The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • Arita, H. T. 1990. Noseleaf Morphology and Ecological Correlates in Phyllostomid Bats. Journal of Mammalogy 71:36-47.
  • Brooke, A. P. 1986. Habitat use and social behaviour of the tent-bat Ectophylla alba. Bat Research News 27:33.
  • Brooke, A. P. 1990. Tent selection, roosting ecology and social organization of the tent-making bat Ectophylla alba in Costa Rica. Journal of Zoology 221:11-19.

    Brooke, A.P.. 1990. Tent selection, roosting ecology and social organization of the tent-making bat, Ectophylla alba in Costa Rica. J. Zoo. Lond. 221: 11-19.

    Casebeer, R.S., R. Linsky & C. Nelson. 1963. The phyllostomid bats, Ectophylla alba and Vampyrum spectrum in Costa Rica. Journal of Mammalogy 44(2): 186-189

    Chaves, A. 1988. Inventario Biológico de la Zona Norte. Informe Final, Consultoría realizada para el Centro Agronómico Cantonal de Upala. Organización para Estudios Tropicales. San José, Costa Rica. 180 p.

    Chinchilla, F. 1992. Informe de campo: Mamíferos. s.d..

    Corbet, G.B. & J.E. Hill. 1991. A world list of mammalian species. Oxford University, London, England. 243 p..
  • Gardner, A.L., R. LaVal & D.E. Wilson. 1970. The distributional status of some Costa Rican bats. Journal of Mammalogy 51(4): 712-724.

    Goodwin, G.C.. 1946. Mammals of Costa Rica. Bulletin of The American Museum of Natural History 87(5): 271-473

    Hall, E.R..1981. Mammals of North America. Vols. 1 and 2. John Wiley, New York. 1175 p.

    Hilje, L.. 1976. Relación entre las dimensiones de las extremidades y el tipo de alimentación en murciélagos. Brenesia (9): 41-50.

    Kunz, T., Fujita, M, Brooke, A. & G. McCracken. 1994. Convergence in tent architecture and tent-making behavior among neotropical and paleotropical bats. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 2(1): 57-78.

    LaVal, R. 1977. Notes on some Costa Rican bats. Brenesia 10-11: 77-83

    Nowak, R.M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. Fifth Edition. The John Hopkins University. Baltimore. 1362 p.

    Reid, F.. 1997. A FIELD GUIDE TO THE MAMMALS OF CENTRAL AMERICA & SOUTHEAST MEXICO. Oxford University Press, New York. 334 p.

    Universidad de Costa Rica. s.f.. Catálogo de Mamíferos. Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica. s.d..

    Timm, R. 1982. Ectophylla alba. Mammalian Species 166: 1-4

    Timm, R. & J. Mortimer. 1976. Selection of roost sites by Honduran white bats, Ectophylla alba (Chiroptera: Phyllostomatidae). Ecology 57: 385- 389.

    Timm, R., D. E. Wilson, B.Clauson, R. LaVal & C. Vaughan. 1989. Mammals of the La Selva-Braulio Carrillo complex, Costa Rica. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S.A.. North American Fauna 75. 162.. p

    Wilson, D.E. 1983. Checklist of Mammals. Pp. 443-448, In: D.H. Janzen (ed.). Costa Rican Natural History. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.

    Wilson, D.E. & D.M. Reeder (eds.). 1993. Mammals Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second Edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. 1.206 p.

  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Koopman, K. F. 1994. Chiroptera: J. Niethammer, H. Schliemann, and D. Starck, editors. Handbook of Zoology. Volume 8 Mammalia, Berlin and New York.
  • Kunz, Thomas H. 1994. Bats: Volume 12, No 1., Spring. Bat Conservation International.
  • Kurta, A., and T. H. Kunz. 1987. Size of bats at birth and maternal investment during pregnancy. Symposia of the Zoological Society London 57:79-106.
  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. 5 edition. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London.
  • Nowak, Ronald M., and Paradiso, John L. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, 4th Edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Timm, R. M. 1982. Ectophylla alba. Mammalian Species 166:1-4.
  • Timm, Robert M. 1982. Mammalian Species. Species account number 166: Ectophylla alba. The American Society of Mammalogists.
  • Wilkinson, G. S., and G. F. McCracken. 2003. Bats and balls: sexual selection and sperm competition in the Chiroptera. Pages 128-155 in T. H. Kunz and M. B. Fenton, editors. Bat ecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204


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