The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2001. Capuchin-like Monkey Species. Pp. 352-353 in D Macdonald, S Norris, eds. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. I, 1 Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • 2006. "New World Encyclopedia" (On-line). Howler Monkey. Accessed April 01, 2009 at
  • BayScience Foundation, Inc. 2003. "" (On-line). Alouatta (Genus). Accessed March 31, 2009 at
  • Camargo, C., S. Ferrari. 2007. Interactions between tayras (Eira barbara) and red-handed howlers (Alouatta belzebul) in eastern Amazonia. Primates, 48: 147-150.
  • Camargo, C., S. Ferrari. 2007. Observations of daytime births in two groups of red-handed howlers (Alouatta belzebul) on an island in the Tucurui Reservoir in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia. American Journal of Primatology, 69: 1075-1079.
  • Cormier, L. 1999. Cultural Implications for Neotropical Primate Conservation on the Carú Indigenous Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil. American Journal of Primatology, 49/I: 45-46.
  • Cormier, L. 2003. Kinship with Monkeys: The Guaja Foragers of Eastern Amazonia. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • De Souza, L., S. Ferrari, M. Da Costa, D. Kern. 2002. Geophagy as a correlate of folivory in red-handed howler monkeys (Alouatta belzebul) from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 28: 1613-1621.
  • Emmons, L. H. 1990. Neotropical Rainforest Animals. University of Chicago Press, London.
  • Ferrari, S., L. Veiga, B. Urbani. 2008. Geophagy in new world monkeys (Platyrrhini): ecological and geographic patterns. Folia Primatol, 79: 402-415.
  • Grzimek, B. 1990. Simians (Cebids: Comparison of Species). Pp. 174 in S Parker, ed. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 2nd, 1st Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
  • Grzimek, B. 2003. Howler monkeys and spider monkeys (Atelidae). Pp. 155-169 in M Hutchins, D Kleiman, V Geist, M McDade, eds. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. 14, Mammals III, 2nd Edition. Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA: Gale Group.
  • Gursky, S., K. Nekaris. 2007. Primate Anti-Predator Strategies. New York, NY: Springer.
  • Horwich, R. 1998. Effective solutions for howler conservation. International Journal of Primatology, 19: 579-598.
  • Kappeler, P. M., and E. W. Heymann. 1996. Nonconvergence in the evolution of primate life history and socio-ecology. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 59:297-326.
  • Kappeler, P. M., and M. E. Pereira. 2003. Primate Life Histories and Socioecology. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILlinois, USA.
  • MacDonald, D. 2001. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Marsh, C., R. Mittermeier. 1987. Primate Conservation in the Tropical Rain Forest: Monographs in Primatology, Volume 9. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc..
  • Miranda, J., I. Bernardi, R. Moro-Rios, F. Passos. 2006. Antipredator behavior of brown howlers attacked by black hawk-eagle in southern Brazil. International Journal of Primatology, 27: 1097-1101.
  • Mittermeier, Rusell A., Anthony B. Rylands, and Don E. Wilson, eds. 2013. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Volume 3. Primates. 951
  • Moura, A., K. McConkey. 2007. The capuchin, the howler, and the Caatinga: seed dispersal by monkeys in a threatened Brazilian forest. American Journal of Primatology, 69: 220-226.
  • Nowak, R. 1990. Walker's Primates of the World. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press.
  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. 5 edition. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London.
  • Oliveira, D., C. Ades. 2004. Long-distance calls in Neotropical primates. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 76: 393-398.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Pinto, A., C. Azevedo-Ramos, O. de Carvalho Jr.. 2003. Activity patterns and diet of the howler monkey Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in eastern Amazonia. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 26: 39-49.
  • Pinto, L., E. Setz. 2004. Diet of Alouatta belzebul discolor in an Amazonian rain forest of northern Mato Grosso State, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology, 25: 1197-1211.
  • Ponce-Santizo, G., E. Andresen, E. Cano. 2006. Dispersiόn primaria de semillas por primates y dispersiόn secundaria por escarabajos coprόfagos en Tikal, Guatemala. Biotropica, 38: 390-397.
  • Purvis, A., J. L. Gittleman, G. Cowlishaw, and G. M. Mace. 2000. Predicting extinction risk in declining species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 267:1947-1952.
  • Sekulic, R., D. Chivers. 1986. The significance of call duration in howler monkeys. International Journal of Primatology, 7: 183-190.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • University of Wisconson - Madison, , Wisconson Primate Research Center Library, National Primate Research Center. 2009. "Primate Info Net" (On-line). The Life Spans of Nonhuman Primates. Accessed March 31, 2009 at
  • Veiga, L., C. Kierulff, M. de Oliveira. 2008. "2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Alouatta belzebul. Accessed March 21, 2009 at
  • Virginia Department of Health. 2008. "Non-Human Primates" (On-line). Virginia Department of Health: Protecting You and Your Environment. Accessed April 03, 2009 at
  • Webb, D., L. Cortes-Ortiz, J. Zhang. 2004. Genetic evidence for the coexistence of pheromone perception and full trichromatic vision in howler monkeys. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 21: 697-704.
  • Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-size dimorphism: Influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.
  • Whitehead, J. 1995. Vox Alouattinae: A preliminary survey of the acoustic characteristics of long-distance calls of howling monkeys. International Journal of Primatology, 16: 121-144.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vol. 1. xxxv + 743
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • Youlatos, D. 1999. The schizodactylous grasp of the howling monkey. Zeitschrift fuer Morphologie und Anthropologie, Vol. 82/Issue 2-3: 187-198.


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