Overview

Distribution

Range Description

In the south and west of its range it appears to have an unusual distribution. It is absent from the Jiparaná-Marmoré interfluvium (between the Rios Mamoré, Madeira and Jiparaná and Serra dos Pacaás Novos in the south), and from areas of terra firme forest south of Serra dos Pacaás Novos; as such, it is excluded from almost two-thirds of the state of Rondônia (Ferrari and Lopes 1992; Ferrari et al. 1999). Unexpectedly, it occurs further south in transitional, savanna-like forest (Ferrari et al. 1999), extending south as far as the east bank of the Rio Guaporé in extreme southern Rondônia, on the border with Bolivia (Wallace et al. 1996). Ferrari and colleagues (1999) suggest that ecological factors, rather than physical barriers, limit the distribution of Chiropotes albinasus in this area, possibly linked to competition with the region's other pitheciine species, Pithecia irrorata.
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Geographic Range

Chiropotes albinasus, the White-nosed Saki, is a primate found in Brazil, south of the Amazon river and between the Xingu and Madeira rivers.

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

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Historic Range:
Brazil

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

White-nosed Saki males weigh, on average, 3.1 kg (6.8 lbs), and females weigh 2.5 kg (5.5 lbs). Males are about 42 cm (17 in.) in total length, and females are 38 cm (15 in.) in total length. They have a dark, black coat and a red nose and upper lip which are both covered in white fur. White-nosed Sakis have a long, bushy tail, which they use for balance.

Range mass: 2 to 3 kg.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

  • Nowak, R. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World Fifth Edition, Volume 1. Baltimore and London pg. 453-457: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The preferred habitat is high terra firme forest; however, the species has been observed occasionally in fragmented areas and inundated forests (Ayres 1981; Wallace et al. 1996; Ferrari et al. 2003), and vegetation at the transition between forest and savanna (Ferrari et al. 1999).

This is a specialized seed predator and a highly frugivorous species, with as much as 90% of the diet composed of fruits (Ayres 1981; Pinto in press). In the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós (Flona Tapajós), immature seeds were the most important food item (48%), followed by mature fruit pulp (39%) and flowers (5%); matures seeds, immature pulp and invertebrates and other dietary items were eaten in smaller quantities. The most important plant families in the diet were Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Moraceae (Pinto in press.). In Aripuanã, Ayres (1981) observed groups with 19 to 26 individuals. A group studied in Flona Tapajós had 56 members and used an estimated area of 1,000 ha in an 11-month study (Pinto, 2008).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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White-nosed Sakis are often found in high forests, flooded forests and far from rivers mainly at the "crown' level of trees. Often sakis are found in dense and moist rainforests. Sakis never use the same sleeping tree for two consecutive nights. (Grizmek 1988; Flannery 2000; Grizmek 1977)

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

The daily diet of White-nosed Sakis is composed primarily of fruit, nuts, and insects. Daily diets vary from area to area and from season to season depending on the availability of different foods. White-nosed Sakis have well-developed teeth to crack nuts for food. They eat rapidly and, as they eat, they are on the lookout for more food. (Grzimek 1977; Nowak 1991; Flannery 2000)

Animal Foods: insects

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

Primary Diet: omnivore

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Average lifespan

Sex: female

Status: captivity:
11.7 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
17.0 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 20 years (captivity) Observations: In the wild, these animals may live more than 18 years (Ronald Nowak 1999). One wild born specimen was about 20 years old when it died in captivity. A hybrid between a bearded and a white-nosed saki lived 26.3 years (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Reproduction

White-nosed Sakis achieve sexual maturity at about the age of four. When in estrus a females' labia changes to bright red, and they walk with their tail raised so that males recognize their condition. White-nosed Sakis give birth to only one young per year. The majority of births occur between February and March and between August and September. Gestation period is about five months. At the age of three months young sakis begin to become more independent from their mothers. (Grzimek 1988; Nowak 1991; Flannery 2000)

Breeding interval: White-nosed sakis breed once per year.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average gestation period: 5 months.

Range time to independence: 3 (low) months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 4 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 4 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); viviparous

Average gestation period: 160 days.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
1460 days.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
A3cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Veiga, L.M., Pinto, L.P., Ferrari, S.F., Rylands, A.B., Mittermeier, R.A. & Boubli, J.-P.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered as there is reason to believe this species will decline by at least 50% over the coming 30 years (three generations) due mainly to the expanding agricultural frontier in this region, combined with the effects of hunting.

History
  • 2003
    Least Concern
  • 2003
    Least Concern
    (IUCN 2003)
  • 1994
    Vulnerable
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
  • 1982
    Vulnerable
    (Thornback and Jenkins 1982)
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Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Endangered
Date Listed: 06/02/1970
Lead Region: Foreign (Region 10) 
Where Listed: Brazil


Population detail:

Population location: Brazil
Listing status: E

For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Chiropotes albinasus , see its USFWS Species Profile

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White-nosed Sakis are an endangered species due to the destruction of their habitat.

(Grizmek 1988)

US Federal List: endangered

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

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Population

Population
This species occurs at low densities and appears to require large areas of continuous forest with high fruit productivity (Pinto and Setz 2005). From studies based on standardized line transects, population densities have been calculated for a number of areas (Table 1).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The Trans-Amazon highway bisects the range of this species from east to west and, perhaps more importantly, the Santarém-Cuiabá highway (BR-163) makes most of the Xingu-Tapajós interfluvium easily accessible from the south. In recent years, this highway has become the main channel of colonization for soybean planters migrating northwards from Mato Grosso, although for the time being, this threat is limited to a relatively small proportion of the species’ range. Soybean farms contribute directly to forest clearing, but also provide the economic and political impetus for the development of new roads and infrastructure projects which accelerate rates of deforestation by other actors (Fearnside 2007). Cattle ranching is also an important threat. The species is hunted for food and occasionally for its tail (for use as dusters).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in the Parque Nacional da Amazônia [Tapajós] (10,000 km²), and Floresta Nacional do Tapajós (Flona Tapajós).
It is listed on CITES Appendix I.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

There are no negative effects of White-nosed Sakis.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

White-nosed Sakis may be hunted for food in some areas.

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Wikipedia

White-nosed saki

The white-nosed saki, Chiropotes albinasus, is an endangered species of bearded saki, a type of New World monkey, endemic to the south-central Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Both its scientific and common name were caused by the authors working from specimens, where the skin on and around the nose fades to whitish.[3] In living individuals, it is actually bright pink (though with fine barely visible white hairs), and the pelage is black.[4] No other species of the genus Chiropotes have a brightly colored nose.[3]

References

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 146. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=12100357.
  2. ^ Veiga, L. M., Pinto, L. P., Ferrari, S. F., Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. & Boubli, J.-P. (2008). Chiropotes albinasus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
  3. ^ a b Emmons, L. H. (1997). Neotropical Rainforest Mammals (2nd edition ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-20719-6.
  4. ^ Photo of C. albinasus. Saxifraga.de. Accessed 2008-11-29
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