The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Arnett, R.H., Thomas M.C., Skelley P.E., Frank J.H. 2002. American Beetles, Polyphaga: Scarabide1a Through Curculionidae. New York, NY: CRC Press LLC.
  • Bernett, A. 2008. The genus Eleodes Eschscholtz (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) of eastern Colorado. Journal of the Kansas Entomology Society.81, 377-391.
  • McAtee, W.L. 1932. Effectiveness in nature of the so-called protective adaptions in the animal kingdom, chiefly as illustrated by the food habits of Nearctic birds. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 85, 1-201.
  • O’Toole C. ed. 1986. The Encyclopedia of Insects. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc.
  • Slobodchikoff C.N. 1978. Experimental studies of Tenebrionid beetle predation by skunks. Behaviour. 66, 313-322
  • Smith A, Dornburg R, Wheeler Q (2014) Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars ZooKeys 415: 217–268   10.3897/zookeys.415.5887 External link.
  • Triplehorn, C.A., Johnson N.F. 2005. Borror and Delong’s Introduction to the Study of Insects: 7th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomas Learning.
  • Zool. Atlas, 3, 8.


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