The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • Alfred, J. R. B. 1992. The hoolock gibbon - Hylobates hoolock. Primates 34:65-69.
  • Barton, R. 1999. The evolutionary ecology of the primate brain. Pages 167-203 in P. C. Lee, editor. Comparative Primate Socioecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Chivers, D. J. 1984. Feeding and Ranging in Gibbons: A H. C. D. J. Preuschoft, W. Y. Brockelman, and N. Creel, editors. The Lesser apes: Evolutionary and behavioural biology. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Choudhury, A. U. 2000. A Survey of the hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock) in Diburu-Saikhowa National Park, Assam, India. Primate-Report 56:61-66.
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn M. Reeder (eds.), Mammal Species of the World,Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, 2005.
  • Freedman, B. 1999. Encyclopedia of Endangered Species. Gale Research International, Detriot, London.
  • Gittins, S. P. T. R. L. 1984. Notes on the Ecology and Behaviour of the Hoolock H. C. D. J. Preuschoft, W. Y. Brockelman, and N. Creel, editors. The lesser apes. Evolutionary and behavioural biology, Edinburgh University Press.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Islam, M. A., and F. M. M. 1992. Ecology of hoolock gibbon of Bangladesh. Primates 33:451-464.
  • Kappeler, P. M., and E. W. Heymann. 1996. Nonconvergence in the evolution of primate life history and socio-ecology. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 59:297-326.
  • Kappeler, P. M., and M. E. Pereira. 2003. Primate Life Histories and Socioecology. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILlinois, USA.
  • MacDonald, D. 2001. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Mittermeier, Rusell A., Anthony B. Rylands, and Don E. Wilson, eds. 2013. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Volume 3. Primates. 951
  • Mootnick, Alan, and Colin Groves. 2005. A new generic name for the Hoolock Gibbon (Hylobatidae). International Journal of Primatology, vol. 26, no. 4. 971-976
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Purvis, A., J. L. Gittleman, G. Cowlishaw, and G. M. Mace. 2000. Predicting extinction risk in declining species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 267:1947-1952.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Robbins Leighton, D. 1987. Gibbons: Territoriality and Monogamy. Pages 135-145 in B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, and T. T. Struhsaker, editors. Primate Societies. Chicago University Press, Chicago and London.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Smuts, B. B., D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, and T. T. Struhsaker. 1987. Primate Societies. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-size dimorphism: Influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • 汪松, 中国濒危动物红皮书·兽类,北京:科学出版社, 1998: 1-417.


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