Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 1593 specimens in 39 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 393 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -3 - 168
  Temperature range (°C): -1.377 - 12.348
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.682 - 17.836
  Salinity (PPS): 7.618 - 35.363
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.958 - 8.061
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.048 - 1.480
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.228 - 20.289

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -3 - 168

Temperature range (°C): -1.377 - 12.348

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.682 - 17.836

Salinity (PPS): 7.618 - 35.363

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.958 - 8.061

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.048 - 1.480

Silicate (umol/l): 2.228 - 20.289
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Known predators

Littorina (Littorina, Tegula) is prey of:
Eurytium
Thais lapillus
Leptasterias
Pisaster
Searlesia
Thais lima
Gobioidei
Pleuronectiformes
Tadorna
Tringa
Calidris
Calidris alpina
Carcinus
Tautogolabrus
Actinopterygii
Aves
Mammalia
Acanthina
Cribina

Based on studies in:
USA: Georgia (Marine)
USA: New England (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Washington (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Alaska, Torch Bay (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Washington, Cape Flattery (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: California, Cabrillo Point (Littoral, Rocky shore)
Scotland, Ythan estuary (Littoral, Mudflat)
USA: Maine, Gulf of Maine (Littoral, Rocky shore)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat. 110(973):351-369, from p. 355 (1976).
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat.
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat. 110(973):351-369, from p. 360 (1976).
  • R. T. Paine, Food webs: linkage, interaction strength and community infrastructure, J. Anim. Ecol. 49:667-685, from p. 670 (1980).
  • H. Milne and G. M. Dunnet, Standing crop, productivity and trophic relations of the fauna of the Ythan estuary. In: The Estuarine Environment, R. S. K. Barnes and J. Green, Eds. (Applied Science Publications, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1972), pp. 86-106, from
  • D. C. Edwards, D. O. Conover, F. Sutter, Mobile predators and the structure of marine intertidal communities, Ecology 63(4):1175-1180, from p. 1178 (1982).
  • W. G. Hewatt, Ecological studies on selected marine intertidal communities of Monterey Bay, California, Am. Midl. Nat. 18(2):161-206, from p. 196 (1937).
  • J. M. Teal, Energy flow in the salt marsh ecosystem of Georgia, Ecology 43(4):614-624, from p. 616 (1962).
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Known prey organisms

Littorina (Littorina, Tegula) preys on:
Spartina
algae
bacteria
Bacillariophyceae
Enteromorpha
Chaetomorpha
Cladophora
detritus
encrusting and mat-forming algae

Based on studies in:
USA: Georgia (Marine)
USA: New England (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Washington (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Alaska, Torch Bay (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Washington, Cape Flattery (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Maine, Gulf of Maine (Littoral, Rocky shore)
Barbados (Littoral, Rocky shore)
Scotland, Ythan estuary (Littoral, Mudflat)
USA: California, Cabrillo Point (Littoral, Rocky shore)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat. 110(973):351-369, from p. 355 (1976).
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat.
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat. 110(973):351-369, from p. 360 (1976).
  • R. T. Paine, Food webs: linkage, interaction strength and community infrastructure, J. Anim. Ecol. 49:667-685, from p. 670 (1980).
  • F. Briand, unpublished observations
  • H. Milne and G. M. Dunnet, Standing crop, productivity and trophic relations of the fauna of the Ythan estuary. In: The Estuarine Environment, R. S. K. Barnes and J. Green, Eds. (Applied Science Publications, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1972), pp. 86-106, from
  • D. C. Edwards, D. O. Conover, F. Sutter, Mobile predators and the structure of marine intertidal communities, Ecology 63(4):1175-1180, from p. 1178 (1982).
  • W. G. Hewatt, Ecological studies on selected marine intertidal communities of Monterey Bay, California, Am. Midl. Nat. 18(2):161-206, from p. 196 (1937).
  • J. M. Teal, Energy flow in the salt marsh ecosystem of Georgia, Ecology 43(4):614-624, from p. 616 (1962).
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Source: SPIRE

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

classification

The genusname Littorina and typespecies Turbo littoreus Linnaeus, 1758 was stated as valid by the ICZN (Op. 1159).
  • Backeljau, T. (1986). Lijst van de recente mariene mollusken van België [List of the recent marine molluscs of Belgium]. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen: Brussels, Belgium. 106 pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 995
Specimens with Sequences: 717
Specimens with Barcodes: 620
Species: 22
Species With Barcodes: 20
Public Records: 673
Public Species: 18
Public BINs: 14
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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