DistributionRead full entry
Range DescriptionThere are three recognized subspecies:
Saguinus nigricollis nigricollis
Hershkovitz (1977) recorded that it occurs between the Rios Solimões-Amazonas and Içá-Putumayo, at least as far west as the mouth of the Río Napo. Aquino and Encarnación (1994) documented its occurrence west from there along the left (north) bank of the Río Napo in Peru, upstream at least as far as the Ríos Aguarico, Lagartococha and Güepi on the border with Ecuador, where it is replaced by S. n. graellsi, as was proposed by Hershkovitz (1982). In Colombia, its distribution is poorly known, but Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) and Defler (1994) reported that it occurs north of the Río Putumayo to the Río Caquetá, and east to the Brazilian border, indicating its, as yet undocumented, presence between the Rios Japurá and Iça in Brazil (Hershkovitz 1977, 1982). However, evidence for its occurrence north of the Río Putumayo in Colombia is sparse. Its supposed presence in two large protected areas in this region (La Paya National Natural Park and Cahuinarí National Natural Park) has not yet been confirmed (Defler 1994). Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) reported that they observed S. n. nigricollis groups mixed with S. f. fuscus at Puerto Leguízamo, located on the north bank of the upper Putumayo. According to them S. n. graellsi is sympatric with S. n. nigricollis at Puerto Leguízamo, and west from there between the Ríos Putumayo and Caquetá. For this reason, they argued that the form graellsi should be considered a distinct species (see also Defler 1994). Otherwise the only evidence is that of a young specimen collected in 1960 by H. Granados and H. Arévalo labeled “Caquetá-Putumayo”, as reported by Hershkovitz (1982) who pointed out that it may have been taken from the left bank of the Río Putumayo. Hershkovitz (1982) argued that the evidence for the occurrence of S. n. nigricollis north of the Río Putumayo is not yet conclusive. In this case, the possibility remains that its range is restricted to the right bank of the Río Putumayo. This being so, Hershkovitz (1982) pointed out that there would be a gap between the ranges of S. n. hernandezi (north of the Río Caquetá) and S. n. graellsi (south of the Río Putumayo). Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976), however, give place S. n. graellsi as occurring north of the upper reaches of the Río Putumayo, north to the Río Caquetá, in which case the ranges would be continuous with S. n. hernandezi north of the Río Caquetá. The exact range of S. n. nigricollis in Colombia remains unclear. North of the Río Putumayo, S. n. nigricollis would be sympatric with S. fuscicollis fuscus.
Saguinus nigricollis graellsi
Saguinus nigricollis graellsi occurs in the upper Amazon, in southern Colombia, eastern Ecuador and north-eastern Peru. Its range is not well known, however, and our interpretation of the current evidence indicates that it is probably more restricted than is indicated by Hershkovitz (1977, 1982). According to Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976), in Colombia it occurs south from right (south) bank of the upper Río Caquetá to the Ríos Sucumbios and Putumayo on the border with Ecuador. Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) recorded that it occurred in the neighborhood of Puerto Asís on the upper Putumayo, east as far as Puerto Leguízamo. These authors informed that S. n. graellsi is sympatric with S. n. nigricollis in the region of Puerto Leguízamo, and the form graellsi should, therefore, be considered a distinct species, although doubts remain. Defler (1989, 1994) argued for this possibility, although Hernández-Camacho and Defler (1988) listed it as a subspecies of S. n. nigricollis. Hershkovitz (1982) argued that there is no definite evidence for S. n. graellsi occurring north of Ecuador, and suggested that Black-mantle Tamarins reported by Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) may be either of the other two subspecies. He restricted its northern limit to the Ríos Putumayo and Sucumbios, indicating as such that it does not occur in Colombia at all. According to Hershkovitz (1982), in Ecuador S. n. graellsi extends throughout a large part of the Amazon region, south from the Río Putumayo, west to the foothills of the Andes. The altitudinal range is between 100 m and 1,000 m (Hershkovitz 1982). Hershkovitz (1977) suggested that the range in Ecuador may extend as far south as the right bank of the upper Río Santiago, although in a later publication (Hershkovitz 1982) he was more conservative, giving the north (right) bank of the Río Pastaza as the limit. The only specimens from the Ríos Pastaza and Tigre are from their uppermost reaches in Ecuador.
According to Aquino and Encarnación (1994), eastwards, S. n. graellsi extends into Peru along the right (south) banks of the Río Napo to its mouth, and restricted to the north (right) banks of the Ríos Amazonas and Marañón. However, S. n. graellsi has not been recorded in Peru except for the banks of the Napo and Curaray, and its occurrence in the basins of the northern tributaries of the Río Marañón has yet to be confirmed. Aquino and Encarnación (1994) reported that S. n. graellsi has never been found along the Rios Tigre and Pastaza, for example, despite a number of primatological surveys along these rivers between 1981 and 1986. The known distribution in Peru is restricted to the region between the Ríos Nanay and Napo. Although occurring north of the Río Napo in Ecuador, it extends east only as far the Ríos Güepí and Lagartococha on the frontier with Peru (Hershkovitz 1982), where it is replaced by S. n. nigricollis (Hershkovitz 1982; Aquino and Encarnación 1994). It has been recorded recently in a number of localities in northern Ecuador between the Ríos Napo and Putumayo, including the basins of the Río Aguarico, Cuyabeno and Pacuyacu (S. de la Torre, in litt. 1996). However, it has not been found in the Yasuní National Park, covering the basin of the Rio Yasuní, where it would seem that only S. tripartitus and S. fuscicollis lagonotus occur (Albuja 1994; S. de la Torre, in litt., 1996). Although Hershkovitz (1977) argued for the restriction of the type locality to the right bank of the Río Napo above the mouth of the Rio Curaray, no definite records or specimens are available for S. n. graellsi in Ecuador between these rivers (Hershkovitz 1977, 1982; Albuja 1994), and it would seem probable that only two Saguinus species occur there: S. tripartitus and S. fuscicollis lagonotus.
The distribution of S. n. graellsi therefore has yet to be clearly defined. However, if it occurs in Colombia it would be sympatric with S. fuscicollis fuscus, and in Ecuador and Peru it is sympatric, at least in some areas such as the upper reaches of the Rios Napo, Curaray, Pindo Yacu and Pastaza, with S. fuscicollis lagonotus (see Hershkovitz 1982; Aquino and Encarnación 1994). It would appear that it does not occur between the Ríos Curaray and Napo in Peru and Ecuador, and is not, therefore, sympatric with S. tripartitus. Tirira (2007) reported that the limjits of its range in Ecuador are poorly defined. In the north of the country, it is not known if it reaches the ríos Sucumbíos and Putumayo, and that the identity of the tamarins to the south of the Río Napo in the provinces of Oreallana and Pastaza is uncertain.
Saguinus nigricollis hernandezi
Saguinus n. hernandezi occurs in eastern Colombia between the Ríos Caquetá, Caguan, and Orteguaza and the base of the Cordillera Oriental, Intendencia de Caquetá (Hershkovitz 1982). K. Izawa (in Hershkovitz 1982) reported that S. n. hernandezi was not seen on the north bank of the Río Caquetá, but it has been found to the north and north-east of the Caquetá in the Department of Meta, Angostura I, on the right bank of the Río Guayabero (Hernández-Camacho and Defler 1988; Tovar 1994). Presumably it occurs at least along the eastern slopes of the Andes from the headwaters of the Río Caguan to the Río Guayabero. The altitudinal range is 150-500 m above sea level (Hershkovitz 1982).