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Overview

Brief Summary

The Daubenton's bat hunts almost exclusively above water, catching non-biting midges and other insects. It can also pluck little creatures from the water's surface, such as mosquito larvae. Daubenton's bats are found in many places in the Netherlands, including the coastal regions. They are a regular guest on Texel, but are not known on any of the other Wadden Islands.
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Introduction

Daubenton’s bat is a medium-sized bat species, sometimes known as the water bat or hairy footed bat.It has a steady flight, and often flies within a few centimetres of the water surface - reminiscent of a small hovercraft. It feeds on small flies including chironomid midges, caddisflies and mayflies.The bats roost in tunnels and bridges close to canals and sometimes in stone buildings, such as old waterworks.They usually feed within 6km of the roost, but have been recorded following canals for 10km - flying at speeds of up to 25kph.They usually take insects from close to the water and sometimes directly from the water surface - using their large feet as a gaff, or the tail membrane as a scoop.
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Biology

Bats are the only true flying mammals. In Britain they are insectivorous (eat insects), and contrary to popular misconception they are not blind; many can actually see very well (6). All British bats use echolocation to orient themselves at night; they emit bursts of sound that are of such high frequencies they are beyond the human range of hearing and are called 'ultrasound' (7). They then listen to and interpret the echoes bounced back from objects, including prey, around them, allowing them to build up a 'sound-picture' of their surroundings (7). Daubenton's bats produce echolocation calls of frequencies between 35 and 85 kHz, but most calls peak at 45-50 kHz (5). They emerge at twilight, and with fast, agile flight they hunt over water, close to the surface (2), taking small flies, midges, mayflies (5) and moths (2). They have been seen taking prey from the surface of the water using the tail membrane or the feet (5), eating the prey whilst flying (2). Mating tends to occur in autumn (5), but fertilisation is delayed until the following spring (7). Females gather into maternity colonies in summer, the young bats are suckled for several weeks, reaching independence at around 6-8 weeks of age (5). Males and non-breeding females may gather into communal roosts in the summer, or they may live in the maternity roosts (5), but in separate groups to the breeding females (7). Hibernation occurs between the end of September and late March or April (2). Daubenton's bats are known to live to a maximum of 20 years, although the average life expectancy is closer to 4- 4.5 years (2).
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Description

Daubenton's bat is a medium-sized to small species (2). The fur has a fluffy appearance, is brownish-grey to bronze on the back, and silvery grey on the belly (2). The ears, which are held folded at right angles if the bat is agitated, and the wing membranes are greyish brown in colour; the nose and face is reddish pink, and there is a bare area around the eyes (5). Juveniles are darker in colour than adults (2). The large feet are bordered with long bristles (2).
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Comprehensive Description

Biology

Daubenton’s bats have red brown fur, pale underneath, and a pinkish face which is bare around the eyes.They also have the following features:
  • head and body length: 45–55mm
  • forearm length: 34–41mm
  • wingspan: 240–275mm
  • weight: 7g–12g


Echolocation
Bats emit calls out to the environment and listen to the echoes of those calls that return from various objects in the environment. They use these echoes to locate, range, and identify the objects.Daubenton’s bat calls range from 35 to 85kHz and are loudest at 45 to 50kHz.On a bat detector, the calls are heard as a machinegun-like series of regular clicks for bursts of 5 to 10 seconds.

Life cycle
Mating takes place in the autumn and active males will continue to seek out and mate with females throughout the winter.Maternity roosts are occupied from late spring until October.Young bats are suckled for several weeks and are fully weaned and able to forage for themselves at 6–8 weeks.Males or non-breeding females may aggregate during the summer to form their own communal roosts, but sometimes join maternity colonies.Colony size ranges between 20 and 50 bats, but can be up to 200.Daubenton’s bats can live for up to 22 years.
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Distribution

Range Description

Myotis daubentonii is distributed from Portugal, Ireland and Norway through Europe and northern Asia to the Far East (Korea and Japan). It is absent in Central Asia from the Caspian region to the Altai mountains, and only a few records are known from Asia Minor and the western Caucasus.

In some parts of Europe it is more patchily distributed than the map suggests (e.g., Spain and Turkey). It has a patchy occurrence in Italy and is also not found throughout the Balkans, being absent from Montenegro and much of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania. It is recorded from the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sardinia. In Japan, it is found only on Hokkaido (Abe et al. 2005), and in China it is known from the northeastern provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Nei Mongol. It is absent in Central Asia from the Caspian region to the Altai mountains, and only a few records are known from Asia Minor and the western Caucasus. It is widespread throughout northern Mongolia, associated with rivers and water sources including the Bulgan River in northern Dzungarian Govi Desert. Also occurs in Mongol Altai Mountain Range, Great Lakes Depression, Hövsgöl, Hangai and Hentii mountain ranges, Mongol Daguur Steppe, northern Middle Halh Steppe, and northern parts of Eastern Mongolia (Stubbe and Chotolchu 1968, Dulamtseren 1970).

There are records from sea level to 1,400 m asl in the Alps (Spitzenberger 2002).
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Range

Widespread throughout Britain, reaching northern Scotland. Daubenton's bat is also widespread throughout much of Europe, extending as far east as Japan and Korea (5).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It forages over natural and artificial water bodies (including fjords), sometimes in woodland or scrub. Summer roosts are in tree hollows, caves, buildings and other artificial structures (e.g. bridges, cellars) in mixed sex colonies. It winters in a wide range of underground habitats. Seasonal movements between winter and summer roosts are mostly within a distance of 100-150 km (Hutterer et al. 2005). The longest distance covered is 257 km (Tress et al. 2004 in Hutterer et al.2005).

Due to the distinct foraging niche this species occupies, this species is reliant on water sources. It is highly dependant on aquatic insects for food, hunting over large water bodies and taking prey from the surface waters. It feeds largely on Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera, usually foraging less than 2 meters above ground or water level. The life span is not known in this species, but capture-mark-release experiments in the Khar Us Nuur region, recorded that the oldest individual recaptured was 4 years old. A ringing programme by the Mongolian-German Biological Expeditions from 1974 up to 2002 found that the oldest individual recaptured was 14 years of age (unpublished data).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Associated with water bodies such as rivers and canals (7), and found mainly in flat countryside, particularly in woodlands (2). Summer colonies occur in underground tunnels, caves, cellars and mines, or underneath bridges, but are always near water (5). Tree holes and bat boxes are also used. They hibernate during winter in caves, mines and other subterranean sites (5).
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Animal / parasite / ectoparasite
Nycteribia kolenatii ectoparasitises Myotis daubentoni
Other: major host/prey

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General Ecology

Distribution ecology

Habitat
In England and Wales, the majority of summer colonies are in humid, underground sites near water.These include:
  • tunnels or bridges over canals and rivers
  • caves, mines and cellars
  • occasionally, stone buildings such as moated castles and old waterworks - more commonly used in Scotland
  • rarely, tree-holes and earthen roadside banks
Summer colonies can be noisy during the day, especially at sites where they are close to human activity.A variety of temporary night roosts are used, often in trees or tunnels close to feeding sites.Daubenton’s bats have been found clustering with other bats, including:
  • pipistrelle
  • noctule
  • Natterer’s
  • brown long-eared bats
Daubenton’s bats hibernate in caves, mines and other underground sites - in extensive tunnel systems with large numbers of bats present.They enter these winter sites in October, but only small numbers are present at first. Numbers increase dramatically in January and February, and individuals can remain at the site until the end of March, mostly favouring the warmer, more stable areas of the site.Although usually solitary, small groups of 3–4 bats can be observed. Individuals are often lodged in tight crevices and are often barely visible.They may also hide among rocks and scree on the floor of caves and tunnels making them difficult to spot.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 28 years (wild) Observations: Unlike most other mammals, this bat appears to have a continuous turnover of auditory hair cells (Kirkegaard and Jorgensen 2001).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Myotis daubentonii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 39 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCTTATACCTACTATTTGGCGCTTGAGCTGGTATAGCAGGGACTGCTCTAAGTCTATTAATTCGAGCAGAACTAGGTCAACCAGGGGCTTTACTAGGAGATGATCAGATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACTGCTCATGCTTTTGTAATGATTTTCTTTATAGTCATACCTATTATGATTGGAGGTTTCGGGAATTGACTAGTACCCCTAATAATTGGAGCTCCTGATATAGCTTTCCCTCGAATAAATAATATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCTCCCTCTTTCCTATTACTATTGGCTTCGTCTATAGTTGAAGCAGGAGCTGGTACTGGTTGAACAGTCTATCCCCCCTTAGCAGGAAATCTTGCCCATGCAGGAGCTTCTGTTGATCTTGCTATTTTCTCCCTTCATTTGGCAGGTGTATCTTCAATCTTAGGGGCCATTAATTTCATTACTACTATTATTAACATGAAACCTCCTGCACTTTCTCAATATCAAACACCATTATTTGTTTGATCTGTCTTAATTACAGCTGTATTACTCCTTCTCTCCCTTCCAGTTTTAGCCGCCGGAATCACAATATTATTAACAGATCGAAATCTAAATACTACCTTTTTTGATCCTGCTGGAGGAGGAGACCCAATTTTATATCAACATTTATTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Myotis daubentonii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 41
Specimens with Barcodes: 50
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Stubbe, M., Ariunbold, J., Buuveibaatar, V., Dorjderem, S., Monkhzul, Ts., Otgonbaatar, M., Tsogbadrakh, M., Hutson, A.M., Spitzenberger, F., Aulagnier, S., Juste, J., Coroiu, I., Paunovic, M. & Karataş, A.

Reviewer/s
Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Temple, H. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern because it is widespread and abundant, there are no major threats and there are indications that its population is currently increasing.
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Conservation

Despite severe loss of, and damage to wetlands and waterways, Daubenton’s bat seems to be increasing in parts of its range.This may in part be associated with the increasing number of artificial water bodies, including gravel pits, reservoirs and flooded quarries.Also low level pollution may encourage a more consistent supply of favourable insects.However, the loss of diversity of aquatic insects has a detrimental effect on other animals and, without very careful pollution controls, would also affect Daubenton’s bats.The removal of waterside trees and disturbance to hibernation sites could also lead to a decline in this species.
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Status

In Great Britain, all bats are fully protected under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981) as amended, and by the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations (1994). An agreement on the Conservation of Bats in Europe (EUROBATS) under the auspices of the Bonn Convention, also known as the Convention on Migratory species (CMS) is in force, and all European bats are listed under Appendix II of the CMS (4).
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Population

Population
One of the most abundant bats in many parts of its range, and the only European bat species for which continuing population increase from the 1950s to present has been recorded. A very common species in central and eastern Europe including the Balkans, and in northern Asia. In Mongolia it is known to have a wide distribution and is commonly found. In Turkey it appears to be rare as there are only 4 known records (A. Karatas pers. comm. 2007).

Population Trend
Increasing
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species overall. Changes in water quality may reduce food supply, and loss of or damage and disturbance to roost sites in trees, buildings, other artificial structures, and underground habitats may cause temporary localised losses. However, these are not thought to be serious threats to the survival of this abundant and expanding species.
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Removal of waterside trees and disturbance of hibernacula (sites of hibernation) could pose problems for this species. However, it seems that Daubenton's bat is increasing in some parts of its range, possibly as a result of the increase in artificial water bodies (5).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is protected by national legislation in most range states. There are also international legal obligations for its protection through the Bonn Convention (Eurobats) and Bern Convention in parts of its range where these apply. It is included in Annex IV of EU Habitats and Species Directive, and there is some habitat protection through Natura 2000. Its range includes several protected areas.
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Conservation

In Britain, bats benefit from a very comprehensive level of legal protection (4). Under the Wildlife and Countryside Act it is illegal to intentionally kill, injure, take or sell a bat, posses a live bat or part of a bat, to intentionally (or in England and Wales, recklessly) damage, obstruct or destroy access to bat roosts. Under the Conservation Regulations it is an offence to damage or destroy breeding sites or resting places. Fines of up to £5,000 for every bat affected and up to six months imprisonment are in place for these offences (3).
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Wikipedia

Daubenton's bat

Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii), is a Eurasian bat with quite short ears. It ranges from Britain to Japan (Hokkaido) and is considered to be increasing its numbers in many areas.

The name commemorates the French naturalist Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton.

Description[edit]

Daubenton's bat is a medium-sized to small species. The bat's fluffy fur is brownish-grey on the back and silvery-grey on the underside. Juveniles have darker fur than adults. The bats have reddish-pink faces and noses, but the area around the eyes is bare. When the bat is agitated, the ears are held at right angles. The wings and tail membrane are dark brown.

Daubenton's bat is typically 45 to 55 mm long, with an average wingspan of 240 to 275 mm, and weighs between 7 and 15 g.

Lifespan[edit]

Daubenton's bats can live for up to 22 years.

Habitat[edit]

Daubenton's bat is found throughout Britain and Ireland, Europe, and as far as Japan and Korea. The bat is mostly found in woodlands and always chooses roosts close to water sources such as rivers or canals.

Summer colonies are formed in underground caves, tunnels, cellars, mines, and underneath bridges. These colonies are also always near water. Daubenton's bat also hibernates in the same type of locations from September to late March or April.

Hunting and diet[edit]

Daubenton's bat is insectivorous and uses echolocation to find prey and orient itself at night. Bats emit sounds too high in frequency for humans to detect and interpret the echoes created to build a "sound picture" of their surroundings. Daubenton's bat emits echolocation calls of frequencies between 32 and 85 kHz, though typical calls peak at 45 to 50 kHz and have a duration of 3.3 ms.[2][3]

The bats emerge at twilight to hunt for insects over the water. Their main diets consist of small flies, midges, mayflies, and moths. Daubenton's bat often eats its prey while still in flight. A seven-gram Daubenton's bat often returns weighing 11 grams after a one hour feeding, increasing its body weight by 57%.

Breeding[edit]

Mating occurs in autumn and fertilisation takes place the following spring. Females gather in maternity colonies of 40 to 80 bats during June and July. Daubenton's bat is able to fly three weeks after birth and reaches independence at 6 to 8 wk of age.

Conservation[edit]

All bats in Britain are protected under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981. The bats are also protected by the Conservation Regulations of 1994.

Daubenton's bat is an endangered species in Germany and Austria.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chiroptera Specialist Group (1996). Myotis daubentonii. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 10 May 2006.
  2. ^ Parsons, S. and Jones, G. (2000) 'Acoustic identification of twelve species of echolocating bat by discriminant function analysis and artificial neural networks.' J Exp Biol., 203: 2641-2656.
  3. ^ Obrist, M.K., Boesch, R. and Flückiger, P.F. (2004) 'Variability in echolocation call design of 26 Swiss bat species: Consequences, limits and options for automated field identification with a synergic pattern recognition approach.' Mammalia., 68 (4): 307-32.
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Daubenton's Bat

Daubenton's Bat, Myotis daubentonii, is a Eurasian bat with quite short ears. It ranges from Britain to Japan (Hokkaido) and is considered to be increasing its numbers in many areas.

The name commemorates the French naturalist Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton.

Contents

Description

Daubenton's Bat is a medium sized to small species. The bat's fluffy fur is brownish grey on the back and silvery grey on the underside. Juveniles have darker fur than adults. The bats have reddish pink faces and noses, but the area around the eyes is bare. When the bat is agitated, the ears are held at right angles. The wings and tail membrane are dark brown.


Daubenton's Bat is typically 45 to 55 mm long, with an average wingspan of 240 to 275 mm. Daubenton's Bat weighs between 7 and 15 grams.

Lifespan

Daubenton's Bats can live for up to 22 years.

Habitat

The Daubenton's Bat is found throughout Britain, Europe, and as far as Japan and Korea. The bat is mostly found in woodlands and always chooses roosts close to water sources such as rivers or canals.

Summer colonies are formed in underground caves, tunnels, cellars, mines, and underneath bridges. These colonies are also always near water. Daubenton's Bat also hibernates in the same type of locations from September to late March or April.

Hunting and diet

Daubenton's Bat is insectivorous and uses echolocation to find prey and orientate itself at night. Bats emit sounds too high in frequency for humans to detect and interpret the echoes created to build a "sound picture" of their surroundings. Daubenton's Bat emits echolocation calls of frequencies between 32 and 85 kHz, though typical calls peak at 45 to 50 kHz and have a duration of 3.3 ms.[2][3]

The bats emerge at twilight to hunt for insects over the water. Their main diet consists of small flies, midges, mayflies, and moths. Daubenton's Bat often eats its prey while still in flight. A seven gram Daubenton's Bat often returns weighing 11 grams after a one hour feeding, increasing its body weight by 57%.

Breeding

Mating occurs in autumn and fertilisation takes place the following spring. Females gather in maternity colonies of 40 to 80 bats during June and July. Daubenton's Bat is able to fly three weeks after birth and reaches independence at 6 to 8 weeks of age.

Conservation

All bats in Britain are protected under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981. The bats are also protected by the Conservation Regulations of 1994.

Daubenton's Bat is an endangered species in Germany and Austria.

References

  1. ^ Chiroptera Specialist Group (1996). Myotis daubentonii. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 10 May 2006.
  2. ^ Parsons, S. and Jones, G. (2000) 'Acoustic identification of twelve species of echolocating bat by discriminant function analysis and artificial neural networks.' J Exp Biol., 203: 2641-2656.
  3. ^ Obrist, M.K., Boesch, R. and Flückiger, P.F. (2004) 'Variability in echolocation call design of 26 Swiss bat species: Consequences, limits and options for automated field identification with a synergic pattern recognition approach.' Mammalia., 68 (4): 307-32.
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