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Overview

Brief Summary

Species summary

Macaca nemestrina is a medium sized primate with light brown fur, which is found in a portion of Southeast Asia from southern Thailand to the island of Borneo. This primate is deemed chiefly terrestrial, but also exhibits arboreal traits. Its habitat is threatened by expansion of oil palm plantations which have been created in prior lowland rainforests; slash and burn practices, especially in Indonesian Borneo have also destroyed and fragmented considerable habitat area. Colouration is a light brown, with even lighter undersides, the tail and elongated muzzle being nearly hairless (Cawthon Lang. 2009) The common name is associated with the trait of this primate's tail held in a semi-erect fashion, much like the nature of a pig's tail.

M. nemestrina occurs in Malaysia (including the Malay Peninsula and Sabah and Sarawak Borneo), Indonesia (Bangka, Kalimantan Borneo and Sumatra), Brunei as well as southern peninsular Thailand. There are also small populations of M. nemestrina on Singapore Island as well as the Natuna Islands. (Groves. 2001) M. nemestrina is known to hybridize with its close relative M. leonine in southern peninsular Thailand and on the islands of Yao Yai and Phuket. (Groves. 2001) Unlike most primates in the region, the Sunda pig tailed macaque is almost evenly distributed among montane and lowland rainforests. (World Wildlife Fund & Hogan. 2011)

M. nemestrina is found in lowland and montane rainforests from sea level up to elevation at least 2000 metres. Troops often occur in swamp forests, riparian zones and coastal zones. M. nemestrina is considered a primate that is diurnally active, being chiefly a frugivore in food consumption; however, insects, aquatic crustaceans and leafy materials are also eaten. (Laska. 2001) Lifespan in the wild is on the order of three decades. The species is considered polygynandrous, with mating occurring virtually throughout the year. A female typically gives birth to a single infant subsequent to a gestation interval ranging from 23 to 26 weeks. The offspring are nursed for a period of 35 to 52 weeks. After weaning, M. nemestrina is considered to be an adolescent, until attaining reproductive maturity at the age of around three years old for females and four and one half years for males.

M. nemestrina is classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN under Red List criterion A2cd ver 3.1. (Richardson et al. 2008) The principal threat to this species has been the human population explosion in the lowland rainforests of Indonesia and Malaysia, along with concomitant habitat destruction for creation of oil palm plantations in this region. In addition to habitat loss, the species has been systematically persecuted by farmers, who consider this primate as a cause for certain crop predation. According to Richardson et al (2008) the total population of M. nemestrina has declined by approximately thirty percent since the early 1970s.

  • C.Michael Hogan. 2012. ''Species account for Macaca nemestrina". Globaltwitcher. ed. N.Stromberg
  • C.P. Groves. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  • K. Cawthon Lang. 2009. Primate Info Net: Library and Information Service: National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin- Madison (On-line). Primate Factsheets: Pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology
  • M. Richardson, R.A. Mittermeier, A.B. Rylands & B. Konstant. 2008. Macaca nemestrina. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2
  • World Wildlife Fund; C.Michael Hogan. 2012. Borneo Lowland Rainforests. Ed. Mark McGinley. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
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Biology

The Sunda pig-tailed macaque spends more time on the forest floor and in the open than other macaques, where it forages for leaves, buds, shoots, insects and small animals (5). It has cheek pouches to carry food while it forages, and often returns to the safety of the trees to feed (5). This macaque is a social primate and lives in group sizes of 5 – 40 (average 15 – 22) individuals (2), though the group splits into smaller units to forage. In the group males and females live together. Females remain in their natal group, though males will disperse shortly before they reach sexual maturity (5).
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Description

The Sunda pig-tailed macaque is a rare primate of the Southeast Asia. It is characterised by its short tail that is carried half-erect and somewhat resembles a pig's, hence its common name (3). Macaques are medium to large sized monkeys with stout bodies. This species has a brown coat with a lighter underside and its legs are long and strong. The muzzle is long and lacks hair (3) though males have mane-like hairs surrounding the face, giving them a majestic appearance (4). When females are receptive to mating they develop large swellings on the rump. Adult females can also be identified because they are around half the size of males (4).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in Brunei, Indonesia (Bangka, Kalimantan Borneo, and Sumatra), Malaysia (including the Malay Peninsula and Sabah and Sarawak Borneo), and southern peninsular Thailand. There are small, introduced populations on Singapore and in the Natuna Islands (Groves 2001). The precise geographic boundary between M. nemestrina and M. leonina is not well defined. There are populations of the two taxa found on either side of the distribution limit in the Isthmus of Kra, but many of these populations are the result of release by humans. The two species hybridize in a small area of southern peninsular Thailand, as well as on the islands of Phuket and Yao Yai (Groves 2001).
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Range

This species is found in Brunei, Indonesia (Bangka, Kalimantan Borneo, and Sumatra), Malaysia (Sarawak and Sabah Borneo, plus the Malay peninsula), and southern Thailand, with introduced populations on Singapore and in the Natuna Islands (2).
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Geographic Range

Pigtail macaques are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia in the oriental biogeographic region. They are found in many countries including India (northeast), China (south), Indonesia (Borneo, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Bangladesh (east), Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia (Malay Peninsula) (Cawthon Lang, 2009). Also found in Assam, Yunnan, Indochina, Bangka, and neighboring islands (Nowak, 1999).

Macaque species are often capable of being introduced into other areas of the world with success. Pigtail macaques have been introduced in Singapore and the Natuna Islands (Nowak, 1999).

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Introduced , Native )

  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Primates of the World. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Cawthon Lang, K. 2009. "Primate Info Net: Library and Information Service: National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin- Madison" (On-line). Primate Factsheets: Pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology. Accessed March 20, 2009 at http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/pigtail_macaque/taxon.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Pigtail macaques get their name from a unique feature of their morphology. Their short tails, which they carry half-erect, resemble the tails of pigs, thus giving them their name "pigtail" macaque. Their tails also have very little hair or no hair at all (Cawthon Lang, 2009). Tail length for females varies from 130 mm to 253 mm and for males the tail length varies from 160 mm to 245 mm (Rowe, 1996).

Pigtail macaques have light brown hair covering their bodies and white underbellies. The hair on the top of their heads is either dark brown or black and grows so that it looks like they have an indentation on the tops of their heads (Cawthon Lang, 2009). Males have mane-like hair around their faces (Wildscreen, 2003). Pigtail macaques also have long legs and hairless snouts (Wildscreen, 2003). Infant pigtail macaques are born black and develop adult coloration as they age (Cawthon Lang, 2009).

Pigtail macaques are sexually dimorphic, with males being larger (Cawthon Lang, 2009). Females are roughly half the size of males (Wildscreen, 2003). The average length of males varies from 495 mm to 564 mm. The average weight of males varies from 6.2 kg to 14.5 kg. The average length of females varies from 467 mm to 564 mm. The average weight of females varies from 4.7 kg to 10.9 kg (Cawthon Lang, 2009; Rowe, 1996). Males also have large canine teeth that average 12 mm in length. These teeth are often used in agonistic encounters (Cawthon Lang, 2009). The average length of female canine teeth is 7.3 mm (Rowe, 1996).

The average weight of the brain of an adult pigtail macaque is 106 g (Rowe, 1996). Pigtail macaques move around on the ground and throughout the trees on all fours (quadrupedally) (Cawthon Lang, 2009).

Range mass: 4.7 to 14.5 kg.

Range length: 467 to 564 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; sexes shaped differently

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Type Information

Type for Macaca nemestrina
Catalog Number: USNM 19211
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Male; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): C. Adams
Year Collected: 1887
Locality: Sapagaya River [= Sungai Sapagaya], Borneo, Sabah, Malaysia, Asia
  • Type: Miller, G. S. 1906 Feb 03. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 29: 558.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is a predominantly terrestrial animal, although it readily climbs and forages in the forest canopy. It is diurnal and frugivorous. It occupies lowland primary and secondary forest, as well as coastal, swamp and montane forest. It prefers dense rainforest at all elevations, but is equally at home in agricultural land.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Pigtail macaques live in elevations starting at sea level and ranging to above 2000 m. They live in forests, mostly rainforests, and swamps. They prefer dense, humid rainforest with temperatures ranging from 18 to 30 degrees Celsius (64 to 86 Fahrenheit). Temperatures change seasonally and vary regionally. Rainforests they inhabit also get more than 2500 mm (8.20 ft) of rain each year.

Range elevation: 0 to >2000 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

Wetlands: swamp

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Inhabits lowland primary and secondary forest, as well as coastal, swamp and montane forest (2).
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Pigtail macaques are primarily frugivorous. The vast majority of the foods that they eat are fruits, but they also eat insects, seeds, leaves, dirt, and fungus (Cawthon Lang, 2009). Other foods in the diet of pigtail macaques include nestling birds, termite eggs and larvae, and river crabs (Rowe, 1996). Pigtail macaques are ground foragers. They divide into small groups while foraging (about 2 to 6) but keep in contact with the other groups through vocalizations. They range widely when searching for food. Pigtail macaques are known for raiding the fruit crops of farmers. They will set up a guard to look for humans and shout a warning signal to those in the fields (Cawthon Lang, 2009).

Research in captivity has looked at which types of fruits and vegetables are preferred by pigtail macaques. The foods chosen at the highest frequency by the pigtail macaques studied were mango and pineapple. The food chosen least was carrots (Laska, 2001).

Animal Foods: birds; insects; aquatic crustaceans

Plant Foods: leaves; seeds, grains, and nuts

Other Foods: fungus

Primary Diet: herbivore (Frugivore )

  • Laska, M. 2001. A comparison of food preferences and nutrient composition in captive squirrel monkeys, Saimiri sciureus, and pigtail macaques, Macaca nemestrina. Physiology & Behavior, 73/1-2: 111-120.
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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

Pigtail macaques affect their ecosystems with their foraging habits. By eating the fruits, leaves, and other vegetation they participate in spreading seeds around the forest. Their diets include many fruits, plants, fungus and other living things such as insects, nestling birds, and river crabs.

Pigtail macaques are also known to participate in exploitative and interference competition with white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar). This in turn affects the amount of resources available to white-handed gibbons (Whitington, 1992).

One study of a colony of pigtail macaques in captivity showed them to be intermediate hosts of the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. Pigtail macaques can become infected with this by eating E. granulosus eggs in the feces of canids. Canids are the definitive host of this parasite.

About 90% of macaques and old-world monkeys are infected with respiratory mites. These mites affect the lungs of the monkeys.

A study was conducted on parasites in an outdoor breeding colony in Louisiana. The study included baboons, rhesus macaques, and pigtail macaques and the data reflect the parasites for all three species combined. The study did a fecal and blood survey of over 4000 of the animals. Endemic pathogenic intestinal parasites included Trichuris trichiura found in 35%, Strongyloides fülleborni found in 34%, Balantium coli found in 21%, and Giardia lamblia found in 0.3%. Only one endemic pathogenic blood parasite was found, which was Trypansoma cruzi in 0.8%.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Whitington, C. 1992. Interactions between lar gibbons and pig-tailed macaques at fruit sources. American Journal of Primatology, 26/1: 61-64.
  • Plesker, R., C. Bauer, K. Tackmann, A. Dinkel. 2001. Hydatid Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus) in a Laboratory Colony of Pig-Tailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Journal of veterinary medicine, 48/5: 367-372.
  • Kim, J., M. Kim. 2003. A histologic demonstration of siliceous materials in simian lung mite infected lung tissues by microincineration. Journal of veterinary science, 4/2: 117-123.
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Predation

Perhaps one of the biggest predators of pigtail macaques is humans. Pigtail macaques are hunted and killed by humans for food, medicinal purposes, and for research (Cawthon Lang, 2009). Native predators are not reported, but are likely to include large felids or snakes.

Pigtail macaques often come in contact with white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar). White-handed gibbons compete with the pigtail macaques for resources and are often an annoyance to pigtail macaques (Rowe, 1996).

Known Predators:

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

Some researchers describe pigtail macaques as silent monkeys because they seem to be very quiet. When seen running away after an episode of crop raiding, pigtail macaques are almost completely silent. This silent tactic is not limited to simply crop raiding and shows up in most encounters where pigtail macaques are fleeing a certain area. However, they do make a lot of vocalizations. The most often used vocalization when moving through the middle and upper canopies of the rainforest is the “coo.” It is generally used while pigtail macaques are foraging and can be either a short call or a long call, depending on the information being exchanged. Some other vocalizations are made when pigtail macaques are being threatened or endangered, especially during agonistic encounters with other pigtail macaques. These other sounds include “squeals,” “screams,” “growls,” “barks,” and “screeches.”

Pigtail macaques use other forms of communication like visual cues and body postures. Both males and females use a form of puckering to communicate. Males use their lips to attract females who are in estrous for mating, which generally occurs right after the communication exchange. But males also direct this facial expression to other males. In this case, it usually makes the lower-ranking male withdraw from the encounter. Another way to threaten other males is to shake branches. This is also used to attract females for copulation. Pigtail macaques use another very common facial expression that includes bared teeth and silence. However, unlike the puckering lips, lower-ranking males direct this signal to more dominant males. Females have their own form of visual cues. When in estrous they get large anogenital swellings that turn a purple-pink color. This allows males to know that they are ready for copulation. Like other primates, touch and chemical cues also are likely to play a role in social communication.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; acoustic

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Pigtail macaques have an expected lifespan of about 26 years in the wild if they survive to sexual maturity. Captive individuals have lived up to almost 35 years.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
30 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
26 years.

Range lifespan

Status: captivity:
34.3 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
27.1 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 37.6 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

Pigtail macaques are not monogamous and females will mate with multiple males during a lifetime. They do not discriminate between adolescents and adult males. When there are only a few females that are in estrus, the highest ranking males will be able to monopolize them. They can keep younger and lower-ranking males from attempting to mate and will often act aggressively toward the male and the female if the lower-ranking male attempts to copulate. However, if there are more than a few females in estrus, the top ranking males cannot effectively control females and lower-ranking males gain opportunities to copulate. When a female reaches sexual maturity at 3 years of age, she can present herself to males with her anogenital swelling during estrus for reproduction. When this time comes, the female will show her backside, including her anogenital swelling, and look over her shoulder at the male. The male will then draw back his ears and push his lips outward.

Although higher-ranking males are generally able to copulate more frequently with more females, this does not mean that they produce more offspring than do lower-ranking males. According to a study done with captive pigtail macaques, female rank is more important to reproductive success. It also helps to determine the sex of offspring. Higher-ranking female pigtail macaques will produce female offspring. This is because female infants are more energetically expensive. They require a lot more attention from their mothers because they stay with the group and nurse more often. Higher-ranking females can benefit from this because they gain allies in their daughters. Lower-ranking females will give birth to male offspring because they nurse less often and do not require as much attention. Once they are old enough they leave the group to join another group, hopefully gaining a higher position in that group through competition.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Pigtail macaques are year-round breeders. However, there is a slight increase during the months of January and May. Females have reproductive cycle of about 30 to 35 days and during this time display a large, purple-pink anogenital swelling. They give birth to single infants after a gestation period between 162 and 186 days. Young pigtail macaques are then nursed for 8 to 12 months. After one year pigtail macaques are considered adolescents until they reach reproductive maturity at the age of 3 years old for females and 4.5 years old for males.

Breeding interval: The breeding interval is between 1 year and 2 years.

Breeding season: Pigtail macaques breed throughout the year.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 2.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 162 to 186 days.

Average gestation period: 171 days.

Average weaning age: 12 months.

Range time to independence: 8 to 12 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 3 to 3.5 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 4 to 4.5 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); viviparous

Females provide the majority of care for the young. Mothers nurse young, carry them, and protect them throughout their first year of life. After that they still provide some care, especially to female offspring, generally through grooming and social support. This can last throughout their whole lives or until they leave the natal group.

During the first month of their lives, offspring and mothers are hardly ever separated. After the fifth week though, the infant will separate from its mother and begin to explore its surroundings. This can cause problems because the infant is then in danger of being kidnapped by other adult females. This is particularly the case when higher-ranking females seize lower-ranking female’s offspring. However, if the infant is separated from its mother for too long, it will more than likely die from starvation or dehydration.

When pigtail macaques are born they have a black coat, but by the third month of life, this starts to change to an olive brown, which is typical of adults. At one year old pigtail macaques are no longer considered infants. After one year pigtail macaques are considered adolescents until they reach reproductive maturity at the age of 3 for females and 4.5 for males.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); post-independence association with parents; extended period of juvenile learning; maternal position in the dominance hierarchy affects status of young

  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Primates of the World. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Cawthon Lang, K. 2009. "Primate Info Net: Library and Information Service: National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin- Madison" (On-line). Primate Factsheets: Pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology. Accessed March 20, 2009 at http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/pigtail_macaque/taxon.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Macaca nemestrina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Richardson, M., Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. & Konstant, B.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Vulnerable as there is reason to believe the species has declined by at least 30% over the past 30-36 years (three generations) due primarily to hunting and habitat loss.

History
  • 2000
    Vulnerable
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
  • 1994
    Commercially Threatened
    (Groombridge 1994)
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Pigtail macaques are classified as vulnerable on the IUCN redlist. Their vulnerability comes from many sources. The first source that poses a threat for the pigtail macaques is destruction of their natural habitat. From large scale timber companies cutting down trees to small families taking wood for fire or building, each time forests are cut, pigtail macaque habitat is destroyed. Effective protection of forested habitat and education of local people is necessary to help protect this species.

Pigtail macaques are often killed by locals for food. They are being shot and killed at higher rates in some places, such as Borneo, where they are becoming rare (Nowak, 1999). Pigtail macaques are also targeted in order to become the subjects of biomedical research especially for research on HIV/AIDS (Cawthon Lang, 2009).

Another threat to pigtail macaques, especially in India, is the effects of the nearby coal mines. Pollution from the coal mines is harmful to the pigtail macaques that live nearby. This problem could be solved by the Indian government taking steps to regulate the coal mining system.

One promising conservation effort was reported in a study by Steinmetz, Chutipong, and Seuaturien (2006). They led wildlife workshops in local villages in Southeast Asia in order to teach villagers about the status of endangered animals (including pigtail macaques) and what to do to help these animals thrive. The workshops involved assessing the level of danger to the animals, determining what activities were leading to the endangerment of the species, and coming up with a plan of action to protect the species. The study also involved inter-village cooperation. Villages were brought together to understand and help these endangered animals. This study had promising results that led to less killing of pigtail macaques in the villages that participated. It is possible that implementing more educational workshops and cooperative programs could lead to helping change the vulnerable status of pigtail macaques and other species.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

  • Steinmetz, R., W. Chutipong, N. Seuaturien. 2006. Conservation in Practice: Collaborating to Conserve Large Mammals in Southeast Asia. Conservation Biology, 20/5: 1391-1401.
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Status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List 2006 (1).
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Population

Population
It is common in some parts of its range, but numbers have been severely reduced in many places due to hunting and habitat loss.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
These animals are threatened by loss of habitat, which is very serious in many parts of its range. There is extensive loss of lowland forest in Malaysia and Indonesia to expanding oil palm plantations, as well as to logging and agricultural expansion. This species is also frequently shot as a crop pest (M. Richardson pers. comm.) and hunted for food.
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This species faces many threats. Destruction of forests by felling, encroachment, slash and burn cultivation of the hill tribes and monoculture are all major threats to the Sunda pig-tailed macaque's habitat (1). The rate of forest destruction is alarming, and is not only reducing this primate's habitat, but also fragmenting it. The macaque's taste for agricultural crops has also deemed it a pest, and it is therefore frequently shot on sight (2). Furthermore, Sunda pig-tailed macaques are very popular for use in laboratories, being almost ideally suited for both psychological studies and HIV (AIDS virus) research (2).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed under CITES Appendix II. Further studies are needed into the distribution, abundance, and threats to this species.
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Conservation

The Sunda pig-tailed macaque is known to occur in 7 protected areas and is found in captivity in 26 zoos or institutions worldwide (2).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Pigtail macaques are pests to farmers because they often raid crops. They steal corn and coconuts from local crops and use lookouts to warn the group of the approach of humans (Cawthon Lang, 2009).

Negative Impacts: crop pest

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Pigtail macaques have been domesticated and trained in some areas of the Malay peninsula by farmers to retrieve coconuts and other fruit from trees.

Pigtail macaques are sought for use in medical research, such as research on HIV. Local populations of humans hunt them for food.

Positive Impacts: food ; source of medicine or drug ; research and education

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Wikipedia

Southern pig-tailed macaque

The southern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) is a medium-sized Old World monkey.

Etymology and taxonomy[edit]

The species epithet, nemestrina, is an adjective (derived from Latin Nemestrinus, the god of groves) modified to agree in gender with the feminine generic name.[3]

It formerly included the northern pig-tailed, Pagai Island, and Siberut macaques as subspecies.[1]

Physical description[edit]

Macaca nemestrina can reach a weight of 5–15 kg in large males. These monkeys are buff-brown with a darker back and lighter lower parts of the body. Their common name refers to the short tail held semi-erect and reminiscent of the tail of a pig.

Macaca nemestrina at Sepilok, Sabah, Malaysia

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

They are mainly terrestrial but they also are skilled climbers. Unlike almost all primates they love water. They live in large groups split into smaller groups during the day when they are looking for food. They are omnivorous, feeding mainly on fruits, seeds, berries, cereals, fungi and invertebrates.

There is a hierarchy among males, based on the strength and among females, based on heredity. Thus, the daughter of the dominant female will immediately be placed above all other females in the group. The dominant female leads the group, while the male role is more to manage conflict within the group and to defend it.

Sexual maturity is reached at the age of 3–5 years. Female gestation lasts about 6 months. She will give birth to one infant every two years. Weaning occurs at 4–5 months.

Habitat and distribution[edit]

This macaque is mostly found in rainforest up to 2000 meters, but will also enter plantations and gardens.[4]

It is found in the southern half of the Malay Peninsula (only just extending into southernmost Thailand), Borneo, Sumatra and Bangka Island.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 163. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Richardson, M., Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B. & Konstant, B. (2008). Macaca nemestrina. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  3. ^ Fooden, J. (1975). "Taxonomy and evolution of liontail and pigtail macaques (Primates : Cercopithecidae)". Fieldiana Zoology 67: 1–169. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.3016. 
  4. ^ Payne, J., and C. M. Francis. 1998. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo. The Sabah Society, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. ISBN 967-99947-1-6
  • Maestripieri D, 1999. Changes in Social Behavior and Their Hormonal Correlates during Pregnancy in Pig-tailed Macaques. International Journal of Primatology 20 : 707-718.
  • Rodman PS, 1991. Structural differentiation of microhabitats of sympatricmacaca fascicularis andM. nemestrina in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. International Journal of Primatology 12 : 357-375.
  • Oi T, 1990. Patterns of dominance and affiliation in wild pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina nemestrina) in West Sumatra. International Journal of Primatology 11 : 339-356.
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