Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Crested black macaques are social monkeys and, before their decline in the wild, were often seen in groups of up to 100 individuals (5). At present they are found in smaller groups. During the day they split into smaller units of 10 to 25 individuals, led by dominant males who police the group and prevent serious fights developing. They feed on figs, other fruit, vegetation, insects and small animals such as mice, crabs and lizards (6). Sometimes food is not eaten immediately but is stored in cheek pouches for a while. Individuals in the group maintain relationships by grooming each other and communicating vocally with grunts (4). Adult males 'yawn' to display their large canine teeth in order to assert dominance and avoid conflict (5). Breeding is non-seasonal and therefore occurs at any time of year. Females come into oestrous every 33 to 36 days and advertise their fertility with swollen pink bottoms. The females are monopolised by the group's dominant male, and after a gestation period of five and a half months a single infant is born (5). The offspring reach sexual maturity at four to six years and may live for up to 25 years (5).
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Description

Macaques are medium-sized to large-sized monkeys with stocky bodies. Some, like this species, possess only a very short rudimentary tail that has led in the past to the misidentification and naming of some macaques as apes, which completely lack tails (4). The crested black macaque is the most endangered of the seven macaque species found on the island of Sulawesi (formerly Celebes) in Indonesia (2) (5). This species is entirely black apart from its rump, which is a distinctive pink colour. In males the posterior is small and heart-shaped, and in females it is large, rounded and a darker pink (5). Its face is elongated with close-set brown eyes, and prominent ridges down the side of the nose (6). The body hair is quite sleek, though on the head it forms a distinctive punk-like crest, referred to by the common name, crested black macaque (4).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs on northeastern Sulawesi, Indonesia and the adjacent islands of Pulau Manadotua and Pulau Talise. It was historically found on Pulau Lembeh as well but has probably been extirpated from there. On Sulawesi it is found on the northern arm east of the Onggak Dumoga River and Mount Padang to the tip of the peninsula (Groves 2001). There is a sizeable introduced population on Pulau Bacan in the Maluku Islands (Indonesia).
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Geographic Range

Macaca nigra is one of seven species of macaques endemic to the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia (Fooden 1969). Celebes crested macaques are restricted to northeast Sulawesi and the adjacent islands of Pulau Manadotua and Pulau Talise. They are no longer found on Pulai Lembeh. An introduced population of at least 100,000 individuals resides on Pulau Bacan, in the Maluku Islands (Supriatna and Andayani 2008).

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Introduced , Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

  • Fooden, J. 1969. Taxonomy and Evolution of the Monkeys of Celebes. Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger.
  • Supriatna, J., N. Andayani. 2008. "Macaca nigra" (On-line). In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. Accessed April 10, 2011 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/12556/0.
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Range

This species is endemic to Indonesia, where it occurs in north-eastern Sulawesi and on the adjacent islands of Pulau Lembeh, Pulau Manadotua and Pulau Talise; introduced to Pulau Bacan by humans (2).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Celebes crested macaques are large, diurnal primates with black faces and bodies. Their crania are more prognathic and baboon-like than those of other macaques (Sugardjito et al. 1989), and their crown hairs form a crest, pointing backward and up. Celebes crested macaques also have prominent kidney-shaped ischial callosities, which are bright pink, and a “nubbin-like” tail (Groves 2001). Because their tails are short (about 20 mm long), they are commonly misidentified as apes (Cawthorn Lang 2006).

The face of Celebes crested macaques is black and thinly covered with hairs, and their body hair is dense, coarse, and woolly (Fooden 1969). Juvenile Celebes crested macaques are paler than adults, appearing more brown than black. Juveniles have black hairs where the crest will develop (Fooden 1969). As adult males age, their hair grays and becomes grizzled, most noticeably in the upper body; this occasionally occurs on the arms of younger males as well (Hamada et al. 1988).

Celebes crested macaques are sexually dimorphic, with males typically measuring from 520 to 570 mm and weighing 9.9 kg and females measuring from 445 to 570 mm and weighing 5.5 kg (Thierry et al. 2004). Adult females are also paler in color than adult males (Fooden 1969).

Among the species of macaques present on the island of Sulawesi, Celebes crested macaques are most difficult to distinguish from Gorontalo macaques, Macaca nigrescens. Both have black skin, but the upper half of the body of Celebes crested macaques is darker and more dull (Hamada et al. 1988).

Range mass: 5 to 18 kg.

Average mass: Males 9.9 kg; Females 5.5 kg.

Range length: 445 to 570 mm.

Average length: Males 520 to 570 mm; Females 445 to 570 mm.

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

  • Cawthon Lang, K. 2006. "Primate Factsheets: Crested black macaque (Macaca nigra) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology" (On-line). Accessed April 23, 2011 at http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/crested_black_macaque.
  • Groves, C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Inst Pr.
  • Hamada, Y., T. Watanabe, O. Takenaka, B. Suryobroto, Y. Kawamoto. 1988. Morphological Studies on the Sulawesi Macaques. Primates, 29(1): 65-80.
  • Sugardjito, J., C. Southwick, J. Supriatna, A. Kohlaas, S. Baker, J. Erwin, J. Froehlich, N. Lerche. 1989. Population survey of macaques in northern Sulawesi. American Journal of Primatology, 18(4): 285-301.
  • Thierry, B., M. Singh, W. Kaumanns. 2004. Macaque Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Type Information

Type for Macaca nigra
Catalog Number: USNM 217573
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Male; Adult
Preparation: Skull
Collector(s): H. Raven
Year Collected: 1916
Locality: Pulo [= Pulau] Lembeh, Celebes, Sulawesi Utara, Indonesia, Asia
  • Type: Miller, G. S. 1931 Nov 11. Journal of Mammalogy. 12 (4): 413.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in rainforests at moderate elevations. It is frugivorous, but will also eat immature leaves, arthropods, stalks of newly flowering plants, and cultivated crops (fruits, vegetables, and maize).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Celebes crested macaques and tarsiers are the only non-human primates to inhabit the forests of Sulawesi (Riley 2010). Celebes crested macaques live in the island’s forests at moderate elevations ranging from 700 to 1100 m above sea level, most likely determined by fruit abundance (Rosenbaum et al. 1998b). These areas experience relatively constant temperatures, although there are fluctuations in rainfall between dry and wet seasons (Supriatna and Andayani 2008). They prefer humid, tropical lowland and upland rainforests, but they are also known to frequent agricultural areas that have increasingly encroached on their habitat (Rosenbaum et al. 1998b; O’Brien and Kinnaird 1997).

Celebes crested macaques live in many protected areas including Gunung Lokon, Gunung Amban, Tangkoko Batuangus, Dua Saudara, and Batu Putih, and are also commonly found in captivity (Supriatna and Andayani 2008).

Range elevation: 700 to 1100 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest ; mountains

Other Habitat Features: agricultural

  • O'Brien, T., M. Kinnaird. 1997. Behavior, diet, and movements of the Sulawesi crested black macaque. International Journal of Primatology, 18: 321-351.
  • Riley, E. 2010. The endemic seven: Four decades of research on the Sulawesi macaques. Evolutionary Anthropology, 19(1): 22-36.
  • Rosenbaum, B., C. Southwick, J. Supriatna, Y. Muskita, A. Yunuar, R. Sinaga, R. Sapulette. 1998. A survey of population and habitat of the Sulawesi crested-black macaque (Macaca nigra) on Bacan Island, Maluku, Indonesia. Tropical Biodiversity, 5(2): 139-154.
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The crested black macaque inhabits primary and secondary tropical rainforest (2).
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Celebes crested macaques are mostly frugivorous, and figs comprise the majority of their diet. However, they have a diverse diet, consuming more than 145 species of plants, mostly fruit (Dracontomelon spp. and Ficus spp.), as well as some invertebrates (O’Brien and Kinnaird 1997; Rosenbaum et al. 1998b; Riley 2007). When fruit is scarce, their diet is supplemented by insects, shoots, young leaves, and the stems of flowering plants (Riley 2007; Supriatna and Andayani 2008). Celebes crested macaques have been observed preying on fruit bats, forest geckos, frogs, and the eggs of the red junglefowl and black-naped monarch flycatcher (O’Brien and Kinnaird 1997). Members of this species also raid crops, including maize (Zea mays), yams (Dioscorea), cassava (Manihot esculenta), papayas (Carica papaya), bananas (Musa), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) (Bynum et al. 1999; Rosenbaum et al. 1998a; Riley, 2007).

Celebes crested macaques forage throughout the day, occasionally storing food reserves in their cheek pouches (Schulz 2009).

Animal Foods: mammals; amphibians; reptiles; eggs; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; terrestrial worms

Plant Foods: leaves; wood, bark, or stems; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit; flowers

Foraging Behavior: stores or caches food

Primary Diet: herbivore (Frugivore ); omnivore

  • Bynum, E., A. Kohlhaas, A. Pramono. 1999. Conservation status of Sulawesi macaques. Tropical Biodiversity, 6: 123-144.
  • Riley, E. 2007. The human-macaque interface: conservation implications of current and future overlap and conflict in Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Anthropology, 109: 473-484.
  • Rosenbaum, B., T. O'Brien, M. Kinnaird, J. Supriatna. 1998. Population densities of Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) on Bacan and Sulawesi, Indonesia: effects of habitat disturbance and hunting. American Journal of Primatology, 44: 89-106.
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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

Celebes crested macaques have no major predators or catarrhine competitors (Riley 2007). Many macaques on the island of Sulawesi are known to associate with birds, including hair-crested drongos and yellow-billed malkoha (Matsumura 2001; Whitten et al. 2002). These birds prey on the insects that leave the canopy when macaques pass through (Matsumura 2001).

As frugivores, Celebes crested macaques act as seed dispersers of rainforst trees, especially for species of Dracomelon and Ficus (Rosenbaum et al. 1998b).

Fecal tests of Celebes crested macaques revealed the presence of parasites including Balantidium sp., Entamoeba sp., Ascaris sp., and Trichostrongylus sp., all of which are found in both humans and nonhuman primates (Paulsen et al. 2006). Among captive Celebes crested macaques, 72.2% (13 out of a sample of 18 individuals) were parasitized, with a mean of 1.1 parasite taxon per individual (Jones-Engel et el. 2004). A study of Sulawesi macaques kept as pets, which included Celebes crested macaques, found 7 taxa of intestinal protozoa (Blastocystis hominis, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Chilomastrix mesnili, Endolimax nana, and Retortamonas intestinalis) and 3 taxa of nematodes (hookworm, Trichuris sp., and Ascaris sp.) (Jones-Engel et al. 2004).

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

Mutualist Species:

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Jones-Engel, L., G. Engel, M. Schillaci, K. Kyes, J. Froehlich, U. Paputungan, R. Kyes. 2004. Prevalence of Enteric Parasites in Pet Macaques in Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology, 62(2): 71-82.
  • Matsumura, S. 2001. Yellow-billed malhokas (Phaenicophaeus calyorhynchus) following moor macaques (Macaca maurus) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 17: 619-623.
  • Paulsen, D., R. Kyes, E. Sulistiawati, L. Rosmanah, J. Onibala, E. Iskander, S. Kelley. 2006. Survey of intestinal parasites in a population of Sulawesi black macaques at the Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology, 68(S1): 109.
  • Whitten, T., G. Henderson, M. Mustafa. 2002. The Ecology of Sulawesi. Jakarta: Periplus.
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Predation

Celebes crested macaques have no major predators. They are, however, hunted by humans for their meat (Riley 2007; Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust 2011).

Known Predators:

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

Celebes crested macaques utilize a variety of visual and physical behaviors to communicate. To indicate aggression, males stare with an open mouth, grin with the mouth closed, yawn, lunge, and chase (Nickelson and Lockard 1978; Reed et al. 1997). Submission and satisfaction are signaled with a grimace and lip smacking (Nickelson and Lockard 1978). As with other macaques, males are known to silently bare their teeth, postulated as a display of “peaceful intentions” (Thierry et al. 2000). Dominant males also bare their canines in a “yawn” to indicate supremacy (Assahad et al. 2008).

Celebes crested macaques also use vocalizations. They are known for a loud, bird-like call that may be a method of intervening in conflicts, signaling to keep away from other groups (Muroyama and Thierry 1998; Kinnaird and O’Brien 1999), or as a “signal of dominance to prevent contests between males for mates” (Neumann et al. 2010). Frequency and complexity of calls correlates with male rank, with high-ranking males emitting complex calls more frequently than subordinates (Assahad et al. 2008).

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; acoustic

  • Assahad, G., C. Neumann, K. Hammerschmidt, D. Perwitasari-Farajallah, A. Engelhardt. 2008. Rank-dependent differences in loud call frequency and structure in Sulawesi Crested Black Macaques (Macaca nigra). Folia Primatologica, 79: 311.
  • Kinnaird, M., T. O'Brien. 1999. A contextual analysis of the loud call of the Sulawesi black macaque, Macaca nigra. Tropical Biodiversity, 6: 37-42.
  • Muroyama, Y., B. Thierry. 1998. Species differences of male loud calls and their perception in Sulawesi macaques. Primates, 39: 115-126.
  • Neumann, C., G. Assahad, K. Hammerschmidt, D. Perwitasari-Parajallah, A. Engelhardt. 2010. Loud calls in male crested macaques, Macaca nigra: a signal of dominance in a tolerant species. Animal Behaviour, 79(1): 187-193.
  • Thierry, B., E. Bynum, S. Baker, M. Kinnaird, S. Matsumura, Y. Muroyama, T. O'Brien, O. Petit, K. Watanabe. 2000. The social repertoire of Sulawesi macaques. Primate Research, 16: 203-226.
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

The average life span of Celebes crested macaques is 18 years Cawthorn Lang 2006). The oldest individual in captivity survived 34 years (Schulz 2009).

Range lifespan

Status: captivity:
34 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
18 years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
34 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 34 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

Celebes crested macaques are promiscuous, or polygynandrous, as each individual (male and female) has multiple mates. Females exhibit sexual swelling in the anogenital area to indicate ovarian activity and sexual receptivity, sending visual and olfactory cues, which males sense by sniffing female genitalia (Engelhardt and Farajallah 2008). However, the degree to which males use visual, olfactory, and behavioral signs to determine female fertility remains unclear (Thierry et al. 2004).

Adult females approach high-ranking males for sex more often than they do low-ranking males, although all males copulate about the same amount (Reed et al. 1997). A female presents herself to a male by facing her swollen genitals, slightly raised, toward the male, and smacking her lips. The male holds the female’s legs and waist during copulation. The pair engages in reciprocal grooming following intercourse (Nickelson and Lockard 1978). There are two types of ejaculatory patterns among species of macaques. Male Celebes crested macaques mount the female multiple times but only ejaculate during the last mount (multiple-mount ejaculation) (Caldecott 1986).

Sexual swelling of the female anogenital area also occurs when females are not ovulating, which promotes non-procreative copulation (Thomson et al. 1992). Homosexual behavior such as displaying, mounting, and genetal contact has also been observed among males of this species (Soltis 2004).

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Little is known about the reproductive biology of Celebes crested macaques in the wild (Engelhardt and Farajallah 2008). They breed year-round, although periods of high ovarian activity among adult females occur from August to June, and birthing peaks between January and May (Engelhardt and Farajallah 2008).

Fertility of males and females overlaps (Bernstein et al. 1982). Females have a menstrual cycle of approximately 32 days, which is unusually long for macaques and occurs because of an extended follicular phase. Cycle length and maximal genital swelling period are extended when males are absent (Bernstein et al. 1982; Thomson et al. 1992).

Females give birth to a single offspring every 18 months. Gestation last 5.5 months. Offspring spend much less time with their mother at 4 months of age and are completely weaned by 1 year of age (Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust 2011).

In most populations, the adult sex ratio is 3 females to 5 males (Thierry et al., 2004). Macaques are sexual bimaturists, with females reaching physical maturity faster than males, though the hormonal processes responsible for maturation are identical in both sexes (Thierry, 2007). Males produce sperm around 3 or 4 years of age, though they do not reach a body mass necessary for mating (physical maturity) for another 3 to 6 years (Thierry et al. 2004; Howard et al. 1999).

Breeding interval: Celebes crested macaques typically give birth once every 18 months.

Breeding season: Celebes crested macaques breed year-round, although breeding increases between August and June.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 5 to 6 months.

Average weaning age: 12 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 4 to 6 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 4 to 6 years.

Key Reproductive Features: year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); viviparous ; post-partum estrous

Average birth mass: 461 g.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Little is known regarding parental care among Celebes crested macaques. Based on comparable patterns of behavior and social structure, parental investment in this species is likely similiar to that of other macaques: care is primarily maternal, though aunting behavior occurs, in which an infant is carried by juvenile females supervised by the mother (Cawthorn Lang 2006). Infants of this speices often cling to their mother's belly for protection (Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust 2011).

Although sexual swelling in the anogenital area marks periods of ovulation, sexual swelling also occurs when females are not ovulating, promoting non-procreative copulation (Thomson et al. 1992). This may confuse paternity, increasing male parental care and decreasing the likelihood of infanticide (Soltis 2004).

Parental Investment: female parental care ; pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

  • Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. 2011. "Sulawesi crested black macaque" (On-line). Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. Accessed April 26, 2011 at http://www.durrell.org/Animals/Mammals/Sulawesi-crested-black-macaque/.
  • Bernstein, I., K. Bruce, L. Williams. 1982. The Influence of Male Presence or Absence on the Reproductive Cycle of Celebes Black Ape Females (Macaca nigra). Primates, 23(4): 587-591.
  • Caldecott, J. 1986. Mating patterns, societies and the ecogeography of macaques. Animal Behavior, 34: 208-220.
  • Cawthon Lang, K. 2006. "Primate Factsheets: Crested black macaque (Macaca nigra) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology" (On-line). Accessed April 23, 2011 at http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/crested_black_macaque.
  • Engelhardt, A., D. Farajallah. 2008. Reproductive biology of Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra). Folia Primatologica, 79: 326.
  • Howard, C., T. Fang, C. Southwick, J. Erwin, J. Sugardjito, J. Supriatna, A. Kohlhaas, N. Lerche. 1999. Islet Cell Antibodies in Sulawesi Macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 47(3): 223-229.
  • Nickelson, S., J. Lockard. 1978. Ethogram of Celebes Monkeys (Macaca nigra) in Two Captive Habitats. Primates, 19(3): 437-447.
  • Reed, C., T. O'Brien, M. Kinnaird. 1997. Male social behavior and dominance in the Sulawesi crested black macaque (Macaca nigra). International Journal of Primatology, 18: 247-260.
  • Soltis, J. 2004. Mating Systems. Pp. 135-154 in B Thierry, M Singh, W Kaumanns, eds. Macaque societies: a model for the study of social organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Thierry, B., M. Singh, W. Kaumanns. 2004. Macaque Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Thomson, J., D. Hess, K. Dahl, S. Iliff-Sizemore, R. Stouffer, D. Wolf. 1992. The Sulawesi Crested Black Macaque (Macaca nigra) Menstrual Cycle: Changes in Perineal Tumescence and Serum Estradiol, Progesterone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, and Luteinizing Hormone Levels. Biology of Reproduction, 46: 879-884.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Macaca nigra

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
A2cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Supriatna, J. & Andayani, N.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is considered Critically Endangered in light of a continuing decline, and that in the past 3 generations (approximately 40 years) the population has been reduced by more than 80% due to habitat loss and hunting pressure. The introduced population of over 100,000 individuals is not considered in this assessment as it is a pest and is itself a threat to Bacan Island (Molucca Islands).

History
  • 2000
    Endangered
  • 1996
    Endangered
  • 1994
    Indeterminate
    (Groombridge 1994)
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In 2008, the IUCN listed Celebes crested macaques as critically endangered (Supriatna and Andayani 2008). This species is also listed in CITES Appendix II. Population size has decreased by 80% in the last 40 years, primarily due to hunting and loss of habitat (Kyes et al. 2000; Laatung et al. 2006). There are estimated to be 4,000 to 6,000 individuals in the wild. On Bacan Island, there is an introduced population of 100,000 individuals, which is not included in the population estimate (Hamada et al. 1994), but could become the last surviving population of Celebes crested macaques in the near future (Riley 2010).

Main threats to the conservation of Celebes crested macaques include human population growth and land conversion (Bynum et al. 1999). Following recent spikes in human habitation, which in 2002 was 132 individuals per sq km, is large-scale deforestation by logging, the transmigration program, and cash crop farming, most of which is partially funded by the government (Whitten et al. 2002).

Humans cut down trees that are important to the diet and habitat of macaques, such as fig trees (Riley and Priston 2010). Human-macaque sharing of resources is occasionally possible, as with Arenga pinnata palm trees, from which macaques gather fruit and humans take palm fronds. However, deforestation for timber and firewood and clearing for agriculture permanently removes resources utilized by macaques (Riley, 2010).

Despite their critical conservation condition, the total area of protected land inhabited by Celebes crested macaques (16,848 ha) is less than any other macaques on the island of Sulawesi (Riley 2010).

CITES: appendix ii

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: critically endangered

  • Kyes, R., E. Iskander, U. Paputungan. 2000. Population survey of the Sulawesi black macaque at Tangkoko Nature Reserve. American Journal of Primatology, 51: 68.
  • Laatung, S., R. Kyes, A. Mardiastuti, J. Onibala. 2006. Population survey of the Sulawesi black macaques at the Duasaudara Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology, 68: 62-63.
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Status

Classified as Critically Endangered (CR) on the IUCN Red List (1) and listed on Appendix II of CITES (3).
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Population

Population
Density is estimated to be approximately 3 individuals/km2, except in Tangkoko Batuangus where it is approximately 60 individuals/km2 (J. Supriatna pers. comm.). The introduced population on the island of Pulau Bacan in the Moluccas probably numbers at least 100,000 individuals (Rosenbaum et al. 1998), but is not considered in this assessment.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
There is extensive habitat loss within its range. Hunting for bush meat is a major threat, so although the habitat appears to be intact in many places much of it is currently unoccupied. Some animals are also caught for the live animal trade. Extensive illegal ?small scale? open area mining for gold, using mercury, within the parks is a regional threat. Shifting cultivation by local communities is an increasing threat. This is probably the most threatened primate species on Sulawesi (J. Burton pers. comm.).
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This primate is threatened by over-hunting for food in Sulawesi where its meat is considered a delicacy. Its habitat is also threatened by human settlement, land clearing for agriculture and logging. While this is a problem in many areas worldwide, Sulawesi is particularly sensitive as it is an island and therefore has a limited amount of land for its wildlife and expanding human population (4).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed under CITES Appendix II. It occurs in several protected areas (Gunung Lokon, Gunung Amban,Tangkoko Batuangus, Dua Saudara, and Batu Putih). However, there is urgent action needed to stop the encroachment into protected areas especially Tangkoko, which represents the most likely viable natural remaining population of the species to survive. M. nigra is relatively common in captivity.
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Conservation

International trade in this species is prohibited by its listing on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) (3). Hunting on the island, however, is harder to regulate. This macaque is found in three areas on the island where hunting, logging and clearing is illegal. However, it is not clear how effective these regulations are (4). Captive breeding of this species has been successful at Jersey Zoo and a number of other zoos, and individuals may be reintroduced into the wild in the future. If this species is to survive, it is essential to address the problems of hunting and habitat loss on Sulawesi (5).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

As humans reduce habitat, cut down fig trees, which are a key component to the diet of macaques, and as farms expand into forests, macaques have adapted to include crops in their diet, exploiting human resources (Richard et al. 1989; Riley and Priston 2010). Although local folklore describes humans and macaques as intertwined, crop raiding has earned them reputations as “pests” and “weed species” (Richard et al. 1989). Crop raiding is common among all species of macaques, including Celebes crested macaques (Riley and Priston 2010).

Certain diseases can also be transmitted among humans and macaques (Jones-Engel et al., 2005; Riley, 2010). There is evidence of macaque exposure to human respiratory viruses, including influenza A and parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3. This anthropozoonotic exchange may occur through individuals kept as pets, which come into contact with both wild macaques and humans (Jones-Engel et al. 2005).

Negative Impacts: injures humans (causes disease in humans , carries human disease); crop pest; causes or carries domestic animal disease

  • Jones-Engel, L., M. Schillaci, G. Engel, U. Paputungan, J. Froehlich. 2005. Characterizing primate pet ownership in Sulawesi: implications for disease transmission. Pp. 196-221 in J Paterson, J Wallis, eds. Commensalism and conflict: the human-primate interface. Norman, OK: American Society of Primatologists.
  • Richard, A., S. Goldstein, R. Dewar. 1989. Weed macaques: evolutionary implications of macaque feeding ecology. International Journal of Primatology, 10: 569-594.
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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Celebes crested macaques play an important role in local folklore, and can serve as household pets (Hamada et al. 1988; Riley and Priston 2010). Considered a delicacy, they are hunted for bush meat and are served on holidays and special occasions (Schulz 2009; Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust 2011). CITES prohibits live trade of this speices, though illegal trafficking may still occur (Supriatna and Andayani 2008).

Because Celebes crested macaques are the only non-human primate model for Type II diabetes mellitus, they are valuable in scientific research (Thomson et al. 1992).

This species also plays a considerable role in ecotourism (Schulz 2009).

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; food ; ecotourism ; research and education

  • Riley, E., N. Priston. 2010. Macaques in farms and folklore: exploring the human-nonhuman primate interface in Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology, 71: 1-7.
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Wikipedia

Celebes crested macaque

The Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra), also known as the crested black macaque, Sulawesi crested macaque, or the black ape, is an Old World monkey that lives in the Tangkoko reserve, northeast of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi (Celebes), as well as on smaller neighboring islands.

Description[edit]

Locally known as yaki or wolai, its skin and hairless face is, with the exception of some white hair in the shoulder range, entirely jet black. Unusually for a primate, it has striking reddish-brown eyes. The long muzzle with high cheeks and the long hair tuft, or crest, at the top side of the head are remarkable. The tail is only approximately 2 cm (1 in) of stub. With a total body length of 44 cm (17 in) to 60 cm (24 in) and a weight of 3.6 to 10.4 kg, it is one of the smaller macaque species. Its life expectancy is estimated at approximately 20 years.

Ecology[edit]

Juvenile Celebes crested macaque

The Celebes crested macaque is a diurnal rain forest dweller. This macaque is primarily terrestrial, spending more than 60% of its day on the ground foraging for food and socializing, while sleeping and searching for food in the trees.

The Celebes crested macaque is frugivorous, with 70% of its diet consisting of fruits. It also consumes leaves, buds, seeds, fungus, birds and bird eggs, insects (such as caterpillars), and the occasional small lizard or frog.

Group behavior[edit]

It lives in groups of 5 to 25 animals. Smaller groups have only a single male, while larger groups have up to four males. The females, however, always outnumber the males by about 4:1. Since young males must leave their birth group upon maturity, they sometimes form bachelor groups before they look for a connection to an existing mixed group. Communication consists of various sounds and gestures; such as the presentation of the long eyeteeth while grimacing a clear threatening gesture.

The Celebes crested macaque is promiscuous, with both males and females mating multiple times with multiple partners. The receptivity of the females is clearly indicated by an extreme tumescence (swelling) and redness of their buttocks which, in contrast to the black skin color, is particularly remarkable. The gestation time is 174 days, and the birth of the usually single offspring happens in the spring when food is more plentiful. Young animals are nursed approximately one year and become fully mature in 3 to 4 years, females somewhat sooner than males.

Human interactions[edit]

A Celebes crested macaque sitting in front of a camera with it's left arm outstretched behind the lens
This Celebes crested macaque female used a photographer's camera when it was left unattended to take this "selfie"

Because it devastates crops and fields, the Celebes crested macaque is hunted as a pest. It is also hunted to provide bushmeat. Clearing the rain forests further threatens its survival. Its situation on the small neighbouring islands of Sulawesi (such as Bacan) is somewhat better, since these have a low human population. The total population of the macaque on Sulawesi is estimated at 4,000-6,000, while a booming population of up to 100,000 monkeys is found on Bacan.

A recent series of survey trips to Sulawesi and the Minehasa forest area was made in 2004-2009 by Vicki Melfi, who is EEP studbook holder for these macaques, based at Paignton Zoo / the Whitley Wildlife Conservation Trust. She has been monitoring population density, which has declined from over 300 individuals per square kilometre in 1980 to 20 to 60 individuals today. A conservation programme called Selamatkan Yaki—or "Save the Yaki", as this macaque is known in the local language—was launched with local partners and other conservation groups from Thailand, Germany and the Wildlife Conservation Society (based in the United States). Both Newquay Zoo and Paignton Zoo are among a number of mostly European zoos which hold ex-situ breeding populations of this animal.[3]

Since 2006, the Macaca Nigra Project has been studying the biology and promoting the conservation of this species. The project, a collaboration between the German Primate Center and the Bogor Agricultural Institute, is run by Antje Engelhardt and located in the Tangkoko reserve, home of the biggest crested macaque population remaining in the species' original distribution range.

In 2014, considerable discussion of copyright issues was generated by a "selfie" photograph taken by a Celebes crested macaque.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 163. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Supriatna, J. & Andayana, N. (2008). Macaca nigra. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  3. ^ Selamatkan Yaki! article in Zoo News (Whitley Wildlife Conservation Trust newsletter), Issue 69, Autumn 2009, p. 16.
  4. ^ "Photographer 'lost £10,000' in Wikipedia monkey 'selfie' row". BBC News. August 7, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2014. 
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