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BiologyThis species is arboreal; active in the day and sleeps in tree holes at night (8). The diet mainly includes soft fruits and insects but these monkeys may also take a range of flowers, nectar, eggs, invertebrates and vertebrates such as reptiles, amphibians and small birds, and have been reported to gnaw tree bark to obtain gum (2) (7). Reproductive groups of two to sixteen (average five or six) golden lion tamarins live in stable territories (2) (6) (8). All members of a group help to rear the offspring of the reproductive females, which are typically born as twins (5). Food sharing is very important in this species and helps to maintain social bonds. Vocalisations can perform the same function; a distinctive 'long call' maintains pair bonds and proclaims the presence of a group within a territory (7).