which is the rough periwinkle, Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792). Another closely related (supposed) species Littorina tenebrosa (Montagu 1802) was thought to be distinct because of its different ecological requirements, but current studies have shown that it is not at all clear whether the two are indeed separate species or whether L. tenebrosa is perhaps merely an ecotype (an ecological form) of L. saxatilis.[3]

Littorina has given its name to the Littorina Sea, the geologic precursor of the Baltic Sea.

Distribution[edit]

The periwinkles are found on the seashore in the littoral zone and sublittoral zone in all parts of the world. In the Baltic they live within the influence of freshwater, and frequently become distorted in consequence.

Description[edit]

The thick, pointed shell is turbinated and has few whorls. The aperture is rounded. The outer lip is acute. The columella is rather flattened and imperforate. The operculum is paucispiral. The lingual teeth are hooked and trilobed. The uncini (small teeth on the radula) are hooked and dentated. [4]

Species[edit]

The type species:Turbo littoreus Linnaeus, 1758 restricts the species in this genus to the northern hemisphere, moderate and cold zones. The tropical species belong in other genera of the same family [5]

Species in the genus Littorina include [2]

Species brought into synonymy

References[edit]

  1. ^ Férussac A. É d'A de (1822). H.N. g. et p. Moll., Tabl. gén., xxxiv.
  2. ^ a b c WoRMS (2011). Littorina Férussac, 1822. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138135 on 2011-04-15
  3. ^ Gosling, E.M. (2002). The periwinkle as a model in biodiversity studies: a geneticist's view. in Marine Biodiversity in Ireland and Adjacent Waters. Ulster Museum. publication no. 8
  4. ^ Georges Washington Tryon, Structural and systematic conchology, 1882
  5. ^ Bandel, K. & D. Kadolsky (1982). Western Atlantic Species of Nodolittorina (Gastropda: Prosobranchia): comparative morphology and its functional, ecological, phylogenetic and taxonomic implications. Veliger 25 (1): 1-42.
  6. ^ S T Williams, D G Reid, D T J Littlewood (2003). "A molecular phylogeny of the Littorininae (Gastropoda: Littorinidae): unequal evolutionary rates, morphological parallelism, and biogeography of the Southern Ocean.". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 1 (1): 60–86. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00038-1. PMID 12801472. 
  • Reid D.G. (1996). Systematics and evolution of Littorina. The Ray Society 463p
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