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Range DescriptionCentral Amazonia, Amazonas state, Brazil, south of the Rio Solimões in the interfluve delineated by the lower Rios Purús, Solimões and Madeira, south as far as the Rio Ipixuna (or Paranapixuna). Hershkovitz (1990) considered the species sympatric with Callicebus dubius, C. brunneus, and C. cupreus, based on, in his view, mislabeled specimens collected by the Olalla brothers in Boca Río Inuya, Iquitos, Río Orosa, Río Tapiche and Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, in the department of Loreto, Peru. Voss and Emmons (1996) note that Hershkovitz' report on the sympatry of two members of the moloch/cupreus Group (C. cupreus and C. caligatus) was an error caused by "inadvertently listing both original and revised identifications of the same series from Orosa among the specimens examined". The correct identification for the monkeys is Callicebus (cupreus) cupreus. Specimens collected by Peres (1993) along both banks of the Rio Juruá and deposited in the Muséu Goeldi, Belém, all were identified as Callicebus (cupreus) cupreus (van Roosmalen et al. 2002).
The geographic distribution for C. caligatus described above contradicts that given by Hershkovitz (1990), who fills in its actual distribution with C. dubius. Four specimens of C. caligatus were caught in July 2001 by locals along the north bank of Lago Jarí at the mouth of Igarapé Bacaba and released at the same place after being measured and photographed, and a complete skeleton with some hair found on the forest floor was collected (private collection no. MGMR55) on the north bank of Rio Ipixuna near its mouth, a few kilometers south of the town of Tapauá.