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The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1. IUCN Red List (September, 2007) http://www.iucnredlist.orghttp://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. Macdonald, D. (2001) The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 2009. "AnAge entry for Pongo pygmaeus" (On-line). AnAge. Accessed August 20, 2011 at http://genomics.senescence.info/species/entry.php?species=Pongo_pygmaeus.
  • 2009. Among apes, teeth are made for the toughest times. EurekAlert! [Internet],
  • 2011. "Great Apes and Other Primates" (On-line). Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Accessed August 15, 2011 at http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/Primates/Facts/FactSheets/Orangutans/default.cfm.
  • 2012. "Pongo pygmaeus" (On-line). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Speces. Accessed October 26, 2012 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/17975/0.
  • 3. CITES (July, 2002) http://www.cites.orghttp://www.cites.org External link.
  • 4. Gunung Palung Orang-utan Project (July, 2002) http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~gporang/http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~gporang/ External link.
  • 5. Animal Diversity Web (July, 2002) http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/pongo/p._pygmaeus$narrative.htmlhttp://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/pongo/p._pygmaeus$narrative.html External link.
  • 6. Burnie, D. (2001) Animal. Dorling Kindersley, London.
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  • 9. Van Schaik, C.P., Monk, K.A. and Yarrow Robertson, J.M. (2001) Dramatic decline in orang-utan numbers in the Leuser Ecosystem, Northern Sumatra. Oryx, 35 (1): 14 - 25.
  • Ancrenaz, M., A. Marshall, B. Goossens, C. Van Schaik, J. Sugardjito, M. Gumal, S. Wich. 2008. "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Pongo pygmaeus. Accessed August 15, 2011 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/17975/0.
  • Barton, R. 1999. The evolutionary ecology of the primate brain. Pages 167-203 in P. C. Lee, editor. Comparative Primate Socioecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Call, J. 2004. Inferences about the location of food in the Great Apes (Pan paniscus, Pan trogodytes, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118: 232-241. Accessed August 15, 2011 at http://www.cs.arizona.edu/projects/wonac/papers/Call2004JCP.pdf.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Constantino PJ; Lucas PW; Lee JJ; Lawn BR. 2009. The influence of fallback foods on great ape tooth enamel. Am J Phys Anthropol. 140(4): 653-60.
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • Emanoil, M. 1994. Encyclopedia of Endangered Species. Gale Research International, Detriot, London.
  • Galdikas, B. F. 1988. Orang utan diet, range and activity at Tanjung Puting, Central Borneo. International Journal of Primatology 9:1-36.
  • Groves, C. 1971. Pongo pygmaeus. American Society of Mammalogists, 4: 1-6. Accessed August 15, 2011 at http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/i0076-3519-004-01-0001.pdf.
  • Groves, C. P. 1971. Pongo pygmaeus. Mammalian Species 4:1-6.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Jones, N. B., K. Hawkes, and J. F. O'Connell. 1999. Some current ideas about the evolution of human life history. Pages 140-166 in P. C. Lee, editor. Comparative Primate Socioecology. Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
  • Kappeler, P. M., and E. W. Heymann. 1996. Nonconvergence in the evolution of primate life history and socio-ecology. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 59:297-326.
  • Kappeler, P. M., and M. E. Pereira. 2003. Primate Life Histories and Socioecology. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILlinois, USA.
  • Kenagy, G. J., and S. C. Trombulak. 1986. Size and Function of Mammalian Testes in Relation to Body Size. Journal of Mammalogy 67:1-22.
  • Kirkwood, J. K. 1985. Patterns of Growth in Primates. Journal of Zoology 205:123-136.
  • Lang, K. 2010. "National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin - Madsion" (On-line). Primate Info Net. Accessed August 15, 2011 at http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/orangutan/taxon.
  • Lee, P. C. 1999. Comparative ecology of postnatal growth and weaning among haplorhine primates. Pages 111-139 in P. C. Lee, editor. Comparative Primate Socioecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Lee, P. C., P. Majluf, and I. J. Gordon. 1991. Growth, Weaning and Maternal Investment from a Comparative Perspective. Journal of Zoology 225:99-114.
  • MacDonald, D. 2001. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Mittermeier, Rusell A., Anthony B. Rylands, and Don E. Wilson, eds. 2013. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Volume 3. Primates. 951
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Pamungkas, B., A. Marshall. 2005. A survey of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurbii) population in and around Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia based on nest counts. Biological Conservation, 121: 495-507. Accessed August 15, 2011 at http://anthropology.ucdavis.edu/people/andrew-j.-marshall-1/publications-1/Johnson%20et%20al.%202005-GP%20orangutan%20census.pdf.
  • Purvis, A., J. L. Gittleman, G. Cowlishaw, and G. M. Mace. 2000. Predicting extinction risk in declining species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 267:1947-1952.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ross, C. 1988. The Intrinsic Rate of Natural Increase and Reproductive Effort in Primates. Journal of Zoology 214:199-219.
  • Ross, C., and K. E. Jones. 1999. Socioecology and the evolution of primate reproductive rates. Pages 73-110 in P. C. Lee, editor. Comparative Primate Socioecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Schulz, K., L. Shapiro, M. Frаnkis. 2011. "Encyclopedia of Life" (On-line). Pongo pygmaeus. Accessed August 15, 2011 at http://www.eol.org/pages/326450.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Smuts, B. B., D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, and T. T. Struhsaker. 1987. Primate Societies. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-size dimorphism: Influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.
  • Wich et al. (2004) Life history of wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii). J Hum Evol, 47:385-398.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
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  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • Zhang, Y., O. Ryder, Y. Zhang. 2001. Genetic Divergence of Orangutan Subspecies (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Molecular Evolution, 52: 516-526. Accessed August 15, 2011 at http://159.226.149.45/zhang/achievements/publications/2001/Zhang%20YW-JME2001.pdf.

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