Tonkean black macaque (Macaca tonkeana)
On the edges of its range, it may hybridise with the booted macaque (M. ochreata), Celebes macaque (M. maura) and Heck’s macaque (M. hecki) (10,13). It is classified as Vulnerable (Lower Risk/near threatened) CITES Appendix II, due to an continued decline estimated to be more than 30% over 3 generations (@ 40 years), due to a projected increase in oil palm, cacao and human settlement. It is common in appropriate habitat with densities of 3-5 individuals/km2. It exists in some protected areas, including: Lore Lindu National Park (2,290 km2); Morowali Nature Reserve (2,250 km2); Peg. Faruhumpenai (900 km2) and Towuti (687 km2) and Danau Matano Nature Recreation Parks (331 km2). The species is often poisoned and trapped as an agricultural pest, especially as the amount of natural habitat diminishes (1,7,10). It is also hunted for food, collected for use as pets and habitat conversion, especially due to oil palm and cacao plantations and human settlements, all of which will probably increase in the next decade (2).
Habitat and Ecology
Life History and Behavior
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
The Tonkean black macaque or Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana) is a species of primate in the Cercopithecidae family. It is endemic to central Sulawesi and the nearby Togian Islands in Indonesia. It is threatened by habitat loss. Widespread mining in central Sulawesi and in the nearby province of Gorontalo are believed to exacerbating the problems of habitat loss.
- Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 165. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4.
- Supriatna, J. & Richardson, M. (2008). Macaca tonkeana. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
- Syamsul Huda M.Suhari and Ruslan Sangadji, 'Mining, deforestation threaten endemic black macaque', The Jakarta Post, 11 February 2014.
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