Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (5) (learn more)

Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Smilisca puma is a moderate-sized golden-tan tree frog (32 to 38 mm adult male SVL, 40 to 46 mm adult female SVL) that has a white labial stripe, a white forearm stripe, a white tarsal stripe along the outer margin of the tibial segment of the leg, and lacks finger webbing. The dorsal pattern consists of paired elongate dark brown to green blotches which branch out across the midline at one or several points. A broad, irregular dark brown to dark green stripe extends posteriorly from each eye and eventually becomes either an H-shaped mark or breaks into spots. Anterior flank has fine dark lines. Inguinal region is white with dark mottling. The posterior thigh surfaces are dark brown. The venter is creamy white. The iris is deep bronze (Savage 2002).

The dorsal surface is smooth. The head is slightly longer than broad with a rounded snout in profile, small eyes, and a distinct tympanum which has a diameter one-half to seven-tenths of the eye diameter. Fingers are short and stout with moderately expanded discs and lack webbing. Toes are weakly webbed. Adult males have paired vocal slits and fully distensible paired grayish brown external subgular vocal sacs. Breeding males also have a light brown nuptial pad on the base of each thumb (Savage 2002).

Larvae are moderately sized, up to 24 mm at stage 34. Body shape is ovoid, mouth is anteroventral, nostrils and eyes are dorsolateral, the tail is short, and the tail tip is rounded. Spiracle is lateral and sinistral, while the vent tube is dextral. Oral disc is small and entire with serrated beaks, 2/3 denticle rows (gap in A2). Single row of papillae on upper labium, two on lower labium, wide gap above mouth, and many additional papillae at angle of jaws. Larval dorsum is olive brown with greenish tan flecks; tail fins are pale brown with greenish gold flecks. Dark markings on tail musculature and anterior fin bases with dark flecks on the posterior fin bases. Iris is bronze (Savage 2002).

A Spanish-language species account can be found at the website of Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio).

  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • Duellman, W. E. (1967). ''Courtship isolating mechanisms in Costa Rican hylid frogs.'' Herpetologica, 23(3), 169-183.
  • Duellman, W.E. (1970). The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Volume 1. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas.
  • Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., and Kubicki, B. 2004. Smilisca puma. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 22 September 2009.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

This species can be found from the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica and adjacent Nicaragua, at 15-520m asl.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution and Habitat

Smilisca puma is found in humid Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica and adjacent Nicaragua (15-520 m asl). It occurs in relatively undisturbed Atlantic Lowland Moist and Wet Forests (Savage 2002).

  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • Duellman, W. E. (1967). ''Courtship isolating mechanisms in Costa Rican hylid frogs.'' Herpetologica, 23(3), 169-183.
  • Duellman, W.E. (1970). The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Volume 1. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas.
  • Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., and Kubicki, B. 2004. Smilisca puma. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 22 September 2009.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Type Information

Holotype for Smilisca puma
Catalog Number: USNM 13735
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1883
Locality: No Further Locality Data, Nicaragua
  • Holotype: Cope, E. D. 1884. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22 (118): 183.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Isthmian-Atlantic Moist Forests Habitat

This taxon occurs in the Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests, an ecoregion covering the lowland Atlantic versant at chiefly below 500 metres elevation in southern Nicaragua, northern Costa Rica, and most of Panama; these moist forests represent the epitome of wet, tropical jungle. This forest ecoregion evolved from unique combinations of North American and South American flora and fauna, which came together with the joining of these continents around three million years before present.

The ecoregion is classified to be within the Tropical and Subtropical moist broadleaf forests biome. Currently, much of this ecoregion has been converted to subsistence and commercial agriculture. The Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests exhibit a high level of species richness, with 1021 vertebrate taxa alone having been recorded here, with a particularly vast assortment of amphibians, many of which are endemic or near endemic; moreover, among the amphibians there are many representatives of anuran, salamander and caecilian taxa.

This ecoregion located at the juncture of Central and South America. Condensation over the warm land produced by moisture-laden air from the Caribbean Sea colliding with the mountains produces constant high humidity and precipitation. Annual rainfall ranges from about 2500 millimetres (mm) in central Panama to over 5000 mm in southern Nicaragua. Basalt bedrock is the parent material of the residual and often unconsolidated soils covering the hilly areas of this ecoregion. Old alluvial terraces form the base of the swamp forests and flat lands in the lowest elevations and near the Caribbean Sea coast. The northern section of this ecoregion is formed of a wide, relatively flat alluvial plain, with a gradual elevation change from sea level to 500 metres in elevation

This ecoregion is characterised by a lush, high canopy tropical evergreen forest of huge buttressed trees reaching 40 metres (m) in height, and an associated rich epiphytic flora. The palm component includes many sub-canopy and understory species. Abundant subcanopy palm species are Amargo Palm (Welfia regia), Walking Palm (Socratea exorrhiza), and in permanently flooded areas, Raphia taedigera. Seasonal swamp forests occur in the lowest and flattest areas in Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica, particularly along the coastal zone, where they grade into mangrove forests. In these swamp forests, Gavilán Tree (Pentaclethra macroloba) dominates the canopy, along with Caobilla (Carapa nicaraguensis). The Almendro (Dipteryx panamensis) and the Monkey-pot Tree (Lecythis ampla) are two notable canopy emergents.

While small in areal size, the 1500 hectare La Selva Biological Station in northeastern Costa Rica hosts permanent populations of large predators such as the Jaguar (Panthera onca) and herbivores like Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii), probably because of its biological corridor connection to the upper montane forests of Braulio Carrillo National Park. The Atlantic lowlands and middle elevations contain some of the rarest butterfly species in Central America and some of the world's highest butterfly species richness.

A considerable number of amphibian taxa occur in the ecoregion. Endemic anurans to the Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests include the Misfit Leaf Frog (Agalychnis saltator), which breeds in swamps, but lives mostly in the tree canopy; the Tilaran Robber Frog (Craugastor mimus); Diasporus tigrillo and the Cross-banded Treefrog (Smilisca puma), found only on the Caribbean versant of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. A further endemic frog to the ecoregion is the Rio Changena Robber Frog (Craugastor jota), narrowly limited to Río Changena, Provincia Bocas del Toro, Panamá. Other anuran species found here are: Veragua Robber Frog (Craugastor rugosus), a nocturnal anuran whose ova are laid in leaf litter; Agua Buena Robber Frog (Diasporus vocator), whose breeding occurs in bromeliads.

An endemic reptile found in the Costa Rican part of the ecoregion is the Viquez's Tropical Ground Snake (Trimetopon viquezi). Four taxa of marine turtles are found in the ecoregion's coastal zones, including the Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas EN), who may take almost six decades to reach sexual maturity; the Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata CR) is another marine species found here. In addition a number of freshwater turtles are found here such as the Brown Wood Turtle (Rhinoclemmys annulata LR/NT). Other reptiles found in the ecoregion include the Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodilus LR/NT); and Cienega Colorado Worm Salamander (Oedipina uniformis NT), a limited range amphibian found only in Costa Rica along slopes surrounding the Meseta Central.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© C.Michael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund

Supplier: C. Michael Hogan

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 5.0 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It lives in lowland tropical rainforest, and has also been found breeding in very disturbed habitats, including pastures (Gerardo Chaves and Brian Kubicki pers. comm.). Males call throughout the rainy season, from shallow water and low bushes, usually hidden in vegetation. Breeding takes place in small, shallow temporary pools or ponds (Savage 2002).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Federico Bolaños, Gerardo Chaves, Brian Kubicki, Javier Sunyer

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, it occurs in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
It has been considered uncommon, but regularly recorded in Costa Rica. However, a study in 2006 found this species to be abundant in northern Costa Rica (Mahmoot Sasa unpublished data).

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Smilisca puma are rarely seen nocturnal treefrogs (Savage 2002). They are usually only found in close proximity to their breeding sites (generally small, shallow temporary pools or ponds within the forest but sometimes more open areas) (Savage 2002; Duellman 1967). Males call in small choruses (2-4 males) during the rainy season (February through September) from shallow water and low bushes, while hidden in the vegetation (Savage 2002). Each frog alternates calls with nearby neighbors (Savage 2002). The call sounds like a low squawk, lasting 60-350 msec, and is usually followed by one or more secondary rattling notes lasting 100-470 msec, with dominant frequencies of about 0.74 and 1.897 kHz (Duellman 1970). Although calling takes place throughout the rainy season, breeding itself is restricted to periods of heavy rain from June through August (Savage 2002).

Tadpoles are benthic. Newly metamorphosed froglets are 12.5 mm SVL (Savage 2002).

  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • Duellman, W. E. (1967). ''Courtship isolating mechanisms in Costa Rican hylid frogs.'' Herpetologica, 23(3), 169-183.
  • Duellman, W.E. (1970). The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Volume 1. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas.
  • Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., and Kubicki, B. 2004. Smilisca puma. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 22 September 2009.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
The major threat is habitat loss and degradation due to small- and large-scale agriculture and logging. The forests of south-eastern Nicaragua have been less altered than those on the Costa Rican side of the border.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Smilisca puma is classified as Least Concern due to its wide distribution and presumed large population. However, habitat loss and degradation due to small and large-scale agriculture and logging represent major threats. The forests of south-eastern Nicaragua have been less altered than those in adjacent Costa Rica. This species does occur in a number of protected areas and can tolerate disturbed habitat (Bolaños et al. 2004).

  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • Duellman, W. E. (1967). ''Courtship isolating mechanisms in Costa Rican hylid frogs.'' Herpetologica, 23(3), 169-183.
  • Duellman, W.E. (1970). The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Volume 1. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas.
  • Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., and Kubicki, B. 2004. Smilisca puma. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 22 September 2009.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The range of this species includes several national parks and other protected areas.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Smilisca puma

The Nicaragua cross-banded tree frog, Smilisca puma, is a species of frog in the Hylidae family found in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, intermittent freshwater marshes, rural gardens, and heavily degraded former forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Source

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!