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Range DescriptionCebus olivaceus is found in lower Brazilian Amazonia, north of the mainstream of the Amazon and east of the Rio Negro, extending north through the Guianas and into northern Venezuela (Hill I960; Napier 1976). In the northern parts of its range, C. olivaceus extends north to the Río Orinoco and west to the Río Caroni. It has been recorded on the Island of Caviana in the Marajó Archipelago (Fernandes et al. 1995)
C. o. olivaceus extends south from there throughout the Guianas it would seem (excepting a possible hiatus in French Guiana where the form castaneus might occur), but the limits to its range in Brazil are unclear. C. o. olivaceus, type locality São Joaquim, upper Rio Branco, Roraima, Brazil, is the form occurring in the Venezuelan Amazon (Bodini and Pérez-Hernández 1987) and to the south and east it perhaps extends across the Rio Branco into Brazil, limited in the north by the Serra Parima and Serra Pacaraima, meeting with C. o. olivaceus somewhere in northern Pará or Amapá, but this is conjecture. Hill (1960) extends the range of C. o. olivaceus as far as the Rio Parú, a north bank tributary of the Amazon just above the Rio Jari. In Suriname, C. o. olivaceus is almost entirely restricted to the interior. Like Chiropotes and Ateles, it just enters the old coastal plain in a small part of western Surinam (Mittermeier 1977). Sussman and Phillips-Conroy (1995) indicated that it occurs throughout Guyana, and there is no evidence to suggest otherwise for French Guiana.
Cebus o. brunneus probably occurs throughout the Cordillera de la Costa and it would seem the Cordillera de Merida of extreme north-western Venezuela (Bodini and Pérez-Hernández 1987).
Cebus o. apiculatus is distributed throughout central Venezuela, south of the Orinoco between the ríos Caroni and Ventuari (Bodini and Pérez-Hernández 1987).
Cebus o. nigrivittatus occurs in the Venezuelan Amazon, north of the Rio Orinoco, east into Roraima, and across upper the Rio Branco, restricted to the south of the Serra Pacaraima and the highlands along the southern boundaries of the Guyana to the Rio Paru do Oeste. It is not known which subspecies of Cebus olivaceus occurs in northern Pará and Amapá in Brazil, but possibly the Rio Jari marks the boundary between C. o. olivaceus (to the east) and C. o. nigrivittatus (to the west).
Bodini and Pérez-Hernández (1987) indicate an as yet undescribed form north of the Rio Orinoco, and C. o. apiculatus west of the Rio Caroni, extending west to the Río Orinoco.