Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs on Sulawesi and the Togian Islands, Indonesia. It is found in the central part of Sulawesi south to Latimojong, southwest to the base of the Toraja highlands (where it interbreeds with M. maura), southeast to the lakes region of the southeastern peninsula, and northwest to the isthmus between Palu and Parigi (where it interbreeds with M. hecki) (Groves 2001).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in rainforests at moderate elevations from sea level up to 2,000 m. It is frugivorous, but will eat immature leaves, arthropods, stalks of newly flowering plants, and cultivated crops (fruits, vegetables, and maize).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 28.4 years (captivity)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2cd+3cd+4cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Supriatna, J. & Richardson, M.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is considered Vulnerable due to an continued decline estimated to be more than 30% over three generations (approximately 40 years) in the past and future, due to a projected increase in oil palm, cacao and human settlement.
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Population

Population
This species is common in appropriate habitat. Densities are estimated at 3-5 individuals/km2 (WCS unpubl. data).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The species is often poisoned and trapped as an agricultural pest. Other threats include hunting for food, collection for use as pets and habitat conversion, especially due to oil palm and cacao plantations, and human settlements, all of with are projected increase in the coming decade.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on CITES Appendix II. It exists in a number of protected areas, including: Lore Lindu National Park (2,290 km2); Morowali Nature Reserve (2,250 km2); Peg. Faruhumpenai (900 km2); Towuti Nature Recreation Park (687 km2); and Danau Matano Nature Recreation Park (331 km2).
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Wikipedia

Tonkean macaque

The Tonkean black macaque or Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana) is a species of primate in the Cercopithecidae family. It is endemic to central Sulawesi and the nearby Togian Islands in Indonesia.[1] It is threatened by habitat loss.[2] Widespread mining in central Sulawesi and in the nearby province of Gorontalo are believed to exacerbating the problems of habitat loss.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 165. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ a b Supriatna, J. & Richardson, M. (2008). Macaca tonkeana. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  3. ^ Syamsul Huda M.Suhari and Ruslan Sangadji, 'Mining, deforestation threaten endemic black macaque', The Jakarta Post, 11 February 2014.
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