The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1. IUCN Red List (April, 2003) http://www.redlist.orghttp://www.redlist.org External link.
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. Macdonald, D. (2001) The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
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  • 4. CITES (April, 2003) http://www.cites.orghttp://www.cites.org External link.
  • 5. Primate Info Net (April, 2003) http://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/factsheets/pan_paniscus.htmlhttp://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/factsheets/pan_paniscus.html External link.
  • 6. Burnie, D. (2001) Animal. Dorling Kindersley, London.
  • 7. Bushmeat Working Group (CITES) (April, 2003) http://bushmeat.nethttp://bushmeat.net External link.
  • 8. GRASP (April, 2003) http://www.unep.org/grasp/http://www.unep.org/grasp/ External link.
  • 9. Bonobo Conservation Initiative (April, 2003) http://www.bonobo.orghttp://www.bonobo.org External link.
  • Badrian, A., N. Badrian. 1984. Social organization of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire. Pp. 325-346 in R Susman, ed. The Pygmy Chimpanzee: Evolutionary Biology and Behavior. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Badrian, N., R. Malenky. 1984. Feeding ecology of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire. Pp. 275-299 in R Susman, ed. The Pygmy Chimpanzee: Evolutionary Biology and Behavior. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Boesch, C. 2002. Behavioural diversity in Pan . Pp. 1-8 in C Boesch, G Hohmann, M Linda, eds. Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos. Cambridge, UK: The Press Cyndicate of the University of Cambridge.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Dahl, J. 1986. Cyclic perineal swelling during the intermenstrual intervals of captive female pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus). Journal of Human Evolution, 15: 369-385.
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • Emanoil, M. 1994. Encyclopedia of Endangered Species. Gale Research International, Detriot, London.
  • Fruth, B., G. Hohmann. 1993. Ecological and behavioral aspects of nest building in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ethology, 94: 113-126.
  • Furuichi et al. (1998) Population dynamics of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba. Int J Primatol, 19:1029-1043.
  • Furuichi, T. 1987. Sexual swelling, receptivity, and grouping of wild pygmy chimpanzee females at Wamba, Zaire. Primates, 23/3: 309-318.
  • Furuichi, T. 1989. Social interactions and the life history of female Pan paniscus in Wamba, Zaire. International Journal of Primatology, 10/3: 173-197.
  • Furuichi, T., G. Idani, H. Ihobe, S. Kuroda, K. Kitamura, A. Mori, T. Enomoto, N. Okayasu, C. Hashimoto, T. Kano. 1998. Population dynamics of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba. International Journal of Primatology, 19/6: 1029-1043.
  • Hare, B., & Kwetuenda S. (2010). Bonobos voluntarily share their own food with others. Current Biology. 20, R230-R231.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Horn, A. 1980. Some observations on the ecology of the bonobo chimpanzee (Pan paniscus, Schwarz 1929) Near Lake Tumba, Zaire. Folia primatologica, 34: 145-169.
  • Ihobe, H. 1992. Male-male relationships among wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, Republic of Zaire. Primates, 33/2: 163-179.
  • Ihobe, H. 1992. Observations on the meat-eating behavior of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, Republic of Zaire. Primates, 33/2: 247-250.
  • Jungers, W., R. Susman. 1984. Body size and skeletal allometry in African apes. Pp. 131-177 in R Susman, ed. The Pygmy Chimpanzee: Evolutionary Biology and Behavior. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Kano, T. 1979. A pilot study on the ecology of pygmy chimpanzees, Pan paniscus . Pp. 123-135 in D Hamburg, E McCown, eds. The Great Apes: Perspectives on Human Evolution, Volume V, Vol. 5. Menlo Park, CA: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc..
  • Kano, T. 1980. Social behavior of wild pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Wamba: A preliminary report. Journal of Human Evolution, 9: 243-260.
  • Kano, T. 1982. The social group of pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Wamba. Primates, 23/2: 171-188.
  • Kano, T. 1983. An ecological study of the pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Yalosidi, Republic of Zaire. International Journal of Primatology, 4/1: 1-31.
  • Kano, T. 1992. The Last Ape: Pygmy Chimpanzee Behavior and Ecology. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Kano, T. 1996. Male rank order and copulation rate in a unit-group of bonobos at Wamba, Zaire. Pp. 135-155 in W McGrew, L Marchant, T Nishida, eds. Great Ape Societies. Cambridge, UK: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
  • Kano, T., M. Mulavwa. 1984. Feeding ecology of the pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Wamba. Pp. 233-274 in R Susman, ed. The Pygmy Chimpanzee: Evolutionary Biology and Behavior. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Kappeler, P. M., and E. W. Heymann. 1996. Nonconvergence in the evolution of primate life history and socio-ecology. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 59:297-326.
  • Kappeler, P. M., and M. E. Pereira. 2003. Primate Life Histories and Socioecology. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILlinois, USA.
  • Kirkwood, J. K. 1985. Patterns of Growth in Primates. Journal of Zoology 205:123-136.
  • Lee, P. C. 1999. Comparative ecology of postnatal growth and weaning among haplorhine primates. Pages 111-139 in P. C. Lee, editor. Comparative Primate Socioecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Lee, P. C., P. Majluf, and I. J. Gordon. 1991. Growth, Weaning and Maternal Investment from a Comparative Perspective. Journal of Zoology 225:99-114.
  • MacDonald, D. 2001. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Nishida, T., M. Hiraiwa-Hasegawa. 1987. Chimpanzees and bonobos: cooperative relationships among males. Pp. 165-177 in B Smuts, D Cheney, R Seyfarth, R Wrangham, T Struhsaker, eds. Primate Societies. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Purvis, A., J. L. Gittleman, G. Cowlishaw, and G. M. Mace. 2000. Predicting extinction risk in declining species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 267:1947-1952.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ross, C., and K. E. Jones. 1999. Socioecology and the evolution of primate reproductive rates. Pages 73-110 in P. C. Lee, editor. Comparative Primate Socioecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Savage-Rumbaugh, E., B. Wilkerson. 1978. Socio-sexual behavior in Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes: A comparative study. Journal of Human Evolution, 7: 327-344.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Smuts, B. B., D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, and T. T. Struhsaker. 1987. Primate Societies. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Thompson-Handler, N., R. Malenky, N. Badrian. 1984. Sexual behavior of Pan paniscus under natural cnditions in the Lomako Forest, Equaeteur, Zaire. Pp. 347-368 in R Susman, ed. The Pygmy Chimpanzee: Evolutionary Biology and Behavior. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Uehara, S. 1988. Grouping patterns of wild pygmy chimpanzees (Pan pansicus) observed at a marsh grassland amidst the tropical rain forest of Yalosidi, Republic of Zaire. Primates, 29/1: 41-52.
  • Uehara, S. 1990. Utilization patterns of a marsh grassland within the tropical rain forest by the bonobos (Pan paniscus) of Yalosidi, Republic of Zaire. Primates, 31/3: 311-322.
  • Van Krunkelsven, E. 2001. Density estimation of bonobos (Pan paniscus) in Salonga National Park, Congo. Biological Conservation, 99: 387-391.
  • Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-size dimorphism: Influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • Zihlman, A. 1984. Body build and tissue composition in Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes, with comparisons to other hominoids. Pp. 179-200 in R Susman, ed. The Pygmy Chimpanzee: Evolutionary Biology and Behavior. New York, NY: Plenum Press.

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