The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • Aderounmu, E. A. 1973. Parasites of the straw-coloured fruit-bat at the University of Ife. The Nigerian Field:138-141.
  • Anderson, K. 1907. On Pterocyon, Rousettus and Myonycteris. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Zoology, Botany and Geology 6:621-625.
  • Baron, G., H. Stephan, and H. D. Frahm. 1996. Comparative Neurobiology in Chiroptera. Volume 1. Macromorphology, brain structures, tables and atlases. Birkhauser Verlag., Basal.
  • Bergmans, W. 1979. Taxonomy and zoogeography of the fruit bats of the People's Republic of Congo with notes on their reproductive biology (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 48:161-186.
  • Bergmans, W. 1990. Taxonomy and Biogeography of African Fruit Bats (Mammalia, Megachiroptera) 3. The Genera Scotonycteris Matschie 1894, Casinycteris Thomas 1910, Pteropus Brisson 1762 and Eidolon Rafinesque 1815. Beaufortia 40:111-177.
  • Bergmans, W., L. Bellier, and J. Vissault. 1974. A taxonomical report on a colection of Megachiroptera (Mammalia) from the Ivory Coast. Revue Zoologique africaines 88:18-48.
  • Bhatnagar, K. P., H. D. Frahm, and H. Stephan. 1990. The megachiropteran pineal organ: a comparative morphological and volumetric invesigation with special emphasis on the remarkably large pineal of Dobsonia praedatrix. Journal of Anat.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Defrees, S. L., and D. E. Wilson. 1988. Eidolon helvum. Mammalian Species 312:1-5.
  • Emmons, L. H., A. Gautierhion, and G. Dubost. 1983. Community Structure of the Frugivorous Folivorous Forest Mammals of Gabon. Journal of Zoology 199:209-222.
  • Fayenuwo, J. O., and L. B. Halstead. 1974. Breeding cycle of the straw colured fruit bat, Eidolon helvum at Ife-Ife, Nigeria. Journal of Mammalogy 55:453-454.
  • Funmilayo, O. 1979. Ecology of the straw-coloured fruit bat in Nigeria. Review of Zoology Africaines 93:589-600.
  • Happold, D.C.D., 1987. The Mammals of Nigeria. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Harrison, D. L., and P. J. J. Bates. 1991. The mammals of Arabia. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Heideman, P. D., and L. R. Heaney. 1989. Population biology and estimates of abundance of fruit bats (Pteropodidae) in Philippine submontane rainforest. Journal of Zoology 218:565-586.
  • Hosken, D. J. 1998. Testes mass in megachiropteran bats varies in accordance with sperm competition theory. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 44:169-177.
  • Jones, C. 1972. Comparative ecology of three Pteropid bats in Rio Muni, West Africa. Journal of Zoology 167:353-370.
  • Jurgens, K. D., and J. Prothero. 1987. Scaling of maximal lifespan in bats. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 88:361-367.
  • Koopman, K. F. 1994. Chiroptera: J. Niethammer, H. Schliemann, and D. Starck, editors. Handbook of Zoology. Volume 8 Mammalia, Berlin and New York.
  • McLellan, L. J. 1986. Notes on Bats of Sudan. American Museum Novitates 2839:1-12.
  • Mickleburgh, S. P., A. M. Hutson, and P. A. Racey. 1992. Old World Fruit Bats. An Action Plan for their Conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
  • Mutere, F. 1980. Eidolon Helvum Revisited. Pp. 145-150 in D Wilson, A Gardner, eds. Proceedings Fifth International Bat Research Conference. Lubbock, Texas, U.S.A.: Texas Tech Press.
  • Mutere, F. A. 1967. The breeding biology of equatorial vertebrates: reproduction in the fruit bat Eidolon helvum, at latitude 0,20N. Journal of Zoology 155:153-161.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Norberg, U. M., and J. M. V. Rayner. 1987. Ecological morphology and flight in bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera): wing adaptations, flight performance, foraging strategy and echolocation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 316:335-427.
  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. 5 edition. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London.
  • Nowak, Ronald M., 1997. "Straw-colored fruit bat" (On-line). Walker's Mammals of the World Online, Version 5.1. Accessed November 25, 2003 at
  • Okon, E. E. 1977. Functional anatomy of the alimentary canal in the fruit bat Eidolon helvum and insect bat Tadarida nigeriae. Acta Zoologica 58:83-93.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ronald Nowak (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Silva, M., and J. A. Downing. 1996. CRC Handbook of Mammalian Body Masses. CRC Press, New York, New York, USA.
  • Simmons, Nancy B. / Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Order Chiroptera. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 312-529
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Smithers, Reay H.N., 1983. The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. Pretoria: University of Pretoria Press.
  • Stephan, H., J. E. Nelson, and H. D. Frahm. 1981. Brain size comparison in Chiroptera. Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionforschung 19:195-222.
  • Wilkinson, G. S., and G. F. McCracken. 2003. Bats and balls: sexual selection and sperm competition in the Chiroptera. Pages 128-155 in T. H. Kunz and M. B. Fenton, editors. Bat ecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • Wolton, R. J., P. A. Arak, C. J. Godfray, and R. P. Wilson. 1982. Ecological and behavioural studies of the megachiropteran of Mount Nimba, Liberia and notes on microchiropterans. Mammalia 46:419-448.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!