The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • Baron, G., H. Stephan, and H. D. Frahm. 1996. Comparative Neurobiology in Chiroptera. Volume 1. Macromorphology, brain structures, tables and atlases. Birkhauser Verlag., Basal.
  • Bhatnagar, K. P., H. D. Frahm, and H. Stephan. 1990. The megachiropteran pineal organ: a comparative morphological and volumetric invesigation with special emphasis on the remarkably large pineal of Dobsonia praedatrix. Journal of Anat.
  • Dobson, George Edward. 1878. Chiroptera in the Collection of the British Museum. 567
  • Kitchener, D. J., and et al. 1990. Wild mammals of Lombok. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. supp no.33:\.
  • Koopman, K. F. 1994. Chiroptera: J. Niethammer, H. Schliemann, and D. Starck, editors. Handbook of Zoology. Volume 8 Mammalia, Berlin and New York.
  • Norberg, U. M., and J. M. V. Rayner. 1987. Ecological morphology and flight in bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera): wing adaptations, flight performance, foraging strategy and echolocation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 316:335-427.
  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. 5 edition. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Pirlot, P., and H. Stephan. 1970. Encephalization in Chiroptera. Canadian Journal of Zoology 48:433-444.
  • Simmons, Nancy B. / Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Order Chiroptera. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 312-529
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Stephan, H., J. E. Nelson, and H. D. Frahm. 1981. Brain size comparison in Chiroptera. Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionforschung 19:195-222.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World


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