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Range DescriptionA wide-ranging species occurring thoughout much of the bush savanna (cerrado) and dry forests of central Brazil, south from middle and upper reach of the Amazonian tributaries, the rios Juruena, Xingu and Araguaia. It extends east of the Midde and upper Rio São Francisco in the west of the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia, occupying humid forest (known as brejos, resulting from orographic rainfall), semideciduous and deciduous (floresta de caatinga) and gallery forests. It extends into eastern Paraguay and in parts of the southern and central regions of the Paraguayan chaco, west of the Río Paraguai (Stallings 1985; Stallings et al,1989). Brown and Zunino (1994) descirbed its range in north-eastern Argentina, occurring in eastern Formosa and Chaco, the extreme north-eastern section of Santa Fe, northern Corrientes and the southern part of Misiones. Alouatta guariba occurs in the Atlantic forest remnants of northern Misiones. In Bolivia, this species is found exclusively east of the Rio Beni and is absent from true Amazonian forests of northern Beni and Pando. It is patchily distributed in the rest of lowland tropical Bolivia (R.B. Wallace pers. comm. 2007). Wallace et al. (2000) recorded it from Pajaral, east of the Rio Blanco, along with A. sara. A. sara they found in low densities (0.1 groups encountered per 10 km) in floodplain forest, whereas A. caraya was restricted to semideciduous forest patches.
Aguiar et al. (2007) recorded sympatry and probable hybridization with A. guariba in riparian forest along the left margin of the Rio Paraná (between Porto Figueira and Port Camargo) in the Ilhas e Várzeas do Rio Paraná Environmental Protection Area on the state of Paraná. This region is considered to be an ecotone between Cerrado (the typical domain of A. caraya) and the Atlantic forest (A. guariba). In São Paulo, it is restricted to the right (west) bank of the Rio Paraná above the mouth of the Rio Paranaiba.
Villalba et al. (1995) reported on its probable presence in the past, and possible existence still, in the extreme north-west of Uruguay.