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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Genus 2. TAPINOMA HNS .

Formica HNS , pt., Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 182 (1802).

Tapinoma HNS , Foerst. Hym. Stud. 43 (1850).

Ocelli obliterated in the workers, present in the males and females; the scale of the petiole flattened, decumbent, usually received into an impressed fovea at the base of the abdomen; the thorax deeply impressed between the meso- and metathorax, the latter obliquely truncated; wings as in the second division of Formica HNS .

  • Smith, F. (1858): Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London, British Museum: 55-55, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/8127/8127.pdf
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Tapinoma Forster HNS

Worker small, mouomorphic, with 4-jointed labial and 6-jointed maxillary palpi, multidenticulatc mandibles, 12-jointed antenna- and entire or medially more or less emarginate clypeus. The node is reduced to an anterior thickening of the depressed or flattened petiole which is overlain by the first gastric segment; anus usually inferior. Gizzard short, calyx usually not divided into distinct sepals, feebly convex, covered with fine hairs, with the bulb almost exposed when viewed from the side.

The female is usually considerably larger than the male. The anterior wings have a single cubital cell, rarely two, and the discoidal cell is often lacking.

The male is commonly as small as the worker and has well-developed denticulate mandibles. Antennae filiform, with long scape, usually surpassing the posterior border of the head and as long as the three first funicular joints together. Thorax stout; mesonotum not. overhanging the pronotum. Genital appendages voluminous, the stipes with a large squamula and its free portion of variable shape. Wings as in the female, but the discoidal cell is often lacking in the smaller species.

Colonies of Tapinoma HNS are usually populous and live in the ground or in the cavities of plants. The workers are timid and emit from their anal glands a strong odor like that of rancid butter ('Tapinoma-odor"). The genus is cosmopolitan and in the Nearctic Region reaches to rather high latitudes and altitudes (Map 32). One of the species. Tapinoma melanocephalum HNS , has been widely distributed by commerce throughout the tropics of both hemispheres. It is often a pest in shops and is known in Cuba as the "hormiga bottegaria."

  • Wheeler, W. M. (1922): The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, 39-269: 207-208, URL:http://plazi.org:8080/dspace/handle/10199/17097
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Genus Tapinoma Forster HNS , 1850

Tapinoma Forster HNS , 1850, Hym. Stud. l:43 Aachen.

Type-species: Tapinoma dufouri Donisthorpe HNS , 1943, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.(l 1)10:662.

Distribution: Palaearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental, Australian, Polynesian, Nearctic & Neotropical regions.

  • Mohamed, S., Zalat, S., Fadl, H. (2001): Taxonomy of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected by pitfall traps from Sinai and Delta region, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Natural History 3, 40-61: 42-42, URL:http://plazi.org:8080/dspace/handle/10199/16666
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GenusTapinoma HNS Forster, 1850

Tapinoma HNS Förster , 1850:43.

Type-species: Formica erratica Latreille HNS , 1798.

Workers monomorphic but size in some species variable. Antennae 12 segmented; palp formula 6, 4. Clypeus with front border truncate or incised. Petiole a small inconspicuous node overhung by the first gastral tergite. Queens as workers but with enlarged flattened alitrunk. Males have filiform thirteen segmented antennae with long scapes overreaching the occipital border. Head large relative to alitrunk. Genital armature with large prominent stipes.

This is a world-wide genus with most species found in the Indo-Australian and Ethiopian regions. There are several palaearctic species of which only one is indigenous north of latitude 50°. One or more of the smaller tropical species are cosmopolitan and sometimes establish in heated premises.

Figs. 20, 21. Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr) HNS . - 20: worker in profile; 21: male in profile. Scale: 1 mm.

Keys to species of Tapinoma HNS

Queens and workers

1 Median portion of anterior margin of clypeus incised; colour evenly dark brown to black ............................................................................. 2. erraticum (Latreille) HNS

- Median portion of anterior margin of clypeus entire; bicoloured with dark head and promesonotum contrasting with pale gaster, propodeum and appendages melanocephalum (Fabricius) HNS

Males

1 Appendages and part of gaster very pale; length less than 2.5 mm melanocephalum (Fabricius) HNS

- Appendages and gaster unicolorous dark with rest of body; length 3.5 mm or greater............................................................................... 2. erraticum (Latreille) HNS

  • Collingwood, C. A. (1979): The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, 1-174: 34-35, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/6175/6175.pdf
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Genus Tapinoma Foerster HNS

T. melanocephalum (Fabricius) HNS is an introduced species, not definitively established in the state. T. sessile (Say) HNS is a very common ant, found in almost all habitats in California except deserts and areas invaded by Linepithema humile HNS . T. sessile HNS shows substantial variation in size and color. At scattered locations in California a bicolored (orange and black) form of T. sessile HNS occurs sympatrically with the typical unicolored dark brown/black morph. Workers of intermediate color have also been observed, suggesting that the two forms are conspecific. An alternative interpretation is that there are two species which occasionally exchange genes, perhaps analogous to the situation between Forelius mccooki HNS and F. pruinosus HNS and between Dorymyrmex bicolor HNS and D. insanus HNS .

Species identification: key in Creighton (1950a). Additional references: Meissner and Silverman (2001), Smith (1965), Wang and Brook (1970).

  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: 27-27, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/21008/21008.pdf
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Within the Dolichoderinae HNS two genera, Tapinoma HNS and Technomyrmex HNS , are isolated in their female castes by the synapomorphic extreme reduction of the petiole and its accommodation in a longitudinal groove or impression in the ventral surface of the first gastral tergite, which overhangs and conceals the petiole in dorsal view when the mesosoma and gaster are aligned. The petiole is so reduced in these two genera that in profile there is no trace of a node or scale; at most there is a very short raised surface immediately behind the peduncle. The function of this raised surface is to provide an insertion-site for the exterior levator muscle of the petiole. Pseudaphomomyrmex HNS exhibits these structures.

Technomyrmex HNS and Tapinoma HNS are separated in the female castes by the contrasting morphologies of their gastral apices. In Technomyrmex HNS the sclerites of the gastral apex are unspecialised, except that the pygidium is small. Gastral tergite 5 is therefore in line with tergites 1 - 4 and as a result all five tergites are visible in dorsal view. In contrast the pygidium in Tapinoma HNS is reflexed, the fifth tergite being folded back and down, below the fourth tergite, and is clearly visible in ventral view. Also in that view the fourth tergite frequently forms a distinct projecting rim above the reflexed fifth. In consequence only gastral tergites 1 - 4 are visible in dorsal view. Pseudaphomomyrmex HNS exhibits the latter morphology, which is uniquely characteristic of Tapinoma HNS , and thus the former name is relegated to the synonymy of the latter.

As a result of the above analysis the taxonomic synopses of genus Tapinoma HNS , and of the two names in the speciesgroup that are affected by the genus-group modifications, are amended as follows.

TAPINOMA Foerster HNS

Tapinoma Foerster HNS , 1850: 43. Type-species: Tapinoma collina Foerster HNS , 1850: 43 [junior synonym of Formica erratica Latreille HNS , 1798: 44], by monotypy.

Micromyrma Dufour HNS , 1857: 60. Type-species: Micromyrma pygmaea Dufour HNS , 1857: 61, by monotypy. [Synonymy by Mayr, 1863: 455, confirmed by Shattuck, 1992: 146.]

Semonius Forel HNS , 1910b: 21. Type-species: Semonius schultzei Forel HNS , 1910b: 21, by monotypy. [Synonymy by Shattuck, 1992: 146.]

Pseudaphomomyrmex Wheeler HNS , 1920: 53. Type-species: Aphomyrmex emeryi Ashmead HNS , 1905: 111, by original designation. Syn. n.

Zatapinoma Wheeler HNS , 1928: 20. Type-species: Zatapinoma annandalei Wheeler HNS , 1928: 20, by original designation. [Synonymy by Shattuck, 1992: 146.]

Neoclystopsenella Kurian HNS , 1955: 133. Type-species: Neoclystopsenella luffae Kurian HNS , 1955: 133, by monotypy. [Synonym by Brown, 1988: 337.]

Comments

1 At various times in its history Micromyrma HNS has been regarded as a genus, a subgenus of Tapinoma HNS and a junior synonym of Tapinoma HNS . A short synopsis of the authors responsible for these opinions through time is presented in Bolton (2003). The two authors of synonymy given above are emphatically supported here.

2 Note that Tapinoptera Santschi HNS (1925: 348), formerly regarded as a junior synonym of Tapinoma HNS (e.g. Shattuck 1992: 146; Bolton 2003: 91) is now known to be a junior synonym of Technomyrmex Mayr HNS , 1872, and will be dealt with in a forthcoming taxonomic revision of Technomyrmex HNS by Bolton (in preparation). It has therefore been deleted from the taxonomic synopsis of Tapinoma HNS .

  • Fisher, B. L., Bolton, B. (2007): The ant genus Pseudaphomomyrmex Wheeler, 1920 a junior synonym of Tapinoma Foerster, 1850. Zootaxa 1427, 65-68: 65-66, URL:http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2007f/zt01427p068.pdf
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[[ Tapinoma HNS ]] sp. alw-01.

Canindeyú (ALWC, IFML, INBP).

  • Wild, A. L. (2007): A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 1622, 1-55: 25-25, URL:http://www.antbase.org/ants/publications/21367/21367.pdf
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Worker small, mouomorphic, with 4-jointed labial and 6-jointed maxillary palpi, multidenticulatc mandibles, 12-jointed antenna- and entire or medially more or less emarginate clypeus. The node is reduced to an anterior thickening of the depressed or flattened petiole which is overlain by the first gastric segment; anus usually inferior. Gizzard short, calyx usually not divided into distinct sepals, feebly convex, covered with fine hairs, with the bulb almost exposed when viewed from the side.

 

The female is usually considerably larger than the male. The anterior wings have a single cubital cell, rarely two, and the discoidal cell is often lacking.

 

The male is commonly as small as the worker and has well-developed denticulate mandibles. Antennae filiform, with long scape, usually surpassing the posterior border of the head and as long as the three first funicular joints together. Thorax stout; mesonotum not. overhanging the pronotum. Genital appendages voluminous, the stipes with a large squamula and its free portion of variable shape. Wings as in the female, but the discoidal cell is often lacking in the smaller species.

 

Colonies of Tapinoma are usually populous and live in the ground or in the cavities of plants. The workers are timid and emit from their anal glands a strong odor like that of rancid butter ('Tapinoma-odor"). The genus is cosmopolitan and in the Nearctic Region reaches to rather high latitudes and altitudes (Map 32). One of the species. Tapinoma melanocephalum , has been widely distributed by commerce throughout the tropics of both hemispheres. It is often a pest in shops and is known in Cuba as the "hormiga bottegaria."

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T. melanocephalum (Fabricius) is an introduced species, not definitively established in the state. T. sessile (Say) is a very common ant, found in almost all habitats in California except deserts and areas invaded by Linepithema humile . T. sessile shows substantial variation in size and color. At scattered locations in California a bicolored (orange and black) form of T. sessile occurs sympatrically with the typical unicolored dark brown/black morph. Workers of intermediate color have also been observed, suggesting that the two forms are conspecific. An alternative interpretation is that there are two species which occasionally exchange genes, perhaps analogous to the situation between Forelius mccooki and F. pruinosus and between Dorymyrmex bicolor and D. insanus .

 

Species identification: key in Creighton (1950a). Additional references: Meissner and Silverman (2001), Smith (1965), Wang and Brook (1970).

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Within the Dolichoderinae two genera, Tapinoma and Technomyrmex , are isolated in their female castes by the synapomorphic extreme reduction of the petiole and its accommodation in a longitudinal groove or impression in the ventral surface of the first gastral tergite, which overhangs and conceals the petiole in dorsal view when the mesosoma and gaster are aligned. The petiole is so reduced in these two genera that in profile there is no trace of a node or scale; at most there is a very short raised surface immediately behind the peduncle. The function of this raised surface is to provide an insertion-site for the exterior levator muscle of the petiole. Pseudaphomomyrmex exhibits these structures.

 

Technomyrmex and Tapinoma are separated in the female castes by the contrasting morphologies of their gastral apices. In Technomyrmex the sclerites of the gastral apex are unspecialised, except that the pygidium is small. Gastral tergite 5 is therefore in line with tergites 1 - 4 and as a result all five tergites are visible in dorsal view. In contrast the pygidium in Tapinoma is reflexed, the fifth tergite being folded back and down, below the fourth tergite, and is clearly visible in ventral view. Also in that view the fourth tergite frequently forms a distinct projecting rim above the reflexed fifth. In consequence only gastral tergites 1 - 4 are visible in dorsal view. Pseudaphomomyrmex exhibits the latter morphology, which is uniquely characteristic of Tapinoma , and thus the former name is relegated to the synonymy of the latter.

 

Tapinoma Foerster , 1850: 43. Type-species: Tapinoma collina Foerster , 1850: 43 [junior synonym of Formica erratica Latreille , 1798: 44], by monotypy.

 

Micromyrma Dufour , 1857: 60. Type-species: Micromyrma pygmaea Dufour , 1857: 61, by monotypy. [Synonymy by Mayr, 1863: 455, confirmed by Shattuck, 1992: 146.]

 

Semonius Forel , 1910b: 21. Type-species: Semonius schultzei Forel , 1910b: 21, by monotypy. [Synonymy by Shattuck, 1992: 146.]

 

Pseudaphomomyrmex Wheeler , 1920: 53. Type-species: Aphomyrmex emeryi Ashmead , 1905: 111, by original designation. Syn. n.

 

Zatapinoma Wheeler , 1928: 20. Type-species: Zatapinoma annandalei Wheeler , 1928: 20, by original designation. [Synonymy by Shattuck, 1992: 146.]

 

Neoclystopsenella Kurian , 1955: 133. Type-species: Neoclystopsenella luffae Kurian , 1955: 133, by monotypy. [Synonym by Brown, 1988: 337.]

 

Comments

 

1 At various times in its history Micromyrma has been regarded as a genus, a subgenus of Tapinoma and a junior synonym of Tapinoma . A short synopsis of the authors responsible for these opinions through time is presented in Bolton (2003). The two authors of synonymy given above are emphatically supported here.

 

2 Note that Tapinoptera Santschi (1925: 348), formerly regarded as a junior synonym of Tapinoma (e.g. Shattuck 1992: 146; Bolton 2003: 91) is now known to be a junior synonym of Technomyrmex Mayr , 1872, and will be dealt with in a forthcoming taxonomic revision of Technomyrmex by Bolton (in preparation). It has therefore been deleted from the taxonomic synopsis of Tapinoma .

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Canindeyú (ALWC, IFML, INBP).

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Wild, A. L.

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Tapinoma Forster , 1850, Hym. Stud. l:43 Aachen.

 

Type-species: Tapinoma dufouri Donisthorpe , 1943, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.(l 1)10:662.

 

Distribution: Palaearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental, Australian, Polynesian, Nearctic & Neotropical regions.

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Mohamed, S.

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Formica , pt., Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 182 (1802).

 

Tapinoma , Foerst. Hym. Stud. 43 (1850).

 

Ocelli obliterated in the workers, present in the males and females; the scale of the petiole flattened, decumbent, usually received into an impressed fovea at the base of the abdomen; the thorax deeply impressed between the meso- and metathorax, the latter obliquely truncated; wings as in the second division of Formica .

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Smith, F.

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Palpi maxillares 6-articulati, labiales 4-articulati, dimidia longitudine priorum breviores. Antennae filiformes, infra medium faciei insertae; clypeus mediae magnitudinis, apice medio profunde exciso; squama abdominis segmenti primi oblonga, subrectangularis, depressa, foveola basali segmenti seeundi recepta, vix conspicua.

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Förster, A.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma sp. PK_TAPI 002

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma sp. PK_TAPI 003

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Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma PK_TAPI 003

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma nova_sp1

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma MAS007

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Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma MAS006

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Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma MAS004

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma MAS003

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma MAS002

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma MAS001

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Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma AFRC-NAM-01

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Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma AFRC-KZN-01

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Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma AFRC-LIM-01

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Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma MG11

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Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma MG07

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 21
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma MG06

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma MG04

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma MG03

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Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tapinoma MG02

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Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 1298
Specimens with Sequences: 1331
Specimens with Barcodes: 1009
Species: 41
Species With Barcodes: 31
Public Records: 132
Public Species: 11
Public BINs: 24
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Wikipedia

Tapinoma

Tapinoma (from Greek τᾰπείνωμα low position) is a genus of ants that belongs to the subfamily Dolichoderinae. The genus currently comprises 72[2] described species distributed worldwide in tropical and temperate regions. Members of are generalized foragers, nesting in a wide variety of habitats, ranging from grasslands, open fields, woodlands, to inside buildings. The majority of species nest in the ground under objects such as stones or tree logs, other species build nests under bark of logs and stumps, in plant cavities, insect galls or refuse piles.[3]

Species[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bolton, B. (2014). "Tapinoma". An online catalog of the ants of the world. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  2. ^ "Genus: Tapinoma". antweb.org. AntWeb. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  3. ^ Sharaf, M.; Aldawood, A.; Elhawagry, M. (2012). "A new ant species of the genus Tapinoma (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Saudi Arabia with a key to the Arabian species". ZooKeys 212 (212): 35–43. doi:10.3897/zookeys.212.3325. PMC 3428702. PMID 22933848.  edit
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