Overview

Distribution

Sportive lemurs, Lepilemur mustelinus, live in the deciduous forests of the East and West coasts of Madagascar (Macdonald, 1984; Grzimek, 1990).

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

  • Grzimek, 1990. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. McGraw-Hill, Inc..
  • Macdonald, D. 1984. Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford: Equinox.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

This species is found in eastern Madagascar, from the Onive and Mangoro rivers at least to the Maningory River (Mittermeier et al. 2010 and references therein). Additional survey work is required to determine the northern and southern extent of the distribution, particularly in light of discoveries of new species within the larger area in which it was previously thought to occur.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Sportive lemurs measure about 24 to 30 cm for head and body length, with a tail of about 22 to 29 cm. Typically, members of the genus weigh between 500 and 900 g. The tail is always shorter than the body, and the legs are always much longer than the arms. There are six recognized subspecies and fur coloration differs between populations. However, in general sportive lemurs are brown to grey on their backs and tails with a light to white underbelly. They have dense, woolly fur, and prominent ears. Their dental formula is 0/2, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3 = 32 (Macdonald, 1984).

Range mass: 500 to 900 g.

Range length: 24 to 30 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Sportive lemurs live in the deciduous, humid, and gallery forests of Madagascar. They sleep during the day in tree hollows or occasionally in nests in the open when there is little threat from predators (Macdonald, 1984; Richard, 1987).

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

  • Richard, A. 1987. Malagasy Prosimians: Female Dominance. Pp. 25-33 in D Cheney, R Seyfarth, B Smuts, T Struhsaker, R Wrangham, eds. Primate Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
An inhabitant of the eastern rainforests. Given the taxonomic confusion that exists between this species and other newly described species of Lepilemur, it is difficult to ascribe particular biological paramaters to one or the other forms with any certainty. The species seems to be out-competed by Avahi for leaves of high nutritional value, subsisting instead on leaves of lower nutritional value and eating foods with high levels of alkaloids (Mittermeier et al. 2010 and references therein).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

The diet of L. mustelinus is primarily leaves. However, these animals also eat fruit, flowers, and bark. Sportive lemurs may not be capable of completely digesting this folivorous diet and they have been known to eat their own feces, perhaps in order to extract more nutrients from the food on its second journey through their digestive tract. Sportive lemurs do not pick leaves or fruit from branches when feeding, but instead they bring branches to their mouths and feed directly from them (Grzimek, 1990; Richard, 1987).

Plant Foods: leaves; wood, bark, or stems; fruit; flowers

Other Foods: dung

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

As frugivores, these primates probably help to disperse seeds. To the extent that they serve as prey for other animals, they may impact local food webs.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

These small nocturnal primates probably fall prey to raptors, snakes, fossas, and any other carnivorous animal large enough to subdue them. Humans are reported to hunt members of this genus for meat.

Known Predators:

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Visual displays, vocalizations, chases, and severe fighting have all been reported for this genus. Although not reported for these animals, prosimians usually scent mark their territories, and it is reasonable to suppose that L. mustelinus engages in some scent marking and chemical communication.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Members of the genus Lepilemur are reported to have lived as long as 12 years in captivity. Lepilemur mustelinus is probably similar.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
12 years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Observations: Longevity has not been studied in detail in these animals but it has been argued that they probably live more than 12 years (Ronald Nowak 1999).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Males occupy territories by themselves which tend to overlap with the territories of two to three females with which they will mate (Macdonald, 1984; Richard, 1987).

Mating System: polygynous

Sportive lemurs reach sexual maturity at about 18 months of age. Sexual receptivity in females, estrous, is marked by a distinct swelling of the genitalia. Mating occurs from May through August. Females give birth to single young between September and November with a gestation period of about 135 days. The young are weaned around 4 months of age, but are not independent until they are about one year old. (Nowak, 1999; Macdonald, 1984; Richard, 1987).

Breeding interval: Breeding occurs annually.

Breeding season: Mating occurs from May through August.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average gestation period: 135 days.

Average weaning age: 4 months.

Average time to independence: 1 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 18 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 18 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 27 g.

Average gestation period: 135 days.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)

Sex: male:
546 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
592 days.

Not much is known about the parental behavior of these animals. Females sometimes carry their young, and sometimes "park" them on a branch while they forage. The young are weaned at about 4 months of age. Young follow their mother until they are around one year of age. The role of males in parental care has not been described.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Female); extended period of juvenile learning

  • Macdonald, D. 1984. Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford: Equinox.
  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Richard, A. 1987. Malagasy Prosimians: Female Dominance. Pp. 25-33 in D Cheney, R Seyfarth, B Smuts, T Struhsaker, R Wrangham, eds. Primate Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

Lepilemur mustelinus is considered threatened due to habitat destruction and the breakdown of anti-hunting rules (Richard, 1987).

US Federal List: endangered

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: data deficient

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.

Reviewer/s
Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.

Contributor/s

Justification

This species is in decline due to continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. The extent of occurrence (EOO) for L. mustelinus covers approximately 25,760–37,560 km2. Due to the close proximity of the lower estimate to the Vulnerable category under the geographic range criterion B1, in addition to suspected future increases in fragmentation and population decline, the species is listed as Near Threatened.


History
  • 1994
    Rare
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Rare
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1990
    Rare
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Insufficiently Known
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Insufficiently Known
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
Based on current understanding of the species' range, the taxon remains widespread and apparently common to uncommon throughout its eastern rain forest range. Population densities are estimated at 3-5 individuals/km2 (Mittermeier et al. 2010 and references therein). Population numbers are in decline due to habitat loss.



Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
The major threat is likely to be habitat loss due to slash and burn agriculture. Hunting pressure in this region is high, and includes hunting with spears, and by chopping down trees known to have nest holes.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It occurs in two national parks (Mantadia and Zahamena), two special reserves (Analamazaotra and Mangerivola), and two strict nature reserves (Betampona and Zahamena). Further work is now urgently needed to clarify the distribution and taxonomic limits of the recently described Lepilemur species. This species is still relatively widespread and apparently common despite recent taxonomic splitting.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

There are no known negative effects of sportive lemurs on humans.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Sportive lemurs are sometimes hunted for their meat (Grzimek, 1990).

Positive Impacts: food

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Weasel sportive lemur

The weasel sportive lemur (Lepilemur mustelinus), also known as the greater sportive lemur, weasel lemur, or greater weasel lemur, is a species of lemur native to northeastern Madagascar. Its habitat includes rainforests and tropical rainforests. Its dorsal side is a reddish-brown colour, and greyish brown ventrally. Its colour darkens towards the tip of its tail. It has long, soft fur. It has an average body length of 12–14 inches (30–35 cm) and a tail length of 10–12 inches (25–30 cm)

The weasel sportive lemur is predominantly a leaf-eater, although it supplements its diet with fruits and flowers. It is an arboreal species, and travels through the trees by leaping. As with other leaping primates, it has stereoscopic vision that enables it to determine distances precisely. Weasel Lemur groups consist solely of a mother and its offspring; the males are solitary, and are very territorial. Each weasel sportive lemur occupies a territory of 1/2 to 1¼ acres (1500 to 5000 m²). Like some other lemurs, they are nocturnal.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 118–119. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. (2014). "Lepilemur mustelinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!