The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 165. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4.
  • 10.IUCN Red List (November, 2009) (
  • 11.Macdonald, D.W. (2006) The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 12.
  • 13. Groves, C. P. (2001). Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. Supriatna, J. & Richardson, M. (2008). Macaca tonkeana. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • 3. CITES (November, 2009) (
  • 4.Riley, E.P. (2008) Ranging Patterns and Habitat Use of Sulawesi Tonkean Macaques (Macaca tonkeana) in a Human-Modified Habitat. American Journal of Primatology, 70: 670-679.
  • 5.Priston, N.E.C. (2005) Crop-Raiding by Macaca ochreata brunnescens in Sulawesi: Reality, Perceptions and Outcomes for Conservation, PhD thesis. University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
  • 6.Bynum, E. L., Bynum, D.Z. and Supriatna, J. (1997) Confirmation and location of the hybrid zone between wild populations of Macaca tonkeana and Macaca hecki in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology, 43: 181-209.
  • 7.Pombo, A., Waltert, M., Mansjoer, S.S., Mardiastuti, A. and Muhlenberg, M. (2005) Home range, diet and behaviour of the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana) in Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi. In: Gerold, G., Fremerey, M. and Guhardja, E. (Eds) Land Use, Nature Conservation and the Stability of Rainforest Margins in Southeast Asia. Springer, Berlin.
  • 8.Lee, R.J., Gorog, A.J., Dwiyahreni, A., Siwu, S., Riley, J., Alexander, H., Paoli, G.D. and Ramono, W. (2005) Wildlife trade and implications for law enforcement in Indonesia: A case study from North Sulawesi. Biological Conservation, 123: 477-488.
  • 9.Wildlife Conservation Society (November, 2009)
  • Kappeler, P. M., and E. W. Heymann. 1996. Nonconvergence in the evolution of primate life history and socio-ecology. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 59:297-326.
  • Kappeler, P. M., and M. E. Pereira. 2003. Primate Life Histories and Socioecology. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILlinois, USA.
  • MacDonald, D. 2001. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. 5 edition. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • References
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204


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