Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Very little is known about the natural ecology and behaviour of the greater bamboo lemur. Groups composed of 4 to 7 individuals (and occasionally up to 12) have been observed but little else is known about their social structure and interactions (3). As its common name suggests, this species specialises on eating bamboo, a trait that is highly unusual amongst mammals (5). Almost 98% of the diet is made up of this low-energy food, especially giant bamboo (Cephalostachium viguieri). These lemurs prefer the inner pith of the plant, stripping away the outer layers in a destructive manner (3).
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Description

Prolemur simus is the largest of the bamboo lemurs (5). A dense olive-brown coat covers the rounded body, whilst the underparts and tail are grey-brown in colour with a russet tinge (3). As well as its large size, the greater bamboo lemur can be recognised by the prominent pale grey or white ear tufts (3). However, a recently discovered population of this species has a strikingly different deep golden-red coat, and no ear tufts (3). The blunt muzzles of bamboo lemurs give their faces a more rounded appearance than other members of the family. They have relatively long tails and long back legs for leaping vertically amongst the trees of their forest habitat (3).
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Distribution

Greater bamboo lemurs, Prolemur simus, are currently endemic to Madagascar.  Although subfossil remains indicate they once had a widespread distribution covering the northern, north-western, central, and eastern parts of Madagascar, this species currently occupies only 1 to 4 % of its original historical habitat. Greater bamboo lemurs are generally restricted to the protected areas of Ranomafana National Park located in southeastern Madagascar. Sightings of these lemurs are few although there have been a few sightings of lemur populations living in the Andringrita Massif and near Vondrozo in Madagascar.

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

  • 2003. "Arkive: Images of Life on Earth" (On-line). Greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus). Accessed February 12, 2009 at http://www.arkive.org/greater-bamboo-lemur/prolemur-simus/facts-and-status.html.
  • Andrainarivo, C., V. Andriaholinirina, A. Feistner, T. Felix, J. Ganzhorn, N. Garbutt, C. Golden, B. Konstant, J. Louis, D. Meyers, R. Mittermeier, A. Perieras, F. Princee, J. Rabarivola, B. Rakotosamimanana, H. Rasamimanana, J. Ratsimbazafy, G. Raveloarinoro, A. Razafimanantsoa, Y. Rumpler, C. Schwitzer, U. Thalmann, L. Wilmé, P. Wright. 2008. "The 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Prolemur simus. Accessed March 12, 2009 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/9674.
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Range Description

Subfossil remains confirm that this species once had a widespread distribution in Madagascar that covered the northern, north-western, central and eastern portions of Madagascar, including Ampasambazimba in the Itasy Basin (west of Antananarivo), the Grotte d'Andrafiabe on the Ankarana Massif, and the Grottes d'Anjohibe near Mahajanga and Tsingy de Bemaraha (Mittermeier et al. 2010). Until recently the species was thought to have a much diminished range, in and near the south-eastern rainforests of Madagascar (Mutschler and Tan 2003). Recent range extensions based on confirmed sightings illustrate that the present-day range is not as diminished as previously though (Dolch et al. 2008, King and Chamberlan 2010, Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011, Rakotonirina et al. 2011b), and indirect evidence suggests the species may still be widely distributed through much of eastern Madagascar (Dolch et al. 2010, Rakotonirina et al. 2011a, 2011b). The latitudinal range of sites with confirmed sightings as of July 2012 is 18°06’S (near Didy in the Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor; The Aspinall Foundation, unpubl. data) to 22°26’S (near Karianga, north of Vondrozo; Johnson and Wyner 2000; Wright et al. 2008). The elevation range for confirmed sightings is 20 (Bonaventure et al. 2012) to 1,600 m (Goodman et al. 2001 in Wright et al. 2008). Confirmed sightings have been made in recent years in the remaining mid to high altitude rainforest corridors from Didy to Andasibe (Dolch et al. 2008, Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011, Randrianarimanana et al. 2012, Olson et al. in press) and from the Ranomafana National Park to the Andringitra National Park (Petter et al. 1977, Wright et al. 2008, Delmore et al. 2009), and in lowland degraded landscapes in the Brickaville District (Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011, Bonaventure et al. 2012, Lantovololona et al. 2012, Mihaminekena et al. 2012), the Vatomandry District (Rakotonirina et al. 2011b), at the confluence of the Mangoro and Nosivolo rivers in the Mahanoro District (Rakotonirina et al. 2011b, Z.A. Andrianandrasana unpublished reports), around Kianjavato in the Mananjary District (Andriaholinirina et al. 2003, Wright et al. 2008, McGuire et al. 2009), and near Karianga in the Vondrozo District (Wright et al. 2008, 2009).

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Range

Endemic to Madagascar, fossil evidence suggests that the greater bamboo lemur was originally widespread in northern, central and eastern areas of the island (3). Today, however, this species is restricted to areas in and around the Ranomafana National Park of southeastern Madagascar, although data on distribution is scarce and populations may also exist in the Andringitra Massif and near to Vondrozo (3).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Greater bamboo lemurs are the largest bamboo-eating lemurs found in Madagascar. They have a head and body length of 40 to 45 cm and a tail length of 43 to 48 cm. Their tails and back legs are relatively long. Females weigh up to 2.1 kg whereas males weigh up to 2.4 kg. Their coat color ranges from a reddish-grey to an olive brown. A prominent feature of this species is the presence of tufts of white fur by their ears. However, a recently discovered population of this species, golden bamboo lemurs, have a deep golden-red coat and surprisingly no ear tufts. Greater bamboo lemurs have a blunt muzzle which gives their face a rounded appearance distinguishing them from other members of their family.

Range mass: 2.1 to 2.4 kg.

Range length: 40 to 45 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Ecology

Habitat

Madagascar Subhumid Forests Habitat

The Lac Alaotra bamboo lemur (Hapalemur griseus aloatrensis) is strictly endemic to the Madagascar subhumid forests ecoregion. This ecoregion, coveris most of the Central Highlands of Madagascar, and boasts a considerable number of endemic species, found chiefly in the relict forest patches and also in some wetland areas. The rainfall here is approximately 1500 mm per year, although it may amount to as much as 2000 mm in the Sambirano area in the northwest and as little as 600 mm in the southwest.

The underlying geology of the ecoregion is mainly ancient Precambrian basement rocks that have been deformed and uplifted over millions of years. There are a few areas of more recent lava flows, and some alluvial deposits associated with wetlands. Vast grasslands now cover much of the central highlands at elevations ranging from 1000 to 1500 metres. The majority of this upland area was formerly forested, and native peoples have affected the fauna and flora through massive deforestation.

Many mammalian taxa are endemic to this ecoregion, including a number of lemurs and numerous shrews, tenrecs and rodents. A far larger number of species are near endemic, with the majority of these shared with the lowland forests to the east. At least 45 species of mammals are found only in the subhumid forest ecoregion and the lowland forest ecoregion of Madagascar and these include, for example, two species of bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur aureus and H. simus).

Of the endemic and near-endemic mammal species in the ecoregion, 12 species listed are on the IUCN Red List; nine species are considered vulnerable; two are endangered and one (the Alaotran gentle lemur) is critical. In the Analavelona forest a species of small mammal was recently discovered, Microgale nasoloi, that is only known from this site and the nearby Zombitse-Vohibasia Forest, the latter being classified in the Madagascar succulent woodlands ecoregion. In addition to the large number of mammalian endemics, there are many special status mammals in the ecoregion, including the Vulnerable Aquatic tenrec (Limnogale mergulus); the Near Threatened Aye aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis);

Two endemic bird species are found in the wetlands of this ecoregion, and others are confined to the subhumid forests or shared with other Madagascar ecoregions. In the wetlands, both the Alaotra little grebe (Tachybaptus rufolavatus) and the Madagascar pochard (Aythya innotata), are considered critically endangered and may be extinct. In the forests the endemic species include, for example, a new genus and species only named a few years ago called the cryptic warbler (Cryptosylvicola randrianasoloi), the yellow-browed oxylabes (Crossleyia xanthophrys), and the brown emutail (Dromaeocercus brunneus). Several other species of birds found here are limited to marshland habitats on Madagascar, including the slender-billed flufftail (Sarothrura watersi), Madagascar snipe (Gallinago macrodactyla), and Madagascar rail (Rallus madagascariensis). Further, Appert’s greenbul (Xanthomixis apperti), an endemic species with a very limited geographical distribution, is abundant on the upper reaches of the Analavelona Massif. More than 20 other bird species that occur in the subhumid forests of this ecoregion are shared only with the eastern lowland forests ecoregion.

The Madagascar subhumid forests hold more than twenty strictly endemic amphibians. Several groups of amphibians include more than one endemic species, such as the microhylids Rhombophryne testudo, Scaphiophryne goettliebi, the mantellids Vulnerable Elegant Madagascar frog (Spinomantis elegans); Mantella crocea, M. cowani, M. eiselti, Mantidactylus domerguei, and the Near Threatened Decary's Madagascar frog (Gephiyromantis decaryi); and the rhacophorids Boophis laurenti and B. microtympanum. Other notable amphibian endemics include:the Benavony stump-toed frog (Stumpffia gimmeli)/

There are a number of special status amphibians in the ecoregion including the Near Threatened Ambohimitombo bright-eyed frog (Boophis majori); the Vulnerable Andoany stump-toed frog (Stumpffia pygmaea); the Endangered Andringitra Madagascar Frog (Mantidactylus madecassus); and the Near Threatened Betsileo Bright-eyed Frog (Boophis rhodoscelis).

There are at least 25 strictly endemic reptiles in this ecoregion. These numbers include historically described species as well as newly identified taxa. Numerous speciess of chameleon and dwarf chameleon only occur in this ecoregion, including Calumma oshaughnessyi ambreensis, C. tsaratananensis, Furcifer petteri, Brookesia ambreesis, B. antakarana, B. lineata, and B. lolontany in the northern and northwestern portion; and C. fallax, F. campani, and F. minor in the central and southern portions. Otpher lizard species endemic to the ecoregion include the skinks Mabuya grnadidieri, M. madagascariensis, M. nancycoutouae, Amphiglossus meva, and Androngo crenni; the geckos Lygodactylus blanciL. decaryi and Phelsuma klemmeri, and the Plated lizard Zonosaurus ornatus. There are also a few endemic species of snakes including Pseudoxyrhopus ankafinensis, Liopholidophis grandidieri, and L. sexlineatus.


  • Du Puy, D.J. and Moat, J. 1996. A refined classification of the primary vegetation of Madagascar based on the underlying geology: using GIS to map its distribution and to assess its conservation status. In W.R. Lourenço (editor). Biogéographie de Madagascar, pp. 205-218, + 3 maps. Editions de l’ORSTOM, Paris. ISBN: 2709913240
  • World Wildlife Fund and C.MIchael Hogan/. 2015. Madagascar subhumid forests. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
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Greater bamboo lemurs reside in humid primary rainforests in which giant bamboo trees are abundant. They make their homes in bamboo thickets. This species has been recorded at elevations of 121 to 1,600 m.

Range elevation: 121 to 1600 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

This species is associated with habitats containing large-culmmed bamboo, particularly Cathariostachys madagascariensis in mid to high altitude rainforest sites (Tan 1999, 2000; Dolch et al. 2008; Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011; Randrianarimanana et al. 2012) and Valiha diffusa and Bambusa vulgaris in lowland secondary habitats (Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011, Rakotonirina et al. 2011b, Bonaventure et al. 2012, Lantovololona et al. 2012, Mihaminekena et al. 2012). In Ranomafana National Park, the bamboo Cathariostachys madagascariensis can account for as much as 95% of the diet, with shoots, young and mature leaves, and pith being consumed (Tan 1999, 2000). The patchiness of this bamboo species may be one factor limiting the current distribution and population continuity of P. simus, as this key food species is not found in all forest microhabitats, and is apparently limited to forest near large rivers. The availability of drinking water could also be a limiting factor, as during dry months in Ranomafana National Park, P. simus was the only lemur species seen regularly coming to streams to drink water (Wright et al. 2008).

Observations of wild populations and animals in captivity suggest that this species is cathemeral, active both during the day and at night throughout the year. They live in polygamous groups that can occupy home ranges of 40-60 ha or more. Mating begins in May or June, with infants typically born in October and November. Females usually give birth to a single young each year, after a gestation period of approximately 150 days. (Mittermeier et al. 2010, and references therein). Sexual maturity occurs at around two years. Individuals have lived over 17 years in captivity.



Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Found in humid primary rainforests where there are giant bamboo trees (Cephalostachium viguieri) (2) (3).
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Trophic Strategy

98% of the diet of greater bamboo lemurs consists of the bamboo species Cathariostachys madagascariensis, giant bamboo. Greater bamboo lemurs have molars specialized for bamboo. It is unknown how their metabolism processes the cyanide found in bamboo shoots; the amount consumed in one day would be enough to kill a human. Feeding habits of greater bamboo lemurs vary with the season. Between July and November these lemurs consume the pith of the giant bamboo. They have powerful jaws which are used to tear apart the wooden bamboo poles and obtain the soft pith inside. In December when the new bamboo starts appearing, this species switches to bamboo shoots. The other 2 % of its diet consists of flowers, leaves, soils, and fruits. The greater bamboo lemur also eats mature leaves that the other bamboo lemur species will not.

Plant Foods: leaves; fruit; flowers

Other Foods: detritus

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )

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Associations

Greater bamboo lemurs may act as seed dispersers for bamboo and other plants. They are also prey to fossa. Very little research, however, has been conducted regarding how this species impacts the local ecosystem.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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The only confirmed predator of the greater bamboo lemurs are fossa, although certain raptors are also suspected to prey on lemurs. Human hunters also have been known to target lemurs, including this species.

Known Predators:

  • Fossa Cryptoprocta ferox
  • Humans Homo sapiens

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Greater bamboo lemurs have two calls used for communication: the contact call and the alarm call. The contact call is a powerful yelping sound that acts as a group-cohesion signal. Its intensity rises and falls rapidly with the progression of the call. The alarm call is sounded when individual lemurs are disturbed or frightened by other animals in the forest. It begins as a low-pitched roar that decreases in intensity the longer the call lasts. The alarm call has 2 parts, which sound something like "ouik-grrraaa," that are emitted in rapid sequences.

Communication Channels: acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

The lifespan of greater bamboo lemurs is currently unknown.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 17.6 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

Greater bamboo lemurs are polygynous, but little other information is available regarding the mating systems of this species.

Mating System: polygynous

Greater bamboo lemurs mate between May and June, and they give birth during the transitional dry and wet seasons in November. The average gestation period is 142 to 149 days. Each female gives birth to only 1 young. The young are weaned after about 8 months, and male offspring disperse from their natal social group between 3 and 4 years of age.

Breeding season: Greater bamboo lemurs mate between May and June.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 142 to 149 days.

Average weaning age: 8 months.

Range time to independence: 3 to 4 years.

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Mother greater bamboo lemurs take care of their young and remain with them until they are about 5 weeks old. Between 7 and 8 weeks of age, the infant nurses less and begins to explore areas farther away from its mother.

Parental Investment: female parental care ; pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

  • 2007. "The Primata" (On-line). Broad-nosed Gentle Lemur (Hapalemur simus). Accessed March 12, 2009 at http://www.theprimata.com/hapalemur_simus.html.
  • 2009. "BBC, Nature & Science" (On-line). Greater bamboo lemur, broad-nosed gentle lemur. Accessed February 12, 2009 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/wildfacts/factfiles/336.shtml.
  • Andrainarivo, C., V. Andriaholinirina, A. Feistner, T. Felix, J. Ganzhorn, N. Garbutt, C. Golden, B. Konstant, J. Louis, D. Meyers, R. Mittermeier, A. Perieras, F. Princee, J. Rabarivola, B. Rakotosamimanana, H. Rasamimanana, J. Ratsimbazafy, G. Raveloarinoro, A. Razafimanantsoa, Y. Rumpler, C. Schwitzer, U. Thalmann, L. Wilmé, P. Wright. 2008. "The 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Prolemur simus. Accessed March 12, 2009 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/9674.
  • Massicot, P. 1999. "Animal Info" (On-line). Animal Info - Greater Bamboo Lemur. Accessed February 12, 2009 at http://www.animalinfo.org/species/primate/hapasimu.htm.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Currently, greater bamboo lemurs have the smallest population size of any other lemur species in Madagascar. In 20 years of regional surveys, only 12 groups of greater bamboo lemurs totaling less than 100 individuals have been documented. In Ranomafana National Park during a 400 day census only 3 groups were found totaling 20 individuals. Their habitat is threatened by slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging, and the extensive cutting down of bamboo. In some areas greater bamboo lemurs are being hunted with slingshots and snares. The IUCN lists this species are critically endangered.

US Federal List: endangered

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: critically endangered

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
A4cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.

Reviewer/s
Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
There is a suspected population reduction of 80% or more in this species over a three generation period (estimating the generation length to be 9 years). This time period includes both the past and the future. Causes of this reduction (which have not ceased) include observed, inferred and predicted continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat from slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging, mining, the cutting of bamboo, and decline in the number of mature individuals through unsustainable levels of hunting. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Critically Endangered.

History
  • 2000
    Critically Endangered
  • 1996
    Critically Endangered
  • 1994
    Endangered
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Endangered
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1990
    Endangered
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Endangered
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Endangered
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
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Status

Classified as Critically Endangered (CR A2cd) on the IUCN Red List 2002 (1), and listed on Appendix I of CITES (4).
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Population

Population

Although until recently thought to have a population size totalling less than 200 individuals (Wright et al. 2009), recent work has illustrated that many sites were previously overlooked, and even at several known sites the population sizes were underestimated. Currently over 500 individuals are known in the wild, from approximately 11 subpopulations, but none of these subpopulations appear to exceed 250 mature individuals (Dolch et al. 2008, McGuire et al. 2009, Wright et al. 2009, Bonaventure et al. 2012, Lantovololona et al. 2012, Mihaminekena et al. 2012, Randrianarimanana et al. 2012, H.N.T. Randriahaingo unpubl. reports). Several other sites with indirect evidence for presence have not yet any direct observations for estimating population sizes. There is no good information available on current population trend, but it is likely to be decreasing due to habitat destruction and hunting – there is some evidence for localised extinctions (e.g. Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011).


Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The Greater Bamboo Lemur is threatened by slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging, mining, the cutting of bamboo, and hunting with slingshots and snares, the latter exacerbated by their movements into the rice paddies. This is the most commonly hunted lemur species in the south.


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The rainforests of Madagascar are being widely cleared by slash-and-burn techniques and this habitat destruction is one of the major threats to the survival of the greater bamboo lemur (3). Bamboo is also being cleared in some areas, and this lemur is targeted by hunters in other regions (3). The known range of the greater bamboo lemur is highly restricted and this implies further threats to survival (3).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. This species has also been on the list of the World's 25 Most Endangered Primates, prepared every two years by the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, the International Primatological Society, and Conservation International, since 2002. Remnant populations now receive protection in Ranomafana National Park and Andringitra National Park. Torotorofotsy is also a RAMSAR wetland site. A recent assessment of the species (Wright et al. 2008, 2009) has shown that the species only occurs at 12 sites and now occupies only 1-4 % of its former range. However, it is quite possible that future field surveys will turn up additional populations, as in the case of the Torotorofotsy population. As of 2009, there were 15 individuals in six European collections, along with four in Parc Ivoloina, Madagascar (ISIS 2009, E. E. Louis Jr. pers.obs.).
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Conservation

The greater bamboo lemur is protected within two areas in Madagascar, however, even within Ranomafana National Park the native trees are being exploited and this species is at risk (3). Further research into these little-known lemurs is urgently needed and more extensive surveys of the area may well reveal further isolated populations in need of protection (3).
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Source: ARKive

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

There are no known adverse effects of Prolemur simus on humans.

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Source: Animal Diversity Web

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Because the the greater bamboo lemur is endemic to Madagascar and endangered, they may play a role in the tourism economy of Madagascar.

Positive Impacts: ecotourism

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Source: Animal Diversity Web

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Wikipedia

Greater bamboo lemur

The greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus), also known as the broad-nosed bamboo lemur and the broad-nosed gentle lemur, is the largest bamboo lemur, at over five pounds or nearly 2.5 kilograms. It has greyish brown fur and white ear tufts, and has a head-body length of around one and a half feet, or forty to fifty centimeters. It feeds almost exclusively on the bamboo species of Cathariostachys madagascariensis, preferring the shoots but also eating the pith and leaves. It is unknown how their metabolism deals with the cyanide found in the shoots. The typical daily dose would be enough to kill humans. Greater bamboo lemurs occasionally consume fungi, flowers, and fruit. Its only confirmed predator is the fossa, but raptors are also suspected. Its current range is restricted to southeastern Madagascar, although fossils indicate its former range extended across bigger areas of the island, including as far north as Ankarana.[4][5] Some notable parts of the current range are the Ranomafana[6] and Andringitra National Parks.[citation needed]

Greater bamboo lemurs live in groups of up to 28. Individuals are extremely gregarious. The species may be the only lemur in which the male is dominant, although this is not certain. Because of their social nature, greater bamboo lemurs have at least seven different calls. Males have been observed taking bamboo pith away from females that had put significant effort into opening the bamboo stems. In captivity, greater bamboo lemurs have lived over the age of 17.[7]

Conservation status[edit]

The greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus), is one of the world's most critically endangered primates, according to the IUCN Red List. Scientists believed that it was extinct, but a remnant population was discovered in 1986.[8] Since then, surveys of south- and central eastern Madagascar have found about 500 individuals in 11 subpopulations.[1] The home range of the species is likewise drastically reduced. The current range is less than 4 percent of its historic distribution. Most of the former range is no longer suitable habitat due to this species' dietary specialization on bamboo and its microhabitat preferences. The outlook is dire since areas with critically low population numbers have no official protection, and comprise severely degraded habitat.[citation needed] The species is endangered by the following: slash and burn farming, mining, bamboo and other logging, and slingshot hunting.[7]

It has been named one of "The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates."[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Andriaholinirina, N. et al. (2014). "Prolemur simus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  2. ^ "Checklist of CITES Species". CITES. UNEP-WCMC. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  3. ^ a b Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 117. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  4. ^ Godfrey, L.R.; Wilson, Jane M.; Simons, E.L.; Stewart, Paul D.; Vuillaume-Randriamanantena, M. (1996). "Ankarana: window to Madagascar's past". Lemur News 2: 16–17. 
  5. ^ Wilson, Jane M.; Godfrey, L.R.; Simons, E.L.; Stewart, Paul D.; Vuillaume-Randriamanantena, M. (1995). "Past and Present Lemur Fauna at Ankarana, N. Madagascar". Primate Conservation 16: 47–52. 
  6. ^ Wilson, Jane (1995). Lemurs of the Lost World: exploring the forests and Crocodile Caves of Madagascar. Impact, London. pp. 139–143. ISBN 978-1-874687-48-1. 
  7. ^ a b Conniff, Richard (April 2006). "For the Love of Lemurs". Smithsonian (Smithsonian Institution) 37 (1): 102–109. 
  8. ^ Pat Wright (July 2008). "A Proposal from Greater Bamboo Lemur Conservation Project". SavingSpecies. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  9. ^ Mittermeier, R.A.; Wallis, J.; Rylands, A.B.; Ganzhorn, J.U.; Oates, J.F.; Williamson, E.A.; Palacios, E.; Heymann, E.W.; Kierulff, M.C.M.; Yongcheng, L.; Supriatna, J.; Roos, C.; Walker, S.; Cortés-Ortiz, L.; Schwitzer, C., eds. (2009). "Primates in Peril: The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates 2008–2010" (PDF). Illustrated by S.D. Nash. Arlington, VA: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG), International Primatological Society (IPS), and Conservation International (CI). pp. 1–92. ISBN 978-1-934151-34-1. 
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