DistributionRead full entry
Range DescriptionThere are 10 recognized subspecies:
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollis (Brazil, Peru)
Spixâs Saddleback Tamarin occurs to the south of the Rio SolimÃµes in Brazil, between the Rio JavarÃ in the west, east through the Rio JutaÃ basin to the Rio JuruÃ¡ (left bank) (Hershkovitz 1977, Peres 1993a). Hodun et al. (1981, see also Soini 1990a,b; Aquino and EncarnaciÃ³n 1994) also found it in Peru, west of the RÃo YavarÃ as far as the RÃo Tapiche, an eastern tributary of the RÃo Ucayali, and extending north from there as far as the RÃo Blanco (left or western bank), where it meets the range of S. f. nigrifrons (right, eastern bank of RÃo Blanco). S. f. illigeri occurs west of the RÃo Tapiche (left bank), and S. f. fuscicollis is replaced by S. f. nigrifrons again at the headwaters of the RÃo Tapiche. In the south, it is replaced by S. f. weddelli on the uppermost reaches of the Rios JavarÃ and JuruÃ¡ near the frontier with Peru (see Aquino and EncarnaciÃ³n 1994; Peres 1993a; Peres et al. 1996). The altitudinal range is 75â150 m above sea level (Hershkovitz 1977). S. f. fuscicollis is sympatric with Spixâs Moustached Tamarin, S. m. mystax, throughout its geographic distribution.
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscus (Brazil, Colombia)
Lessonâs Saddle-back Tamarin is the most northerly known subspecies of the Saddleback Tamarin. It occurs in the lowland forests north of the Rio SolimÃµes, ranging north-west between the Rio JapurÃ¡-CaquetÃ¡ and IÃ§Ã¡-Putumayo in Brazil and Colombia (Hershkovitz 1968). In Brazil, the easternmost locality known for S. f. fuscus is the Rio Tonantins, a north bank tributary of the Rio SolimÃµes (Hershkovitz 1977). According to HernÃ¡ndez-Camacho and Cooper (1976), in Colombia S. f. fuscus also extends north of the middle RÃo CaquetÃ¡, west of the RÃo YarÃ (a northern tributary), through the basin of the Rio CaguÃ¡n, and lower parts of the RÃo Orteguaza, west to the Andean foothills to an altitude of 500 m above sea level. It extends north to the right bank of the RÃo Guayabero and possibly east to the region of around San JosÃ© de Guaviare on the southern bank of the RÃo Guaviare, about 1 hour by boat downstream from the confluence of the RÃos Guayabero and Ariari, to the headwaters of the RÃos VaupÃ©s and Apaporis in the southern department of Meta (HernÃ¡ndez-Camacho and Cooper 1976). To the east from there it is replaced by Saguinus inustus (see Defler 1994, 2004). On the upper RÃo Putumayo it follows the left (north) bank of the RÃo SucumbÃos (HernÃ¡ndez-Camacho and Defler 1989). HernÃ¡ndez-Camacho and Cooper (1976, see also Defler 1994) indicated that the form found north of the RÃo CaquetÃ¡, to the region of San JosÃ© de Guaviare is possibly not S. f. fuscus but a subspecies which has yet to be described. It is not known if S. f. fuscus or some undescribed form of S. fuscicollis occurs between the RiÃ³s Apaporis and CaquetÃ¡, along the left (east) bank of the RÃo YarÃ (HernÃ¡ndez-Camacho and Cooper 1976). In this region, S. inustus is believed to be limited to the north (left) bank of the RÃo Apaporis. Regarding the occurrence of S. f. fuscus to the north of the RÃo CaquetÃ¡, it should be noted that Hershkovitz (1977, 1982) restricted its range to the basin of the RÃo Orteguaza and the right bank of the RÃo CaguÃ¡n.
Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi (Brazil)
Although based only on its type locality at the mouth of the Lago de TefÃ©, south bank of the RÃo SolimÃµes, and a specimen from AyapuÃ¡, left bank of the Rio Purus (Napier 1976), more recent evidence has confirmed the distribution of S. f. avilapiresi proposed by Hershkovitz (1977) as extending along the south of the Rio SolimÃµes between the Rios JuruÃ¡ and Purus, including the basins of the Rios Urucu and CoarÃ, and probably the RÃo TefÃ©. Johns (1985, 1986) recorded S. f. avilapiresi at his study site on the Lago de TefÃ©, left bank of the Rio TefÃ©, although it was very uncommon there, and Peres (1991) recorded the subspecies from Jaraqui, on the right (east) bank of the Rio JuruÃ¡. These records confirm the distribution proposed by Hershkovitz (1977). The southern limits are not known but possibly in the region of the north bank of the Rio TapauÃ¡, an affluent of the Rio Purus, but Saddleback Tamarins have not been recorded for this region.
Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai (Brazil?, Peru)?
The distribution of this subspecies is not known with certainty. Through some rather complicated detective work, as well as indications concerning its affinities in pelage colour and patterns, Hershkovitz (1968) concluded that the most likely provenance of this distinct Saddleback Tamarin is the upper Rio Purus in Brazil. Hershkovitz (1968, 1977, p.636) placed it tentatively in the upper Rio Purus region, south of the Rio TapauÃ¡ to the Rio PauinÃ, both left bank tributaries of the Rio Purus. However, following the discovery of S. f. primitivus, described by Hershkovitz (1977) in an addendum and evidently occupying this region, he placed it, equally tentatively, north of the Rio TapauÃ¡, where no Saddleback Tamarins have recorded to date (Hershkovitz 1977, p. 622). This is to the south of the known geographic range of S. f. avilapiresi, at the headwaters of the Rio CoarÃ, and the Rio Repartimento, a right bank tributary of the Rio TefÃ©.
Van Roosmalen (5 August 2003) reported locating S. fuscicollis cruzlimai in the wild, and informed that Hershkovitz (1977) had been correct in believing that it occurred between the Rios PauinÃ and TapauÃ¡, west of the Rio Purus. It was observed by T. van Roosmalen on 21 June 2002, on the west bank of the Rio Purus, opposite the mouth of the Rio Sepatini (Van Roosmalen, 16 August, 2003).
Saguinus fuscicollis leucogenys (Peru)
This subspecies is confined to north-central Peru, from San Martin, through Huanaco and Pasco to the RÃo Perene, northern Juno, east to the rÃo Ucayali in Loreto to as far north as the RÃo Pisqui (Hershkovitz 1977). To the west, it is limited by the Andes, probably not occurring above altitudes of about 900-1,000 m (Hershkovitz 1977). Freese et al. (1982) observed no primate species at Moyobamba, in the upper Mayo Forest Reserve, at an altitude of 1,000 m above sea level. S. fuscicollis occurs in the Panguana Biological Station, on the left (south) bank of the RÃo Yuyapichis, a tributary of the RÃo Pachitea, in Department of Pasco, about 150 km south of Pucallpa, in the eastern central part of Peru (9Âº37'S, 74Âº56'W) (Hutterer et al. 1995), and is presumably S. f. leucogenys.
Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons (Peru)
This subspecies occurs in Peru, between the RÃos Amazonas and YavarÃ, and along the right bank of the RÃo Ucayali as far as the RÃo Blanco (Hodun et al. 1981; Soini 1990a; Aquino and EncarnaciÃ³n 1994). Upstream of the RÃo Ucayali along both sides of the river (to the south of the Rio Blanco), it is replaced by Illigerâs Saddleback Tamarin, S. f. illigeri. Strangely, S. f. nigrifrons appears again on the the right (east) bank of the RÃo Ucayali at the headwaters of the RÃo Tapiche, a left bank tributary of the Rio Blanco, probably extending east as far as the RÃo YavarÃ, on the border with Brazil. This southern population is based on a specimen collected by R. W. Hendee in the Cerro Azul, Contamana, in 1927 (Hershkovitz 1977). The southern limit is given by Hershkovitz (1977) and Aquino and EncarnaciÃ³n (1994) as the right bank of the RÃo Ucayali across the river from Pucallpa. There are, therefore, two disjunct populations of S. f. nigrifrons, separated by S. f. illigeri (between the RÃos Ucayali and Tapiche/Blanco), and S. f. fuscicollis which crossed the RÃo YavarÃ from the east to occupy the left bank of the RÃo Blanco (as far as the mouth of the RÃo Tapiche) and the right bank of the RÃo Tapiche (Soini 1990a,b).
Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus (Ecuador, Peru)
Saguinus. f. lagonotus occurs between the RÃos Napo and MaraÃ±Ã³n, west to the Andes in Peru and eastern Ecuador (Hershkovitz 1968, 1977). In Peru, it occurs north of the RÃo MaraÃ±Ã³n as far west as the RÃo Chinchipe along the foothills of the Cordillera del Condor (Aquino and EncarnaciÃ³n 1994). Hodun et al. (1981) confirmed its presence on the left bank of the RÃo MaraÃ±Ã³n, and Aquino and EncarnaciÃ³n (1996) recorded it from the right bank of the Rio Napo from Pantoja (frontier with Ecuador) to its confluence with the Rio Amazonas. S. f. lagonotus is in this case sympatric with S. tripartitus between the RÃos Curaray and Napo in Ecuador (see AlbÃºja 1994; Tirira 2007). Thorington (1988) argued that Hershkovitzâs (1977) restriction of S. f. lagonotus to the right bank of the RÃo Napo is not necessarily valid and that it may extend north of the river, where it would be sympatric with (but not necessarily occurring in the same habitats) as S. tripartitus. For this reason, Thorington (1988) regarded S. tripartitus to be a full species, whereas Hershkovitz (1977) regards it as subspecific to S. fuscicollis. Aquino and EncarnaciÃ³n (1996) were unable to provide any evidence for the presence of S. f. lagonotus on the north (left) bank of the RÃo Napo in Peru. The only locality where it is known to extend north of the Napo is in Ecuador at La Coca, mouth of the RÃo Coca, a northern tributary (Hershkovitz 1977). The altitudinal range is from 100 m to approximately 1,200 m in the far west of its range (Hershkovitz 1977). Tirira (2007) gives and altitudinal range of 200 m to 1,160 m above sea level in Ecuador.
Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri (Peru)
This subspecies occurs in Peru, between the RÃos Huallaga and Ucayali, south of the RÃo MaraÃ±on (Hershkovitz 1977). S. f. illigeri also extends east of the RÃo Ucayali, from the mouth of the RÃo Blanco and along the left bank of the RÃo Tapiche (Hodun et al. 1981, Soini 1990a,b; Aquino and EncarnaciÃ³n 1994). How far south it occurs, east of the RÃo Ucayali, is not clearly known, although Hershkovitz (1977) indicated that it is limited to the RÃos Caxiabatay or Pisqui, west of the RÃo Ucayali, in the region of Contamana. Aquino and EncarnaciÃ³n (1994) indicated that it occurs south to about 6Âº10'S, north of Hershkovitzâs projection, although in their distribution map (p.108) they extended the range to nearly 9ÂºS.
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli (Bolivia, Brazil, Peru)
Saguinus f. weddelli has the widest distribution of the S. fuscicollis subspecies. It ranges from southern Peru, from the RÃo Abujao (east tributary of the RÃo Ucayali), south along both banks of the RÃo Ucayali east of the Andes, east of the RÃo Apurimac, and along the upper reaches of such rivers as the Apurimac, Inambari, Urubamaba and Tambopata, to the Rios Madeira and Beni or MamorÃ© in Bolivia. It extends north in Brazil between the Rios Purus and Madeira in Acre and Amazonas and part of RondÃ´nia, but is known only as far north as the Rio Pixuna (Hershkovitz 1977). It crosses the upper Rio Madeira to its right bank in RondÃ´nia in the region of the Rio JamarÃ, south of the Rio Ji-paranÃ¡, forming mixed-species groups there with Mico cf. emiliae (see Vivo 1985; Lopes and Ferrari 1994). Ferrari et al. (1995) also recorded S. f. weddelli (but not Mico cf. emiliae) from the GuajarÃ¡-Mirim State Park in RondÃ´nia, just north of the Rio GuaporÃ©.
Heltne et al. (1976) and Izawa and Bejarano (1981) believed it to be the only tamarin occurring south of the RÃo Madre de Dios, although judging from the distribution map supplied by Aquino and EncarnaciÃ³n (1994) it would seem that the Rio Madidi, south of the RÃo Madre de Dios might be the southern limit for the Bearded Emperor Tamarin, S. i. subgrisescens. The southern limit to its range is given by Hershkovitz (1977) as the upper RÃo MamorÃ© in Bolivia (about 16ÂºS), although he provided no evidence for its occurrence east of the Rio Beni. In Peru, it follows the Andean foothills extending as far south as the upper reaches of such rivers as the Apurimac. Heltne et al. (1976) observed it at Ixiamas, Bolivia (13Â° 46' S, west of the RÃo Beni) where it was found to be less common than other primates in the area, and they indicated that this locality may be near to the southern limit of its range.
Saguinus fuscicollis primitivus (Brazil)
Saguinus f. primitivus is known from PauinÃ, below the mouth of the Rio PauinÃ on the Rio Purus, and from an unspecified locality on the Rio JuruÃ¡. Hershkovitz (1977) suggested that the geographic range extends from north (left) bank of the Rio PauinÃ, along the left (east) bank of the Rio Purus, north to the Rio TapauÃ¡ (right or south bank). It extends west between the Rios PauinÃ and TapauÃ¡ to the right bank of the Rio JuruÃ¡, and Rio TarauacÃ¡ (Hershkovitz 1977). Whether Saddleback Tamarins occur on the left (north) bank of the Rio TapauÃ¡ is not known. Cruz Limaâs Saddleback Tamarin, S. f. cruzlimai, may occur there or, alternatively, the Rio TapauÃ¡ may mark the southern limit to the range of S. f. avilapiresi (Hershkovitz 1977).