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Range DescriptionCebus albifrons extends from northern coastal Colombia (C. a. malitiosus) along the northern slopes of the Sierra Santa Marta, south the Río Magdalena valley into the Department of Tolima (exact southern limit unclear) and the lower Río Cauca valley to the eastern parts of central Antioquia and southern parts of the Department of Sucre in the west (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976; Defler 2004). It occurs in western Ecuador and extreme north-eastern Peru and from the eastern slopes of the Andes in Peru and Ecuador to the Venezuelan Amazon, south through eastern Peru, east to the Rio Tapajós in Brazil, and south into northern and central Bolivia.
Cebus albifrons albifrons. (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela)
In Colombia, Defler (2004) indicated that C. a. albifrons is the form occurring in the Department of Arauca (south of the Río Arauca) and also in Vichada between the ríos Meta and Tuparro. A population also occurs between the upper reaches of the ríos Vaupés and Isan in the Department of Vaupes (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976). Its occurrence in other parts of central Colombia, east of the Cordillera Oriental is otherwise supposed but not yet ascertained. Cebus a. albifrons occurs throughout the Colombian Amazon north of the Rio Napo and east of the Río Ucayali in Peru south as far as right bank of the upper Río Purus (Aquino and Encarnación 1994). It occurs in the Venezuelan Amazon, south into Brazil into the states of Amazonas and Roraima, along the right (west) banks of the Rios Branco and Negro, and further east south of the Rio Amazonas as far as the Rio Tapajós, south through the Madeira-Tapajós interfluvium to the north-west Mato Grosso and northern Rondônia, extending south of the Madre de Dios, across the Río Beni basin to Río Mamoré-Guaporé to about 17ºS (Brown and Rumiz 1986; Anderson 1997). The range limits in the southern part of the distributions of C. a .cuscinus and C. a. albifrons are poorly defined.
Cebus albifrons cuscinus. (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru)
This capuchin (here considered a senior synonym of C. albifrons yuracus, following Groves ) occurs south of the Río Guamés in Colombia according to Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) and Defler (2004). However, they place C. albifrons albifrons between the Rios Putumayo and Amazonas in the Colombian trapezium. Aquino and Encarnación (1994), on the other hand, regard the form between the Napo and Putumayo to be C. a. yuracus (= cuscinus). So, the identity of the White-fronted Capuchin between the Napo and Putumayo is confused. A provisional hypothesis would be that that, from the Rio Guamés, C. a. cuscinus south of the Rio Aguarico in Ecuador and south of the Río Napo as far as the Amazonas, in Peru. It extends south along the left (west) bank of the Río Ucayali, occurring along south (right) bank of the Purus to the Rio Acre and taking in the far north-west corner of Bolivia., north of the Río Madre de Dios (Brown and Rumiz 1986; Aquino and Encarnacíon 1994; Anderson 1997). The range limits in the southern part of the distributions of C. a .cuscinus and C. a. albifrons are poorly defined.
Cebus albifrons cesarae. (Colombia)
Cebus a. cesarae, is a well-defined, light coloured subspecies occurring in the Department of Magdalena, southward from Ciénaga Grande, and the lowlands of the Department of Cesar, right bank and north of the Río Magdalena as far as the west bank of the Río César, north to the deciduous and gallery forests of the Río Ranchería, Department of Guajira (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976; Defler 2004).
Cebus albifrons malitiosus. (Colombia)
Central and northern Colombia. Deciduous and humid forests of the northern slopes of the Santa Marta Mountains at least as high as 1,300 m, although the eastern and southern limits of its range are not well defined (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976; Defler 2004).
Cebus albifrons versicolor. (Colombia)
Cauca-Magdalena interfluvium, including the eastern parts of central Antioquia and southern parts of Sucre to the west. It extends north along the slopes of the northernmost reaches of the Cordillera Oriental and along the Serranía de Perijá, west of Lake Maracaibo, and east of Lake Maracaibo to the Serranía de Merida (Bodini and Pérez-Hernández 1987; Bodini 1989; Linares 1998). To the east of the Cordillera Oriental it occurs in Norte de Santander, and Santander (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976; Defler 2004).
Cebus albifrons trinitatis. (Trinidad)
An isolated population on the Island of Trinidad.
Cebus albifrons aequatorialis. (Ecuador, Peru)
All of western Ecuador along the Pacific coast, extending into the Department of Tumbes in Peru (Encarnación and Cook 1998; Tirira and da la Torre 2001).