Overview

Brief Summary

Tonkean black macaque (Macaca tonkeana)

The Tonkean black macaque lives in the central part of Sulawesi south to Latimojong, southwest to the base of the Toraja highlands (where it interbreeds with M. maura), southeast to the lakes region of the southeastern peninsula, and northwest to the isthmus between Palu and Parigi (where it interbreeds with M. hecki) (13); it also lives in the nearby Togian Islands in Indonesia (1). The "Balantak Macaque" from the Togian Islands is almost certainly a hybrid swarm, rather than a distinct species. The macaque lives in rainforests at moderate elevations from sea level up to 2,000 m. It has strong limbs, a moderately long snout and a short, inconspicuous tail. The pelage is predominately black, with areas of lighter brown on the cheeks and rump. The body length is 42-68cm, the tail length is 3-6cm (12). The male weighs about 14.9 kg and the female about 9 kg (11). The macaque seems to spend most of its time moving around in the tree canopy (7), but also moves on the ground (12). It lives in troops of 10-30 individuals, comprising multiple sexually mature adults of both sexes (7). It is active by day. It feeds mainly on figs and other fruit, but also eats bamboo, seeds, buds, sprouts, leaves and flower-stalks, as well as insects and other invertebrates. Near farmland, it may raid crop plantations for maize, fruit and vegetables (7).

On the edges of its range, it may hybridise with the booted macaque (M. ochreata), Celebes macaque (M. maura) and Heck’s macaque (M. hecki) (10,13). It is classified as Vulnerable (Lower Risk/near threatened) CITES Appendix II, due to an continued decline estimated to be more than 30% over 3 generations (@ 40 years), due to a projected increase in oil palm, cacao and human settlement. It is common in appropriate habitat with densities of 3-5 individuals/km2. It exists in some protected areas, including: Lore Lindu National Park (2,290 km2); Morowali Nature Reserve (2,250 km2); Peg. Faruhumpenai (900 km2) and Towuti (687 km2) and Danau Matano Nature Recreation Parks (331 km2). The species is often poisoned and trapped as an agricultural pest, especially as the amount of natural habitat diminishes (1,7,10). It is also hunted for food, collected for use as pets and habitat conversion, especially due to oil palm and cacao plantations and human settlements, all of which will probably increase in the next decade (2).

  • References
  • 1. Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 165. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=12100571.
  • 2. Supriatna, J. & Richardson, M. (2008). Macaca tonkeana. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • 3. CITES (November, 2009) (http://www.cites.org)
  • 4.Riley, E.P. (2008) Ranging Patterns and Habitat Use of Sulawesi Tonkean Macaques (Macaca tonkeana) in a Human-Modified Habitat. American Journal of Primatology, 70: 670-679.
  • 5.Priston, N.E.C. (2005) Crop-Raiding by Macaca ochreata brunnescens in Sulawesi: Reality, Perceptions and Outcomes for Conservation, PhD thesis. University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
  • 6.Bynum, E. L., Bynum, D.Z. and Supriatna, J. (1997) Confirmation and location of the hybrid zone between wild populations of Macaca tonkeana and Macaca hecki in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology, 43: 181-209.
  • 7.Pombo, A., Waltert, M., Mansjoer, S.S., Mardiastuti, A. and Muhlenberg, M. (2005) Home range, diet and behaviour of the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana) in Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi. In: Gerold, G., Fremerey, M. and Guhardja, E. (Eds) Land Use, Nature Conservation and the Stability of Rainforest Margins in Southeast Asia. Springer, Berlin.
  • 8.Lee, R.J., Gorog, A.J., Dwiyahreni, A., Siwu, S., Riley, J., Alexander, H., Paoli, G.D. and Ramono, W. (2005) Wildlife trade and implications for law enforcement in Indonesia: A case study from North Sulawesi. Biological Conservation, 123: 477-488.
  • 9.Wildlife Conservation Society (November, 2009)
  • http://www.wcs.org/conservation-challenges/natural-resource-use/hunting-and-wildlife-trade/indonesias-wildlife-crimes-unit.aspx
  • 10.IUCN Red List (November, 2009) (http://www.iucnredlist.org).
  • 11.Macdonald, D.W. (2006) The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 12. http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/wildfacts/factfiles/224.shtml
  • 13. Groves, C. P. (2001). Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs on Sulawesi and the Togian Islands, Indonesia. It is found in the central part of Sulawesi south to Latimojong, southwest to the base of the Toraja highlands (where it interbreeds with M. maura), southeast to the lakes region of the southeastern peninsula, and northwest to the isthmus between Palu and Parigi (where it interbreeds with M. hecki) (Groves 2001).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in rainforests at moderate elevations from sea level up to 2,000 m. It is frugivorous, but will eat immature leaves, arthropods, stalks of newly flowering plants, and cultivated crops (fruits, vegetables, and maize).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 28.4 years (captivity)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2cd+3cd+4cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Supriatna, J. & Richardson, M.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is considered Vulnerable due to an continued decline estimated to be more than 30% over three generations (approximately 40 years) in the past and future, due to a projected increase in oil palm, cacao and human settlement.
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Population

Population
This species is common in appropriate habitat. Densities are estimated at 3-5 individuals/km2 (WCS unpubl. data).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The species is often poisoned and trapped as an agricultural pest. Other threats include hunting for food, collection for use as pets and habitat conversion, especially due to oil palm and cacao plantations, and human settlements, all of with are projected increase in the coming decade.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on CITES Appendix II. It exists in a number of protected areas, including: Lore Lindu National Park (2,290 km2); Morowali Nature Reserve (2,250 km2); Peg. Faruhumpenai (900 km2); Towuti Nature Recreation Park (687 km2); and Danau Matano Nature Recreation Park (331 km2).
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Wikipedia

Tonkean macaque

The Tonkean black macaque or Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana) is a species of primate in the Cercopithecidae family. It is endemic to central Sulawesi and the nearby Togian Islands in Indonesia.[1] It is threatened by habitat loss.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 165. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=12100571.
  2. ^ a b Supriatna, J. & Richardson, M. (2008). Macaca tonkeana. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
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