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Range DescriptionCebus apella apella
This is a wide ranging subspecies in the lower Amazon. The definition of Cebus apella apella of course determines the geographic range. As this is still controversial, the geographic range is correspondingly uncertain. Here we follow the taxonomy and proposed distributions of Silva Jr (2001). The taxonomic arrangement proposed by Groves (2001) was discussed by Rylands et al. (2005), especially in relation to the work of Torres de Assumpção (1983). It was not possible to delimit the ranges of the subspecies he recognized, but those of the species were mapped in Fragaszy et al. (2004). The one exception is in the lack of precision in the ranges of C. libidinosus and C. apella. Groves (2001) recognized C. libidinosus juruanus as the form occurring from the upper Juruá (type locality: Brazil: Frente a João Pessôa, Rio Juruá) extending east in a swathe through northern Mato Grosso. In the map provided in Fragaszy et al. (2004), C. libidinosus juruanus is restricted to the upper Juruá (a range proposed by Hill ), and entirely surrounded by C. apella, which of course is unreasonable: it should have a range which is contiguous with other C. libidinosus subspecies. If a valid taxon, the range of C. l. juruanus should extend through northern Mato Grosso to meet the range C. l. libidinosus, but its limits are unclear. The requirements for any conservation assessment and subsequent conservation action are that the taxon is defined and its geographic distribution delineated. Silva Jr. (2001) provided a taxonomy and distribution maps. This in no way discards the taxonomy proposed by Groves (2001). Further research is needed.
The range of Cebus apella apella described here includes that of C. apella tocantinus Lönnberg, 1939, from the south of the lower to middle Amazon, Cebus libidinosus pallidus Gray, 1866 from the central and northern Bolivia (as indicated by Groves 2001), part of the range of C. macrocephalus Spix, 1823 (lower to middle Amazon north of the Rio Amazonas), and the part of that of C. libidinosus juruanus that Groves (2001) proposed extended through Rondônia to northern Mato Grosso.
The stronghold of the type species is the Guianas, and Brazil, at least east of the Rio Negro. Boher-Bentti and Cordero-Rodríguez (2000) extended it to the southern extreme of the Orinoco Delta, although it is otherwise not recognized as occurring in eastern Venezuela (Bodini and Pérez-Hernández 1987; Linares 1998). In Venezuela, it occurs in the Federal Territory of Amazonas, along both sides of the upper Rio Orinoco, its precise range being limited by savannas. The range to the west is constrained by C. macrocephalus and to the south by C. libidinosus. In the east to the interfluvium of the rios Itapecuru and Parnaiba in the state of Maranhão. In Bolivia, Cebus apella occurs south of the Madre de Dios, south to the headwaters of the ríos Mamoré and Beni, where it meets the range of C. cay occurring in southern Bolivia, the Brazilian Mato Grosso, Paraguay and Argentina. It extends into south-east Peru along the south of the Río Madre de Dios, west as far the Rio Inambari (recognized as C. a. pallidus by Aquino and Encarnación ). In the southern Amazon, C. apella would be restricted by the transition to Cerrado, the bush savanna of central Brazil where C. libidinosus occurs.
Cebus apella margaritae
Cebus apella margaritae lives in four forest fragments on the east side of Margarita Island in Venezuela: El Copey Nacional Park (7,130 ha) rising to 930 m above sea level; the Serranía of Cerro Tragaplata (~4,400 ha) an unprotected area rising to 680 m above seas level; Cerro Matasiete Natural Monument (1,145 ha) rising to 660 m asl; and Cerro Taguantar (~1,000 ha) an unprotected area rising to 520 m above sea level. Monkeys were reported in Cerro Taguantar in 2007 (Ceballos-Mago, direct observation).