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Overview

Brief Summary

Description

"Eastern Moles have the widest distribution of any North American mole, and are common throughout most of the eastern United States where soils are favorable. They prefer moist loamy or sandy soils and are scarce or absent in heavy clay, stony, or gravelly soils. They avoid areas that are too wet or too dry. Well-adapted to a fossorial (underground) life, the eastern mole has short, fine fur that can lie flat facing forward or backward, depending on whether the animal is moving forward or backward through a tunnel. Its eyes are covered by skin, there are no external ears; and the mole's body is streamlined and powerful, equipped with broad side-facing hands for digging."

Adaptation: The eastern mole, Scalopus aquaticus, is a highly specialized digger. A flattened head makes pushing through soil easier. The breastbone, on the underside of the ribcage, is shaped like a keel, to anchor the powerful muscles that drive the digging arms. The stocky, short arm bones and the enormous, clawed hand extend open and fold back like the powerful booms and shovel of a dirt-moving backhoe.

Links:
Mammal Species of the World
Click here for The American Society of Mammalogists species account
  • Original description: Linnaeus, C., 1758.  Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tenth Edition, Vol. 1, p. 53.  Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, 824 pp.
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Distribution

Scalopus aquaticus is found from southeastern Wyoming, South Dakota, and central Texas east to Michigan, Massachusetts, and New England, south to the tip of Florida, and north to Ontario. Small relict populations are found in southwestern Texas and in northwestern Mexico.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

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Range Description

This species has the widest range of any North American mole, and is found from the southern tip of Ontario Canada, southern South Dakota to eastern Massachusetts, in the United States, south to the tip of Florida and northern Tamaulipas, Mexico (Wilson and Ruff, 1999). Its distribution, however, is patchy (Wilson and Ruff, 1999). Colonies in southwestern Texas and Coahuila and Tamaulipas, Mexico are isolated and small (Nowak, 1999).
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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Throughout much of eastern U.S. from Massachusetts, southern New York, extreme southwestern Ontario (see Macaulay, 1980 COSEWIC report), southern Minnesota, and Nebraska, south to northern Tamaulipas, northern Coahuila, eastern Texas, and Florida.

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Geographic Range

Eastern moles are only native to the Nearctic region. They are found from southeastern Wyoming, South Dakota, and central Texas east to Michigan, Massachusetts, and New England, south to the tip of Florida, and north to Ontario. Small relict populations are found in southwestern Texas and in northwestern Mexico.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

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Physical Description

Morphology

Head and body length in Scalopus aquaticus ranges from 110 to 170mm. Tail length ranges from 18 to 36mm. This size variation occurs on a gradient with the largest animals in the northeast and the smallest in the southwest. The robust body is covered with a thick velvety fur of a color that varies from silver to black to copper. The short tail is round, almost hairless, and indistinctly scaly. The feet are scantily haired above, naked below, and quite large. The webbing between the toes of each foot aids in digging. These moles have no external eyes or ears. It is thought that the poorly developed eye may be effective in detecting light.

Range mass: 32.0 to 140.0 g.

Average mass: 74.6 g.

Range length: 110.0 to 170.0 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.378 W.

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Physical Description

Head and body length in eastern moles ranges from 110 to 170mm. Tail length ranges from 18 to 36mm. Northern populations are larger than southern and southwestern populations and males are larger than females. Their robust body is covered with a thick velvety fur that varies from silver to black to copper. Their hair is hinged so that it can go forwards and backwards without problem, this is important because they have to be able to move in both directions in their tunnels. The short tail is round, almost hairless, and has scales. The feet have a little hair above, are naked below, and are quite large. The webbing between the toes of each foot aids in digging. These moles have no external eyes or ears. It is thought that their poorly developed eyes may still be able to detect light.

Range mass: 32.0 to 140.0 g.

Average mass: 74.6 g.

Range length: 110.0 to 170.0 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.378 W.

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Size

Length: 22 cm

Weight: 140 grams

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Size in North America

Sexual Dimorphism: Males are larger than females.

Length:
Average: 151 mm males; 149 mm females
Range: 103-208 mm males; 129-168 mm females

Weight:
Average: 90 g males; 70 g females
Range: 40-140 g males; 32-90 g females
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Ecology

Habitat

The eastern mole prefers fields, meadows, pastures, and open woodland. It is not found in stony or gravelly soils or in clay but frequents moist, sandy, and loamy soils.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits well-drained soil in fields, meadows, pastures and open woodlands (Nowak, 1999). It prefers moist loamy or sandy soils and avoids soils that are too wet or clayey (Wilson and Ruff, 1999). In some marginal areas, human activities such as the building of roads and golf courses often provide beneficial habitat due to higher quality soils and adequate moisture (Wilson and Ruff, 1999).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Most commonly occurs in open areas with moist soils, such as lawns, meadows, and golf courses. Bottomland wooded areas also are utilized. Soft humid soils are preferred over gravelly, dry soils. Two types of underground passageways: near-surface and deep. Surface are commonly seen with their raised ridges. Deep (10-24") provide wintering/breeding areas. Den sites often are located under protection of a surface object.

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Eastern moles prefer fields, meadows, pastures, and open woodland. They are not found in stony or gravelly soils or in clay, instead they prefer moist, sandy, and loamy soils that are neither too wet nor too dry.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Scalopus aquaticus eats primarily earthworms. It also eats insects and their larvae, some vegetation, and, in captivity, ground beef, dog food, mice, and small birds. Each day this mole eats 25 to 100% of its own weight in food.

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats non-insect arthropods)

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Comments: Soil invertebrates, especially earthworms and insect larvae. Some plant matter. Food obtained in surface tunnels. Can be maintained in captivity on canned dog food.

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Food Habits

Eastern moles eat primarily Oligochaeta. They also eat Insecta and their larvae, some vegetation, and, in captivity, ground beef, dog food, mice, and small birds. Each day this mole eats 25% to 100% of its own weight in food, that's like you eating from 1 to 5 twenty pound hamburgers!

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Associations

Eastern moles are important predators of insect larvae and other invertebrates, they can profoundly impact the communities of their prey. They also act to aerate and turn soil where they live through their extensive tunneling activities.

Ecosystem Impact: soil aeration

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Eastern moles spend 99% of their time in their underground tunnels, there are few predators that can find and catch them there.

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Ecosystem Roles

Eastern moles are important predators of insect larvae and other invertebrates, they can profoundly impact the communities of their prey. They also act to aerate and turn soil where they live through their extensive tunneling activities.

Ecosystem Impact: soil aeration

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Predation

Eastern moles spend 99% of their time in their underground tunnels, there are few predators that can find and catch them there.

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Known prey organisms

Scalopus aquaticus preys on:
non-insect arthropods

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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General Ecology

Home range varies from 0.5-4.5 acres (Schwartz and Schwartz 1981); home range of male larger than that of female. In summer, densities may reach three individuals per acre. Generally solitary, except when males seek females for breeding.

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Although eastern moles have no vision, they may be able to detect the presence or absence of light. Their ears are also covered by a layer of skin but they may be able to detect sounds and vibrations. Eastern moles probably find their way around and detect prey by their acute senses of smell and touch.

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Communication and Perception

Although eastern moles have no vision, they may be able to detect the presence or absence of light. Their ears are also covered by a layer of skin but they may be able to detect sounds and vibrations. Eastern moles probably find their way around and detect prey by their acute senses of smell and touch.

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Cyclicity

Comments: Active day and night, especially 0200-1600 h and 2300-0400 h (Harvey 1976). About 40% of the time is spent sleeping (van Zyll de Jong 1983). Active all year.

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Life Expectancy

One captive animal lived longer than 36 months. In the wild it is likely that eastern moles live for less than this.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
3.0 years.

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Lifespan/Longevity

One captive animal lived longer than 36 months. In the wild it is likely that eastern moles live for less than this.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
3.0 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Observations: It has been estimated that these animals live up to 3 years in the wild (Bernhard Grzimek 1990). Without more detailed studies, however, their maximum longevity must be classified as unknown.
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Reproduction

Breeding and parturition occur once a year in Scalpous aquaticus. Breeding takes place in late March and early April in most of this mole's range, but the season begins in January in the south. Estimates of gestation length range from four weeks to 45 days. Litters usually contain two to five young. The young are independent in one month and are sexually mature by the next breeding season. One captive animal lived longer than 36 months.

Range number of offspring: 2.0 to 5.0.

Range gestation period: 45.0 (high) days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1.0 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1.0 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); viviparous

Average birth mass: 5.355 g.

Average number of offspring: 3.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)

Sex: male:
335 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
335 days.

Young eastern moles are cared for and nursed by their mother in her nest and tunnel system until they are weaned. They continue to share her tunnel system until they are able to forage on their own, when they leave and establish their own tunnel systems.

Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care

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Breeding season: March-April. Gestation last 42-45 days. Litter size is 2-5; 1 litter per year. Sexually mature within 1 year. Few live more than 4 years (Davis and Choate, 1993, J. Mamm. 74:1014-1025).

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Breeding occurs once a year. Throughout most of their range eastern moles breed in late March and early April, in the southernmost areas they begin to breed in January. Length of pregnancy is unknown but is probably between 28 and 45 days long. Litters usually contain two to five young. The young are independent in one month and fully grown by the next breeding season.

Range number of offspring: 2.0 to 5.0.

Range gestation period: 45.0 (high) days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1.0 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1.0 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); viviparous

Average birth mass: 5.355 g.

Average number of offspring: 3.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)

Sex: male:
335 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
335 days.

Young eastern moles are cared for and nursed by their mother in her nest and tunnel system until they are weaned. They continue to share her tunnel system until they are able to forage on their own, when they leave and establish their own tunnel systems.

Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Scalopus aquaticus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

The eastern mole is not endangered but has suffered persecution by avid gardeners and farmers who are displeased by the mounds of earth left behind and by the root damage caused by this animal.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Matson, J., Woodman, N., Castro-Arellano, I. & de Grammont, P.C.

Reviewer/s
Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Chanson, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern because of its wide distribution, presumed large population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, tolerance to some degree of habitat modification, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Eastern moles are not endangered but have suffered persecution by gardeners and farmers who are displeased by the mounds of earth left behind and by the root damage caused by this animal.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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Population

Population
This species is common in most of the United States. Populations in southern Texas and Mexico are considered extremely rare and possibly extinct (Wilson and Ruff, 1999).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It occurs in numerous protected areas throughout its range.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

The eastern mole damages pastures and gardens by digging and injuring bulbs and root masses.

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As an insectivore, this animal eats the larvae of many insect pests. It also helps to aerate and turn over the soil.

Positive Impacts: controls pest population

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Economic Uses

Comments: Regarded as a pest in lawns and golf courses by some intolerant persons; may damage crop seedlings.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Eastern moles damage pastures and gardens by digging and injuring bulbs and root masses.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

As insectivores, these animals eat the larvae of many insect pests. They also help to aerate and turn over the soil.

Positive Impacts: controls pest population

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Wikipedia

Eastern mole

The eastern mole or common mole (Scalopus aquaticus) is a medium-sized, overall grey North American mole and the only member of the genus Scalopus. Its large, hairless, spade-shaped forefeet are adapted for digging. The species is native to Canada (Ontario), Mexico, and the eastern United States, and has the widest range of any North American mole.

The species prefers the loamy soils found in thin woods, fields, pastures, and meadows, and builds both deep and shallow burrows characterized by discarded excess soil collected in molehills. Its nest is composed of leaves and grasses, and its two to five young are on their own at about four weeks. Its diet consists principally of earthworms and other soil life, but the mole will eat vegetable matter.

Dogs, cats, foxes, and coyotes prey upon the mole, and the species hosts a variety of parasites. Unlike gophers, moles do not eat vegetation and pose no threat to human concerns; the occasional damage to lawns is offset by the aeration provided the soil and consumption of insects. The construction of golf courses has provided the mole with ideal habitat. The species is abundant, occurs in protected areas, faces no major threats and is of little concern to conservationists.

Description[edit]

The eastern mole is a small, sturdy animal which lives principally underground and is highly specialized for a subterranean way of life. Its body is somewhat cylindrically shaped with an elongated head. A fleshy, moveable snout projecting over the mouth with nostrils on the upper part is used as an organ of touch. The minute, degenerative eyes are hidden in the fur; the eyelids are fused and sight is limited to simply distinguishing between light and dark. The ear opening is small and concealed in the fur, but hearing is fairly acute. A short, thick tail is lightly furred and is used as an organ of touch, guiding the mole when it moves backward in the tunnel.[3]

The very large front feet are broader rather than long with well-developed claws, and possess a specialized sesamoid bone attached to the wrist that aids digging. The front feet are normally held in a vertical position with the palms facing outward. Both the front feet and the small hind feet are fringed with sensory hairs that help the mole in its excavations. The bones of the front limbs and the breast are hugely enlarged, and provide strong support for the attached muscles used in digging. The hip girdle is narrow, permitting the mole to turn around in its tunnel by doing a partial somersault or doubling back upon itself.[3]

The mole has grey-brown, plush like fur with paler or browner underparts, and may appear to have a silver sheen depending on the angle it is viewed. The fur offers little resistance to backward movement in the tunnel. Compared to the female, the male tends to have a brighter orange strip on the belly being caused by secretion of skin glands in the region. Albinos occur but these may appear white, orange, or cinnamon yellow depending on the skin gland secretion. The face, feet, and tail are whitish to pink. Molting occurs in the spring and fall with the new pelage appearing first on the underparts. On the back, the new fur appears first at the tail then works forward. A distinct line usually marks the old and new fur, and there is no distinct underfur. The hairs are of equal length, and, when viewed microscopically, are seen to possess a whip-like tip unlike the hairs of any other mammal.[3]

The sexes are determined externally by the number of openings in the groin area: the female has three – the forward one is the urinary opening (in the urinary papilla or projection), the second is the vagina, and the third is the anus at the tail. The male has two openings – the combined urinary/reproductive opening in the penis, and the anus. The testes never descend into a scrotum but remain within the body cavity. There are six teats on the belly – a pair at the chest, a pair at the groin, and a pair between the two. A rank, musky odor is emitted from a scent gland on the belly, and is left on the floor of the tunnel as the mole passes. It probably serves as a form of communication between the sexes during the breeding season, and to discourage predators. Other scent glands are found at the anus.[3]

Measurements[edit]

The mole is about 16 cm (6.3 in) in length including a 3 cm long tail and weighs about 75 g (2.6 oz).[4] Males collected from various parts of the species' range showed the following extremes in measurements: total length 152–184mm, tail 22–30mm, hind foot 18–21 mm, and females displayed extremes of: total length 144-16 mm, tail 15–28 mm, hind foot 18–21 mm, weight 40–50 grams. Males are larger than females and males collected in the northern Midwest were largest of all. Twelve adults from northeastern Florida averaged: total length 142, tail 24.5, hind foot 17.8 mm. In Hillsborough and Pasco Counties in Florida, the eastern mole is still smaller, and in the area north of Tampa Bay, total length does not exceed 140 mm, and the hind foot rarely exceeds 17 mm. The smallest and darkest moles are those found in the Miami area. In Pennsylvania, specimens range in weight from 40 to 64 grams. The tooth count numbers 36 (I3/2; C1/0; P3/3; M3/3), and the chromosome diploid number is 34.[4]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Eastern mole range

The eastern mole is native to Canada (Ontario), Mexico, and the United States, and has the widest range of any North American mole. In the United States, the species is found from southern South Dakota and southern Wisconsin to eastern Massachusetts and south to the tip of Florida and Louisiana and west to Nebraska, Kansas, and central Texas. It is absent from the Appalachian Mountains, most of Canada, and Northern New England.[2][4]

The species is found in the southern tip of Ontario, and northern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Its distribution, however, is patchy. Colonies in southwestern Texas and Coahuila, Mexico and Tamaulipas, Mexico are isolated and small.[2]

The species prefers well-drained, loose, sandy or loamy soil, and avoids heavy clay, stony or gravelly soils, and very dry or very wet soils. It frequents pastures, open fields, meadows, and thin woods.[4] In some marginal areas, human activities such as the building of roads and golf courses often provide beneficial habitat due to higher quality soils and adequate moisture.[2]

Population characteristics[edit]

In a study from 1976, home range areas of seven moles were calculated after each had been located periodically during periods ranging from 11 months to 3 years. The mean home range area was 0.74 hectares (1.8 acres); males averaged 1.09 hectares (2.7 acres), and females 0.28 hectares (0.69 acre).[5] Because the male range is so large, males generally predominate in samples. The species' fossorial habit tends to limit its dispersal and gene flow, and soil character often limits populations. Eastern moles are good swimmers and not limited by rivers, but heavy clay soils associated with some waterways may limit dispersal.[4]

Moles probably have a long life span due to a paucity of predators and a low reproductive rate. The young are grayer than the adults, and, with age, the skull flattens and the teeth display wear. Females live longer than males.[3] Longevity has been estimated at 6 years with mark-recapture methods in South Carolina. In Kansas, longevity was estimated at greater than 3.5 years.[4] The eastern mole is common in most of the United States, but populations in southern Texas and Mexico are considered extremely rare and possibly extinct.[2]

Behavior[edit]

The species is more abundant in warm climes rather than cool or cold climes, and in the southern United States, cultivated fields will often be riddled with their burrows after a penetrating rain. The eastern mole is active at all hours, with peaks in activity near dawn and at dusk. The length of time between bouts of activity averages about three hours, but may last up to 6.5 h.[4]

Diet[edit]

Common earthworm

The eastern mole is voracious and will daily consume food equal to 25 to 100% of its weight. In captivity, it will eat almost anything, including ground beef and dog food.[6] In its natural environment, the species principally feeds on earthworms when these are available, but will eat many other foods, including slugs, snails, centipedes, larval and adult insects, scarab beetle grubs, and ants at all their life stages. Vegetable matter is consumed in great quantities and Indiana specimens collected in 1974 were found to have stomachs completely filled with grass seeds.[4]

Burrowing[edit]

The eastern mole digs both deep, permanent burrows and shallow, temporary ones just under the surface, used for foraging. The regular, permanent highway is often built 25 cm or more below the surface and is used as a retreat during hot, dry weather or when frost has descended.[4] The oxygen levels in the tunnels can be as low as 14.3%, and carbon dioxide as high as 5.5%.[7]

Molehill

When digging new burrows, the mole will push excess soil up through vertical shafts called "molehills". New burrows just below the surface are marked by ridges and molehills, and such burrows appear to be used to facilitate the capture of earthworms and other soil life after a rain. In building burrows and probably at other times, the mole uses its nose as a tactile organ, poking about here and there. In friable soil, the species can burrow at a rate of 6 m/h.[4]

The mole's nest is built of leaves and grasses, and is usually situated several inches to a foot or more below the surface. It is typically found beneath a boulder, stump, or bush, and has several approaches, including one that enters from below. The eastern mole in Florida is reported to not build a nest.[4]

Vocalizations[edit]

Moles vocalize by making high-pitched squeals, harsh, guttural squeaks, short snorting sounds, and grating the teeth.[3]

Reproduction[edit]

Gestation is usually 45 days and a single litter of two to five young is produced between mid-April and June. In warm climates, the young may be born in March. They are born blind and naked, and are relatively large compared to the size of the mother. At 10 days, they exhibit a fine, velvety light-gray fur which is retained for several weeks. Rapid growth permits the young to leave the nest and shift for themselves at about four weeks.[4]

Survival[edit]

Dogs, cats, foxes, and coyotes are some of the predators of the species. The eastern mole harbors many parasites. One hundred four moles taken in Indiana exhibited four species of fleas, one species of sucking louse, one species of beetle, and at least 20 species of mites, several of them entirely new species, with one of them, Scalopacarus, constituting a new genus.[4]

Scientific and common names[edit]

Linnaeus based the original description of the species upon a specimen found dead in the water, a fact noted on the collection label. He named the species aquaticus, certainly a misnomer because the species is the least aquatic of North American moles.[4]

The first part of the scientific name, Scalopus, is from two Greek words which mean "digging" and "foot" (skalops, "mole", derived from the word "to dig" and pous, "foot"). The word refers to the species' large front feet which are used for digging.[3]

The second word of the name, aquaticus, is Latin and means "found in water". The word is misleading but was given to the species because its webbed foot suggested it was accustomed to a water habitat, and the original specimen was found dead in water.[3]

The first part of the common name, "eastern", refers to the species' range, and the second part, "mole" is from the Middle English molle which in turn is related to another Middle English word, mold-warpe, which means "earth-thrower".[3]

Fossils[edit]

Fossil remains have been reported from the upper Ohio Valley in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and Pleistocene cave faunas in Texas.[6]

Interaction with humans and conservation[edit]

Cutworm

Moles till and form soil, feed on destructive insects such as cutworms and Japanese beetles, and dig tunnels that aerate the soil and permit moisture to penetrate deeper soil layers. The pelt is small and does not take dyes well; it is thus of no commercial interest to the fur industry. When moles disfigure lawns, damage the roots of garden plants while searching for food, or take sprouting corn, they are considered undesirable.[3] In one anecdote, a homeowner reported the animal completely eradicated the Japanese beetles on his grounds.[4]

The species is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List because of its wide distribution, presumed large population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, tolerance to some degree of habitat modification, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hutterer, R. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 301–302. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Matson, J., Woodman, N., Castro-Arellano, I. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). "Scalopus aquaticus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Schwartz, Charles Walsh, and Elizabeth Reeder Schwartz (2001). The Wild Mammals of Missouri. University of Missouri Press. pp. 48ff. ISBN 0-8262-1359-6. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Whitaker, John O., Jr. and William J. Hamilton, Jr. (1998). Mammals of the Eastern United States. Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press. pp. 66–69. ISBN 0-8014-3475-0. 
  5. ^ Harvey, Michael J. (April 1976). "Home range, movements, and diel activity of the eastern mole, Scalopus aquaticus". American Midland Naturalist 95 (2): 436–45. doi:10.2307/2424406. JSTOR 2424406. 
  6. ^ a b Yates, Terry L., and David J. Schmidly (21 September 1978). "Scalopus aquaticus". Mammalian Species (American Society of Mammalogists) (104): 1–4. 
  7. ^ How Moles Survive Subterranean Life
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Subspecies inflatus, montanus, and aereus have been regarded as full species by some authors, but Jones et al. (1992), Hutterer (in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005), and most other authors have treated Scalopus as a monotypic genus.

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