Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Huon tree kangaroos are solitary, with females having separate territories, and males having territories that overlap those of several females, with a larger territory increasing their breeding opportunities (3). Breeding occurs year-round, although lower mating rates have been recorded from October to March in captivity (2) (3). Gestation lasts 39 to 45 days, which is the longest of any known marsupial, after which the single joey crawls into the mother's pouch, where it firmly attaches to one of four nipples for 90-100 days (3). At around 300 days, the joey first ventures out of the pouch but will continue to return to nurse, and at 350 days it is fully independent of the pouch (2) (5). After weaning, the young tree kangaroo will leave its mother to establish its own territory (5). Sexual maturity is obtained at 2 years of age, and individuals are known to have lived as long as 14 years in captivity (3). The Huon tree kangaroo is almost exclusively folivorous, preferring mature leaves, and has the large sacculated stomach typical of the macropod family, which aids the breakdown and digestion of tough leafy material (3). The diet is also supplemented, however, by wild fruits, flowers, nuts, bark, sap, insects, bird eggs and young birds (2) (3).
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Description

This unusual-looking marsupial of New Guinea (2) is characterised by a number of adaptations specific to its arboreal lifestyle (3). The species has a small, stocky body, with powerful forelimbs and hindlimbs of almost equal proportions, and a long, cylindrical tail used for balance while leaping among the branches (2) (3). The feet are shorter and broader than those of ground kangaroos, and have padded, roughened soles to aid with gripping, and curved claws for climbing (2) (3). The thick, dense fur grows in opposite directions on the back and nape of the neck, enabling water to easily run off the body (2) (3). The coat is a beautifully-coloured red to mahogany-brown on the back, with bright yellow fur on the limbs, feet, tail, underside, and ear edges (3) (4). Their faces are yellow and white, and a distinctive dark stripe runs down the centre of the back (2) (3).
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Distribution

Dendrolagus matschiei is found exclusively in the Huon Peninsula of Papau New Guinea and the nearby island of Umboi, where they were probably introduced by humans. It is the only tree kangaroo species that inhabits this area. (Flannery 1995, Wilson 1993)

Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

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Range Description

This species is restricted to the high elevations of the Huon Peninsula on the island of New Guinea, Papua New Guinea. There is a population present on the island of Umboi, Papua New Guinea, but this is "almost certainly introduced" (Flannery 1995a), and although this population is mapped it is not considered for the purposes of listing. It has been recorded between 1,000 and 3,300 m asl. The extent of occurrence is less than 14,000 km².
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Range

Located exclusively on Huon Peninsula of Papua New Guinea and the nearby island of Umboi, where the species is thought to have been introduced (3).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Tree kangaroos are similar in form to their ground dwelling relatives but have many adaptations specific to their arboreal existance. They have stocky bodies with forelimbs and hindlimbs closer in proportion than other macropods. Body length ranges from 55 to 63 cm. Their tails are long, equivalent to body length, and cylindrical rather than tapered and used for balancing. They have thick fur that grows in an opposite direction on their nape and back, enabling them to easily shed water when crouched in their typical position with head lower than shoulders. The female has a well-developed pouch with four mammae.

Dendrolagus matschiei are chestnut to red brown with a bright yellow tail, belly, ear edges, and feet. Their faces are yellow and white. They often have a dark stripe down their back and a vortex of fur in the middle of their back. They have cushion-like pads on their feet covered with roughened skin, and some of their nails are curved.

Dendrolagus matschiei can be distinguished from the closely related D. goodfellowi (once considered a subspecies) by the absence of golden back stripes, solidly colored yellow tail and more sombre coloration. Dendrolagus matschiei have shorter feet than other tree kangaroos and have larger ears. They have a diastema between their third incisor and canine of 2.95 +- 0.8 mm. The interparietal bone is large with an acute apex.

(Nowak 1991, Moeller 1990, Flannery 1995, Groves 1982)

Range mass: 6 to 13 kg.

Range length: 55 to 63 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Average basal metabolic rate: 7.96 W.

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Ecology

Habitat

Dendrolagus matschiei is found in lower montane forests at elevations of 1000 to 3000 meters. Oaks are the predominant tree species at the lower elevations while conifers are common at the higher elevations. Tree ferns and epiphytes are common and there is a large accumulation of leaf litter. (Flannery 1995, Moeller 1990)

Range elevation: 1000 to 3000 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in tropical montane and upper montane forests. Females have a gestation period of about 44 days (Heath et al. 1990); in captivity the young permanently leave the pouch by about 41 weeks (Dabek 1994). The Tree Kangaroo Conservation Program is currently conducting a study of home range and habitat characteristics (S. Martin pers. comm.).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Found amongst mountainous tropical rainforest and deciduous forest (2), at elevations between 1000 to 3000 m above sea level (3). The Huon tree kangaroo is an arboreal species that spends the majority of its time in the trees, but occasionally also comes down to the ground (2).
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Trophic Strategy

Dendrolagus matschiei are almost exclusively folivorous and prefer mature leaves. Although D. matschiei retain the large fermentation chamber stomachs characteristic of the macropod family, their basal metabolic rate is only 70% that of the grass eating red kangaroo, possibly an adaptation to a diet of leaves which tend to contain more toxins than fruit or grasses. Tree kangaroos eat sporadically throughout the day for an average of 15-20 minutes every four hours. The remainder of their diet consists of wild fruits, flowers, nuts, insects, bark, sap, bird eggs, and young birds. In captivity, D. matschiei are fed a high fiber diet of leaves, fruits and vegetables. Because large quantities of fresh leaves which are high in tannin are not easily obtained by most zoos, the diet is usually supplemented with tea leaves. Without the supplement, captive tree kangaroos tend to lose the rich color of their coats. Hard-boiled eggs and occasional chicks are also offered.

(Proter-Gray 1990, Collins 1990)

Animal Foods: birds; eggs; insects

Plant Foods: leaves; roots and tubers; wood, bark, or stems; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )

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Associations

This tree kangaroo's consumption of mature leaves has little effect on the canopy given the current population size. The occasional consumption of young domestic birds is not frequent enough to have any ecosystem impact.

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Predation on D. matschiei is poorly known. They are hunted by humans and perhaps large birds of prey. These tree kangaroos avoid predation largely by seeking refuge in trees.

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Known prey organisms

Dendrolagus matschiei preys on:
Insecta
Aves

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Matschiei's tree kangaroos use their vision, touch, smell, and hearing to perceive their environment. Communication occurs by visual display, touch, some vocalization, and, most importantly, through chemical cues.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

Captive D. matschiei have lived as long as 14 years.

Range lifespan

Status: captivity:
14 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
8.0 years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
14.0 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 26.9 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

During estrous, the female descends to the ground and approaches the male. This contact is followed by tongue-clicking, hissing and swatting of the male, but the female usually allows the male to mount within ten minutes. Copulation lasts up to an hour and generally takes place on the ground. Often a semen plug is found.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Female D. matschiei are polyestrous with no defined breeding season, although low copulation rates have been recorded from October through March in captivity. Estrous occurs every 51-79 days. Delayed implantation does not occur in D. matschiei (but has been recorded in other Dendrolagus species) nor is there any embryonic diapause. Gestation lasts 39-45 days, the longest recorded gestation period for any marsupial. Twenty four to 48 hours prior to birth, the female isolates herself. When parturition is close, she assumes the birth position by sitting on the base of her tail with her tail between her legs. It takes approximately 2 minutes for the tiny (less than 1 inch) joey to crawl up and into the pouch. Cleaning of the pouch is usually noted right after birth, often with the female's entire head in the pouch.

The joey firmly attaches to one of four nipples for 90-100 days after birth. At 250 days old, the joey first looks out of the pouch and begins to take notice of the mother's diet. At 300 days, the joey first ventures out of the pouch and at 350 days permanently vacates the pouch. Tree kangaroo joeys have a long pouch life in comparison to other macropods, e.g. red kangaroos permanently exit the pouch at 235 days.

Tree kangaroos reach sexual maturity at two years old and are reproductive for 10-12 years.

(Flannery 1990, Collins 1990)

Breeding interval: Interbirth interval is determined by the nutritional status of the mother.

Breeding season: Breeding can occur throughout the year.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 39 to 45 days.

Average weaning age: 12 months.

Average time to independence: 12 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 2 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); viviparous

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
845 days.

Females care for and nurse their young for extended periods of time.

Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care

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Conservation

Conservation Status

In 1996, the IUCN listed D. matschiei as seriously endangered, meaning 50% of the population has disappeared in the past ten years. Rainforest clearing and hunting are the main threats. Dendrolagus matschiei is the focus of a Species Survival Plan organized by international zoos. This plan focuses on habitat preservation and field studies while at the same time maintaining and studying the large captive population to learn more about tree kangaroo biology. Education is also stressed in an attempt to reduce the joint pressures of rainforest destruction and hunting.

(Collins 1990, IUCN 1996,   http://www.aza.org/aza/ssp/trekang.html)

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
C2a(ii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Leary, T., Seri, L., Wright, D., Hamilton, S., Helgen, K., Singadan, R., Menzies, J., Allison, A., James, R., Dickman, C., Aplin, K., Flannery, T., Martin, R. & Salas, L.

Reviewer/s
Lamoreux, J. & Hilton-Taylor, C. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered because the number of mature individuals is expected to be less than 2,500 based on its naturally low population density and small extent of occurrence (restricted to high elevations), there is a continuing population decline due to hunting pressures and habitat loss due, and all individuals are contained within a single subpopulation.

History
  • 1996
    Endangered
  • 1994
    Vulnerable
    (Groombridge 1994)
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Status

Classified as Endangered (EN A1ac) on the IUCN Red List 2004 (1).
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Population

Population
It has a naturally low population density.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is threatened by overhunting for food by local people, and habitat loss due to conversion of forest to subsistence agricultural use and general human encroachment. The human population of the Huon Peninsula is rapidly growing. Coffee production is increasing and there is an active nickel mine on the northern edge of the mountain range.
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These tree kangaroos are threatened by hunting and habitat destruction from logging, mining and oil operations (4) (5). Hunting pressure is high in many of the remaining forested areas, with Huon tree kangaroos hunted primarily by natives of Papua New Guinea for their succulent meat. Although traditionally hunted by people with dingoes, which had relatively little impact on populations, the introduction of guns to the island has dramatically increased the numbers that can be caught and severely jeopardised the future of this species (2).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The community-based Tree Kangaroo Conservation Program in Papua New Guinea is protecting this species through protection of habitat (S. Martin pers. comm.). The species has received considerable conservation attention within Papua New Guinea. There is a need to regulate hunting of this species through establishment of no-hunting areas by local people (S. Martin pers. comm.). The Tree Kangaroo Conservation Program is working with local communities on the Huon Peninsula to create a Conservation Area of over 80,000 hectares (S. Martin pers. comm.).
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Conservation

The main focus of conservation efforts for this species has been on captive-breeding programmes, with individuals held at a number of zoos worldwide (2). Woodland Park Zoo in Seattle is a leader in captive breeding and reproduction research on the Huon tree kangaroo, being the first to recognize the importance of isolating females after mating to reduce stress on the mother and increase infant survival rates (5). A Species Survival Plan has also been developed by international zoos for this species, which focuses on field studies and preserving the species' natural habitat, whilst at the same time maintaining and studying a large captive population and stressing the need for education on the detrimental effects of forest destruction and hunting (3). It is vital that such education awareness campaigns are directed towards local people and government officials alike if the decline of this beautiful, unusual species is to be halted.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

There are no adverse affects of D. matschiei on humans.

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Internationally, this species of tree kangaroo is valued in zoos as a brilliantly colored unusual kangaroo. Locally, it is hunted as a food source. (Procter-Gray 1990)

Positive Impacts: food ; ecotourism

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Wikipedia

Matschie's tree-kangaroo

Matschie's tree-kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei), also known as the Huon tree-kangaroo is a tree-kangaroo native to the Huon Peninsula of North Eastern New Guinea. Under the IUCN classification, Matschie's tree-kangaroo is endangered.

The scientific name honours German biologist Paul Matschie.

Physical description[edit]

close up

With a body and head length of 20 to 32 inches (810 mm), Matschie's tree-kangaroo are much smaller than Australia's well-known red kangaroo.[3] An adult male weighs between 20 and 25 lb (9–11 kg). An adult female weighs between 15 and 20 lb (7–9 kg)

There is no particular season in which they breed. Gestation lasts 44 days and joeys of captive bred individuals leave the pouch after 11 months. The average life span of the Matschie's tree-kangaroo in the wild is unknown, but is at least 14 years. The life span of the kangaroo in a zoo is about 20 years.

The most distinctive trait of all tree-kangaroos is the hair whorl they possess. It is a patch of hair that goes out in many directions and its location ranges from up near the shoulders all the way down to the tail.[4] The Matschie’s tree-kangaroo is golden on its ventral side, lower parts of its limbs, ear edges, belly, and tail, and the rest of its body is a chestnut brown color, except for usually having a dark stripe down its back. Their faces are typically an array of yellow and white colors. The Matschies’ are similar in color and size to Dendrolagus dorianus, the Doria’s tree-kangaroo.[5] Matschies’ ears are small and bear-like looking and they do not have a good sense of hearing because of it. They have curved claws on their forelimbs and soft pads on their hind limbs that aid in their climbing ability, and they have some independent movement of their digits as well as good dexterity due to their forelimbs being able to bend a great deal. The 4th and 5th digit of their feet are enlarged, the 1st digit is absent, and the 2nd and 3rd digits are syndactylous (two digits that look like one fused together).[5] Scientists have discovered that the Matschie’s are able to walk bipedally and there’s a lot of rotation in their limbs for climbing.[6] Out of all of the Dendrolagus species, the Matschie’s tree-kangaroo is the best vertical climber and has more strength in its muscles than any others.[7] Their tails help to offset their balance while moving swiftly through the trees since their tails are about the same length as their head and body size.[6] Sexual dimorphism is very low, with males and females being of about equal sizes. The upper and lower jaws of the Matschie’s tree-kangaroos are different too in addition to them being different in body size. The upper jaw has three incisors, one canine, one premolar, and four molars, while the lower jaw has one very sharp incisor, no canines and low crowned molars.[7]

Ecology and behavior[edit]

Young kangaroo
Matschie's tree-kangaroo skeleton on display at the Museum of Osteology, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Matschie's tree-kangaroo lives in the mountainous rainforests at elevations of between 1,000 and 3,000 metres (3,300 and 9,800 ft). The kangaroo tends to live either alone or with very small groups, usually composed of just a female, a joey, and a male. They spend most of their time in the trees and come down occasionally to feed. They are very adept at hopping and can leap up to 30 feet (9 m).

Instead of sweating, Matschie's tree-kangaroo licks its forearms and allows the evaporation to help cool its body.

In the wild, it will usually feed on leaves, fruits and mosses. When kept in zoos, it feeds on apples, carrots, yams, corn on the cob, celery, kale/romaine, high fiber monkey biscuits, tofu, hard boiled eggs, and various types of tree boughs (elm, willow, etc.)

In the wild, researchers have found most Matschies’ live alone or in small assemblies, containing maybe a mother and her offspring and one male. Most of the time, the groups have a sex ratio of 1:1.[8] The Matschie’s tree-kangaroos are very closely related to Dendrolagus goodfellowi, the Goodfellow’s tree-kangaroo, which was once considered a subspecies of the Matschie’s tree-kangaroos.[9] Matschies’ appear to be scared of humans because they scramble around when humans are nearby and they are very difficult to find in the forests. They spend about 14 to 15 hours of their days sleeping and resting. The Matschie’s tree-kangaroos are known for defending their home territory and marking their boundaries.[5]

When the temperature of the environment drastically changes at different times of the year, they are able to maintain a moderate body temperature because of their metabolic rate.[10] Matschies’ have been found to be very susceptible to mycobacterial infections; however, the infections do not seem to be contagious because some individuals that are around infected kangaroos do not appear to get the infection. It seems to be from an avium complex related to tuberculosis, but scientists are still unsure of how exactly it spreads.[11]

Range[edit]

Matschie’s tree-kangaroos are restricted to the Huon peninsula of Papua New Guinea, a subdivision of Tumbanan faunal province, and are the only tree-kangaroos found there. They are also residents on the island of Umboi, which is just off the coast of Papua New Guinea.[9] However, most scientists believe the tree-kangaroos were introduced onto this island and were not originally found there. The Matschies’ prefer to live in deciduous forests and tropical rainforests because they remain in trees for most of their days.[7] They mainly live in the northeast interior of New Guinea and their home range sizes consists of about 25 hectares of the area.[7]

Diet 5:2[edit]

The Matschie’s tree-kangaroos are mainly folivorous, eating anything from leaves, sap, insects, flowers, and nuts.[6] It was also found that they have eaten chickens in captivity as well as feeding on a variety of plants, carrots, lettuce, bananas, potatoes, hard-boiled eggs, and yams. Since they eat high fiber foods, they only eat maybe about 1 to 2 hours throughout the day and the other time of the day they are resting and digesting their food.[6] Their digestion is similar to that of the ruminants; they have a large, “tubiform forestomach”, where most of the fermentation and breakdown of tough material takes place at; in the hind stomach, there is a mucosa lining with many glands that help absorption begin here. Huon tree kangaroo uses the 5:2 diet.[7]

Reproduction[edit]

In captivity, the tree-kangaroos can get budder at any time of the year and are known to breed well. The female oestrus cycle is between 54.2 and 56.8 days and tree kangaroos are able to produce young at 2 to 2.5 years of age.[12] Mating occurs when a female advances on a male while on the ground; they touch each other’s noses and click their tongues. The female is initially resistant to the male's advances. She will hiss and swat at the male but will permit him to mount her within ten minutes. Copulation can last up to sixty minutes afterwards. The gestation period lasts approximately 44.2 days, which is known to be the longest for any of the marsupials. A single observed captive birth occurred above ground, in the branches. Joeys first stick their head out of the pouch at roughly 22 weeks. They will first leave the pouch and feed on their own at 28 weeks. Joeys permanently vacate the pouch at approximately 41 weeks.[13] The Matschie’s tree-kangaroos have no embryonic diapauses or delayed implantations and are able to get pregnant as soon as the joey leaves the pouch. (Loss of pouch young results in a return to estrus within 5 days.)jg

Conservation status[edit]

Threats[edit]

In 1996, the IUCN classified the Matschie’s tree-kangaroos as endangered animals.[14] A lot of the Huon Peninsula trees have been cleared in which the tree-kangaroos chiefly inhabit, so there are more grassy areas created and the Matschie’s tree-kangaroos’ habitat is being destroyed.[9] They are also threatened by oil drilling, logging, hunting by humans, and rainforest clearing. Some Matschie’s tree-kangaroos are hunted by local natives for their meat and fur, while others, such as the people of Yawan, a village in New Guinea, aid in the Matschie’s conservation. The people of Yawan have put aside 100,000 acres (400 km2) for the Matschie’s preservation.[8]

Conservation efforts[edit]

Many Matschie’s thrive in captivity and maintain healthy lives interacting with one another. The numbers of tree-kangaroos in captivity in North America have been recorded over the years, and in 1997, the Matschie’s tree-kangaroos’ population reached a maximum of 90 animals, but it has declined to 53 in the past few years in these conservation zoos. North America developed the Tree Kangaroo Species Survival Plan (TK-SSP) in 1991 and the TK-SSP Master Plan in 1993 to help with their conservation.[7] Conservation education programs have been set up in some schools thanks to Lisa Dabek, a conservation expert for the Matschie’s tree-kangaroos, who has dedicated much of her career and life to helping ones in captivity as well as studying some in the wild.[8] Dabek, along with other scientists, have captured many Matschie’s in the wild and collared them so they could study their habits. Collaring them helps to learn their home ranges and the types of environments they stay in so that the scientists can help with conserving those types of areas.

Conservation International, an organization that supports the preservation of biodiversity of the Earth, participates in the Tree Kangaroo Conservation Program.[8] The Tree Kangaroo Conservation Program is a program that originated from Papua New Guinea and is now based at the Woodland Park Zoo in Seattle, WA. It is designed to study and conserve the various tree-kangaroo species. The program also encourages local villages in Papua New Guinea to help with conservation, enhances the local schools and teachers as well as advancing the medical care for the people, and recognizing particular habitats needed for the tree-kangaroos to flourish.[8] The Woodland Park Zoo is very keen on helping the Matschie’s population grow and develop, and they have also seen that mothers develop their young better if they are removed from the males after mating.[15] A Species Survival Plan has been developed by zoos around the world to help conserve the Matschie’s tree-kangaroos and stop the destruction of their natural habitat as well as keep healthy populations growing in the zoos.[5] By keeping them in zoos, researchers hope to build up the populations of the Matschie’s. They are strongly committed to building up the population because Matschies’ are the most widely exhibited species in zoos around the world. Scientists are still trying to learn more about Matschie’s tree-kangaroos and are conducting studies to watch and help the populations in the wild.[8]

In 2009 the YUS Conservation Area has been established to protect the habitat of Matschies’ in the northern part of the Huon Peninsula. YUS stretches over 760 km² and includes three rivers: Yopno, Uruwa and Som, after which it was named.[16]

Comparison of the genetic diversity of the captive breeding population to wild populations is done to evaluate how the captive breeding program is retaining the population’s genetic diversity over time. In a study done by McGreezy et al. (2010), “AZA Matschie tree kangaroo’s haplotype diversity was almost two times lower than wild Matschie tree kangaroos.” This difference with allele frequencies shows the changes that can happen over time like genetic drift and mutation when a species is taken out of its natural habitat.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 60. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Leary, T., Seri, L., Wright, D., Hamilton, S., Helgen, K., Singadan, R., Menzies, J., Allison, A., James, R., Dickman, C., Aplin, K., Flannery, T., Martin, R. & Salas, L. (2008). Dendrolagus matschiei. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 28 December 2008. Database entry includes justification for why this species is listed as endangered
  3. ^ "Matschie’s Tree Kangaroo, Dendrolagus matschiei". Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Conservation and Research Center. n.d. Archived from the original on 2007-04-21. Retrieved 2007-04-28. 
  4. ^ Frith, H.J. & Calaby, J.H. (1969). Kangaroos. Marrickville, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 0-900966-18-1. 
  5. ^ a b c d Martin, R. (2001). "The Mystery of the Tree-climbing Kangaroos". Geo Australasia 32: 20–29. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Tree Kangaroos". Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals 1: 391–393. 1990. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Martin, R. (2005). Tree-kangaroos of Australia and New Guinea. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. pp. 11, 29, 110–111, 126–127. ISBN 0-643-09072-X. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Montgomery, S. (2006). Quest for the Tree Kangaroo: An Expedition to the Cloud Forest of New Guinea. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-49641-6. 
  9. ^ a b c Flannery, T. (1995). Mammals of New Guinea. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. pp. 36–37, 134–135. 
  10. ^ McNab, B.K. (1988). "Energy Conservation in a Tree Kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) and the Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)". Physiological Zoology 61: 280–292. 
  11. ^ Montali, R.J., Bush, M., Cromie, R., Holland, S.M., Maslow, J.N., Worley, M., Witebesky, F.G., & Phillips, T.M. (1998). "Primary Mycobacterium avium Complex Infections Correlate with Lowered Cellular Immune Reactivity in Matschie's Tree Kangaroos". The Journal of Infectious Diseases 178 (6): 1719–1725. doi:10.1086/314517. PMID 9815225. 
  12. ^ Wilson, D.E. & Reeder, D.M., ed. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 1 (3 ed.). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 60–61. 
  13. ^ Roberts, M. & Hutchins, M., ed. (1990). The Biology and Management of Tree Kangaroos 1 (1 ed.). Washington, DC: AAZPA Marsupial and Monotreme Advisory Group. pp. 25–32. 
  14. ^ "Dendrolagus matschiei (Huon Tree Kangaroo, Matschie's Tree-kangaroo)". IUCN Red List. 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  15. ^ Woodland Park Zoo (2009). "Huon Tree Kangaroos". 
  16. ^ Conservation International, retrieved 19 May 2010
  17. ^ McGreevy, T.J.; Dabek, L.; Husband, T. P. (2010). "Genetic evaluation of the association of zoos and aquariums matschie's tree kangaroo (dendrolagus matschiei) captive breeding program". Zoo Biology 30 (60): 636–646. doi:10.1002/zoo.20362. 
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