Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

This species is arboreal; active in the day and sleeps in tree holes at night (8). The diet mainly includes soft fruits and insects but these monkeys may also take a range of flowers, nectar, eggs, invertebrates and vertebrates such as reptiles, amphibians and small birds, and have been reported to gnaw tree bark to obtain gum (2) (7). Reproductive groups of two to sixteen (average five or six) golden lion tamarins live in stable territories (2) (6) (8). All members of a group help to rear the offspring of the reproductive females, which are typically born as twins (5). Food sharing is very important in this species and helps to maintain social bonds. Vocalisations can perform the same function; a distinctive 'long call' maintains pair bonds and proclaims the presence of a group within a territory (7).
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Description

The golden lion tamarin, one of the world's most striking mammals, is so-called because of the beautiful mane of silky golden hair that frames its face (5). The fur is a lustrous golden colour, apart from the tail and forepaws, which may be brown or black (6). The digits are long and delicate with claw-like nails, which are perfectly adapted to forage for small prey items (7). Males are typically larger than females (6), although there is some argument that there is simply seasonal variation in weight (2), but otherwise there are no major differences between the sexes (5).
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Distribution

Range Description

The centre of the range of L. rosalia is the basin of the Rio São João, state of Rio de Janeiro. The original distribution was first clarified by Coimbra-Filho (1969, 1976) and Coimbra-Filho and Mittermeier (1973, 1977). It covered the majority of the lowland coastal region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, below 300 m above sea level. The easternmost record for the species is Mangaratiba, on the coast in the south-east of the state. The original distribution included all or parts of the following municipalities: Mangaratiba, Itaguai, Nova Iguaçú, Nilópolis, São João do Meriti, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Magé, São Gonçalo, Niterói, Itaborai, Maricá, Araruama, Silva Jardim, Saquarema, Rio Bonito, Cachoeiras de Macucu, São Pedro da Aldeia, Cabo Frio, Casimiro de Abreu, Macaé, Conceição de Macabu, Campos, and São João da Barra.

From his surveys carried out between 1962 and 1969, Coimbra-Filho concluded that L. rosalia was extinct in all but seven (Silva Jardim, Cabo Frio, Saquarema, Aruarama, Casimiro de Abreu, Rio Bonito, and São Pedro da Aldeia) of the 24 municipalities of its original range. The exhaustive survey by Kierulff (1993a,b; Kierulff and Procópio de Oliveira 1996; Kierulff and Rylands,2003) which covered the entire range of the species during 18 months between 1990 and 1992, showed that they remain in only 104.5 km² of forests in three regions: 1) near the coast (the Centro Hípico de Cabo Frio, with an estimated 29 individuals, and Campos Novos, with an estimated 36 individuals); 2) the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve and adjacent forests (with an estimated 360 individuals); and 3) on the hillsides of the Serra do Mar (with an estimated 74 individuals), there largely restricted to lowland forest patches. A further nine localities contained 12 isolated groups, totaling 60 individuals. These subpopulations were registered in just four of the municipalities reported by Coimbra-Filho (1969): Silva Jardim, Cabo Frio, Saquarema, and Aruarama, the latter two, however, maintaining only a single group each (Kierulff 1993a).

Burity et al. (2007) reported the occurrence of L. rosalia in the municipality of Duque de Caxias, near the Rio Taquara, in the Taquara Municipal Natural Park (19,000 ha), Rio de Janeiro, a westward extension of its current known range.
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Geographic Range

Lowland, coastal rain forest region in Southeast Brazil.

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

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Range

Found on the Atlantic coast of south-eastern Brazil (2) (7). The golden lion tamarin was formerly found throughout much of the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo, but by 1981 was only recorded from an area of less than 900 km² in the state of Rio de Janeiro. 17 subpopulations currently occur in fragmented and isolated patches of suitable habitat (7) (6).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

The golden lion tamarin is between 200-366mm long (8-13in) with a tail length of between 315-400mm (12-15in). There is no sexual dimorphism. They have small, rounded heads adorned with a thick golden mane on the crown, cheeks, throat, ears and shoulders. Their bare faces are flat and have widely spaced nostrils. Their bodies are covered in long, soft silky hair with coloration ranging from pale golden to a rich reddish-gold. One interesting characteristic is that these tamarins have claws, not flattened fingernails. (Kleiman, 1981; Pearl, 1991; Sherr, 1996)

Average mass: 654.5 g.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
An inhabitant of lowland seasonal rain forest of the Atlantic coast of Brazil, with an average annual rainfall of around 1,500 mm a year (Rylands 1993). Golden lion tamarins are an adaptable species well able to live in degraded and secondary forests, depending only on sufficient year round food sources and foraging sites, along with the tree holes they use as sleeping sites (see Coimbra-Filho 1969, 1976; Coimbra-Filho and Mittermeier 1973).

Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects).

Kierulff et al. (2002a) provide a comprehensive review of the behavioural ecology of the lion tamarins. They differ from other callitrichids in having long fingers and hands, which allow them to forage for prey efficiently in nooks and crannies and in epiphytic tank bromeliads. Lion tamarins live in extended family groups of usually 4 to 8 individuals. For L. rosalia, Dietz and Kleiman (1986) recorded a mean group size of 5.8 (range 3-11, n=21) at the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve. Generally, only one female per group breeds during a particular breeding season. They breed once a year. The groups defend home ranges of 40 to more than 100 ha (the size depending on availability and distribution of foods and second-growth patches). At the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve, L. rosalia groups use home ranges that average 45 ±16 ha (range 21-73 ha) (Dietz et al. 1997). At the União Biological Reserve, home ranges average 150 ±72 ha (range 65-229 ha) (Kierulff 2000).

French et al. (2002) review the reproductive biology of lion tamarins, Baker et al. (2002) review their mating system and group dynamics (focussing particularly on L. rosalia) and Tardif et al. (2002) aspects of infant care and development.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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They reside in dense forest that is entangled with many vines and has a high density of fruit. The climate is extremely humid. They occupy the closed canopy, often remaining 10-30 meters off the ground. They sleep in tree holes for protection from predators and warmth at night. (Sherr, 1996)

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

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Inhabits remnant primary tropical forests in the coastal lowlands (8), usually below 300 metres (5). It is also occasionally reported from cultivated areas and secondary re-growth forests (8).
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

The golden lion tamarin is omnivorous (insectivorous and frugivorous). It eats spiders, snails, small lizards, eggs, small birds, fruits and vegetables. They eat insects using their long, slender fingers to probe into crevices in the tree bark. This technique is called "micromanipulation." It is uncommon that these tamarins will share food with others outside of their family members, but among the family members, some food sharing does take place. Juveniles, for example, playfully steal food from parents or siblings. (Sherr, 1996)

Animal Foods: birds; reptiles; eggs; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; mollusks

Plant Foods: leaves; fruit

Primary Diet: omnivore

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Golden lion tamarins live at least 15 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
15 years.

Average lifespan

Sex: male

Status: captivity:
24.8 years.

Average lifespan

Sex: female

Status: captivity:
22.0 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 31.6 years (captivity) Observations: A relatively long-lived species. In captivity, these animals have been reported to live up to 31.6 years (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Reproduction

There is one breeding pair per group. The rearing of young is a cooperative effort by all in the group, although the majority is done by the father.

Mating System: monogamous ; cooperative breeder

Golden lion tamarins normally breed twice per year, between September and March. Females give birth to twins after a gestation of 130 to 135 days. The age of sexual maturity is 18 months for females and 24 months for males.

Breeding interval: Golden lion tamarins breed twice a year.

Breeding season: Golden lion tamarins breed between September and March, the warmest and wettest time of year.

Average number of offspring: 2.

Range gestation period: 130 to 135 days.

Average weaning age: 90 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 18 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 24 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); viviparous

Average birth mass: 55.3 g.

Average number of offspring: 2.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)

Sex: male:
730 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
547 days.

At birth, the golden lion tamarin is fully furred with eyes open. It clings to its mother for the first few weeks and nurses for a period of 90 days. At about week 5, it begins to expand its curiousity and experience things on its own. In some cases, it has been observed that a parent prefers to tend to an offspring of its own sex, but with experienced parents, it did not make a difference. (Nowack, 1997; Pearl, 1991; Sherr, 1996)

Parental Investment: precocial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Male, Female); post-independence association with parents; extended period of juvenile learning

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Leontopithecus rosalia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Kierulff, M.C.M., Rylands, A.B. & de Oliveira, M.M.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Endangered as its extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 km², the existing range is severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in quality of habitat and area of occupancy. Although the situation seems to be improving as wild populations are augmented by captive-bred individuals (1/3 of wild species originated from captive stock), there remain a number of threats to the species in the wild, and the continuation of conservation activities is essential to ensure that the enormous successes seen to date are not undone.

History
  • 2003
    Endangered
  • 2003
    Endangered
    (IUCN 2003)
  • 2000
    Critically Endangered
  • 1996
    Critically Endangered
  • 1996
    Critically Endangered
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
  • 1994
    Endangered
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Endangered
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Endangered
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Endangered
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
  • 1982
    Endangered
    (Thornback and Jenkins 1982)
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The golden lion tamarin is one of the rarest of all mammals in the wild, if not the rarest. It is certainly one of the most severely endangered of all primates in the world. There are only 400 left in the world, most on or near the Reserva Biologica de Poco des Antas in Rio de Janiero. The destruction of their habitat has accounted for their loss in numbers. The trees they live in are cut down for lumber, agriculture and housing. Large treeless areas prevent their spread.

There is hope because they have been bred successfully in captivity and this is continually raising their numbers. Reintroduction into the wild has been successful.

(Sherr, 1996)

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

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Status

Classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1), and listed on Appendix I of CITES (4).
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Population

Population
In 2003, the species was downlisted from Critically Endangered to Endangered, as a result of nearly thirty years of conservation efforts, involving numerous institutions, through the Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Program (GLTCP) of the National Zoological park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, and the Associação Mico-Leao-Dourado, Rio de Janeiro. Conservation efforts have included the establishment of a new population through translocation of 47 individuals in six groups, each isolated and evidently otherwise doomed in tiny isolated forests elsewhere, to a new protected area, the União Biological Reserve. Currently, about one-third of the wild population are descendants of a reintroduction programme. The re-introduction of captive-born Golden Lion Tamarins has contributed significantly not only to the numbers of living in the wild, but also to the protection 3,100 ha of forests within their range (Beck et al. 1986, 1991, 1994; Stoinski et al. 1997; Beck and Martins 1999, 2001).

Early estimates of population size ranged from 200-600 (Coimbra-Filho 1969; Coimbra-Filho and Mittermeier 1973, 1977), but it was only in 1991-1992 that a full and thorough census was carried out by Kierulff (1993a,b; Kierulff and Procópio de Oliveira 1996). Not including the population in the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve, the total number of individuals estimated was 272 in 55 groups. They were divided amongst 14 forests - four main subpopulations with six or more groups each and 12 groups isolated in 10 forest fragments each of 200 ha or less in area. The total area of forest containing Golden Lion Tamarins was 104.5 km². The majority of groups (29) were located in the municipality of Silva Jardim (53%), 24 groups were located in Cabo Frio (43%), and one group each were found in the municipalities of Saquarema and one in Araruama. At the time, the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve was known to harbor about 290 lion tamarins (Kierulff 1993a), giving a total population of 562 (range 470-631), close to the estimate of Coimbra-Filho in 1969.

During Kierulff?s (1993) census, the population of re-introduced lion tamarins was 118 individuals, but by December 2000, the number had risen to 359 (Kierulff et al. 2002a,b). A translocation programme, begun in 1994, established a new and thriving population in the União Biological Reserve, with six introduced groups resulting in a population of over 120 lion tamarins in the Reserve by mid-2001 (Kierulff et al. 2002a). The forests targeted for re-introduction are now believed to be at carrying capacity, and Kierulff and Procópio de Oliveira (1996) estimated that the União Biological Reserve (at 2,400 ha the second largest single block of lowland forest in the state, after the marginally larger Poço das Antas Biological Reserve with 2,760 ha of forest) can hold no more than about 158 lion tamarins (33 groups).

Since 1997, the numbers in the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve have been declining due to predation, and only 220 lion tamarins were recorded in December 2000 (see Franklin and Dietz 2001).

The current estimate of L. rosalia in the wild is now over 1,000. There are only very few forests available for further expansion of the population: Kierulff and Procópio de Oliveira (1996) identified a further four areas (two forest blocks, Rio Vermelho with 9 km², and the Morro de São João with 16 km², and two areas of fragmented forests, one of 16 km² along the BR101 at Gaviões and the other of 12 km² bordering the municipalities of Casimiro de Abreu and Silva Jardim) totalling 7,500 ha which could hold a further 500 lion tamarins (about 100 groups). Occupying all the habitat available, the Golden Lion Tamarin population as a whole would still remain below the minimum viable of 2,000 argued by Seal et al. (1991) and Ballou et al. (1998). Metapopulation management and reforestation are key strategies for the continued survival of this species in the wild (Kierulff 1993a; Kierulff and Procópio de Oliveira 1996).

Recorded population densities include:
Poço das Antas Biological Reserve - 12 individuals/km² or 1.96 groups/km² (Dietz et al. 1994)
Adjacent to Poço das Antas Biological Reserve - 5.1 individuals/km² or 1.17 groups/km² (Kierulff 1993a,b)
União Biological Reserve - 3.5 individuals/km² or 0.46 groups/km² (Kierulff 2000)
Campos Novos - 8.5 individuals/km² or 2.35 groups/km² (Kierulff 1993a,b).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
In the past, major threats included forest loss and fragmentation along with a capture for pets and trade. Today, the main factor is reduced numbers and limited possibilities for growth in the few fragmented and degraded forests that remain in their restricted range.

Deforestation in the state of Rio de Janeiro began in the 16th Century, with successive cycles of development supporting sugar cane plantations, coffee plantations, and in the last century particularly cattle breeding, besides persistent logging, charcoal production, and clearing for urbanization. The state is one of the most populous regions of Brazil, and today L. rosalia is limited to some few and isolated forest patches. Approximately 20% of the original range of L. rosalia is still forested, but 60% of this total is comprised of patches of 1,000 ha or less, 96% of which are less than 100 ha. The average size of the forest patches is 35 ha: smaller than the home range of a single lion tamarin group (Kierulff and Procópio de Oliveira 1996). Fires, set by cattle farmers adjacent to the remaining forest patches in the region, are a constant threat.

A study by Dietz et al. (2000) examined inbreeding depression in small (50 or less) isolated populations of L. rosalia. They concluded that it reduced probability of long-term survival by about one-third.
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A staggering ninety percent of the original area of Atlantic coastal forest has been destroyed through logging and clearance for cultivation and development (9). The habitat of the golden lion tamarin has therefore been drastically reduced and fragmented into isolated patches. A former threat to the species in the wild came from the collection of live individuals for private collections and zoos (6), but this practice became illegal in the 1970s, and subsequently decreased (5). Occasionally, specimens will still turn up in a local market (5), but the pet trade now has relatively little impact on numbers (2). Further more, captive breeding in zoos and subsequent re-introductions have literally helped save this species from extinction, so its former collection for zoos has also had a very positive impact (2).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Included on the Brazilian Official List of Species Threatened with Extinction (Lista Oficial de Espécies Brasileiras Ameaçadas de Extinção, Edict No. 1.522/19th December 1989, see Bernardes et al. 1990; Fonseca et al. 1994), and likewise on the regional threatened species list of the state of Rio de Janeiro (Bergallo et al. 2000). It is listed on Appendix I of CITES.

The first conservation initiatives for Leontopithecus rosalia began with field surveys and initiation of a breeding programme for the species by Adelmar Coimbra-Fillho and Alceo Magnanani in the late 1960s (Coimbra-Filho and Magananini 1972; Magnanini and Coimbra-Filho 1972; Coimbra-Filho 1976a,b). Kleiman (1972) set up an international breeeding programme and studbook for the captive populations in 1972, and initiated the The Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Program (GLTCP) of the National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, in 1983. The GLTCP is still active and includes field research, reintroduction, environmental education, and habitat restoration programmes, centered on the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve, created in 1972 in Rio de Janeiro (Magnanini 1978).

Golden Lion Tamarins occur in the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve (5,500 ha, of which 2,760 ha is forested), União Biological Reserve (3,260 ha, of which 2,400 ha is forested), Bacia do Rio São João / Mico-leão-dourado Environmental Protection Area (150,700 ha), and Taquara Municipal Natural Park (19,000 ha) (Burity et al. 2007).

There is active management of the Poço das Antas and União Biological Reserves, and a stable, managed population in captivity maintained at about 490 animals. However, there is little room for expansion for the population, considering the extreme fragmentation and reduced forest cover within its range. Current and future conservation efforts are attacking this problem with reforestation and the establishment of corridors.

There is an International Committee for the Conservation and Management of lion Tamarins, set up in 1990 by the Brazilian Government (Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade of the Ministry of the Environment) (see Rambaldi et al. 2002).

Reviews of the conservation measures and programmes in place and underway for the lion tamarins are provided by Rylands et al. (2002a), Rambaldi et al. (2002), Kierulff et al. (2002b), Beck et al. (2002), Valladares-Padua et al. (2002), Padua et al. (2002), and Kleiman and Rylands (2002b).
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Conservation

Fortunately, the golden lion tamarin has been the subject of a large-scale, determined conservation effort. A captive breeding programme aims to maintain a zoo population of 500 individuals, and since 1984, captive-bred individuals have been re-introduced to the wild (6) (10). Furthermore, released individuals have successfully reared young in the wild (6). A huge conservation education programme in Brazil has raised the profile of the golden lion tamarin, and the species is now widely regarded with pride as a national symbol of conservation (10). In 1980, the wild population had reached an all time low of less than 100 individuals (11), but by 2000 this had increased to 1000, 424 of which were re-introduced from captive stock (12). Despite these efforts, the species still requires protection and continued conservation efforts if it is to evade extinction. (5).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Conservation efforts have made valuable land unavailable for human use. (Nowack, 1997; Sherr, 1996)

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

At one time, people captured and sold golden lion tamarins as pets. Their rapid decline in numbers has thwarted many people's desires for these exotic pets. They were also exploited in zoos and used in laboratories. (Nowack, 1997)

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Wikipedia

Golden lion tamarin

The golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia, Portuguese: mico-leão-dourado [ˈmiku ɫiˈɐ̃w̃ dowˈɾaðu]) also known as the golden marmoset, is a small New World monkey of the family Callitrichidae. Native to the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil, the golden lion tamarin is an endangered species with an estimated wild population of about 1,000 individuals spread between three places along southeastern Brazil, and a captive population maintained at about 490 individuals among 150 zoos.[3][4]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Closeup on the golden lion tamarin's face

The golden lion tamarin gets its name from its bright reddish orange pelage and the extra long hairs around the face and ears which give it a distinctive mane.[5] Its face is dark and hairless. It is believed that the tamarin gets its hair color from sunlight and carotenoids in its food.[6] The golden lion tamarin is the largest of the callitrichines. It is typically around 261 mm (10.3 in) and weighs around 620 g (1.37 lb). There is almost no size difference between males and females. As with all New World monkeys, the golden lion tamarin has tegulae, which are claw-like nails, instead of ungulae or flat nails found in all other primates, including humans.[7] Tegulae enable tamarins to cling to the sides of tree trunks. It may also move quadrupedally along the small branches, whether through walking, running, leaping or bounding.[8] This gives it a locomotion more similar to squirrels than primates.

Habitat and distribution[edit]

The golden lion tamarin has a very limited distribution range, as over time they have lost all but 2%–5% of their original habitat in Brazil.[9] Today, this tamarin is confined to three small areas of the tropical rain forest in southeastern Brazil: Poço das Antas Biological Reserve, Fazenda União Biological Reserve, private land through the Reintroduction Program.[4] The first population estimate made in 1972 approximated the count at between 400 and 500. By 1981 the population was reduced to less than 200. Surveys from as recently as 1995 suggest that there may only be at most 400 golden lion tamarins left in the wild. Tamarins live along the far southeast border of the country in the municipalities of Silva Jardim, Cabo Frio, Saquarema, and Araruama.[10] However, they have been successfully reintroduced to the municipalities of Rio das Ostras, Rio Bonito, and Casimiro de Abreu.[11] Tamarins live in coastal lowland forests less than 300 m (984 ft) above sea level.[12] They can be found in hilltop forests and swamp forests.

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

The golden lion tamarin is active for a maximum of 12 hours daily. It uses different sleeping dens each day.[13][14] By frequently moving their sleeping nests around, groups minimize the scent left behind, reducing the likelihood of predators finding them.[15] The first activities of the day are traveling and feeding on fruits. As the afternoon nears, tamarins focus more on insects. By late afternoon, they move to their night dens. Tamarin groups use hollow tree cavities, dense vines or epiphytes as sleeping sites. Sites that are between 11 and 15 m (36 and 49 ft) off the ground are preferred. The golden lion tamarin tends to be active earlier and retire later in the warmer, wetter times of the years as the days are longer.[13] During drier times, it forages for insects longer as they become more scarce.[13][14]

Golden lion tamarins are characterized by using manipulative foraging under tree barks and epiphytic bromeliads. Their sites of foraging are usually distributed around their home ranges, which are large territories (averaging 123 hectares) in which multiple foraging sites are located, to find sufficient resources over long periods of time. These areas are sufficient enough in size so that even if there is overlap in between the home range of two different groups, the interactions are minimal due to the distribution of the foraging sites (they spend 50% of their time in approximately 11% of their home range).[16]

The golden lion tamarin has a diverse, omnivorous diet consisting of fruits, flowers, nectar, bird eggs, insects and small vertebrates. They rely on microhabitats for foraging and other daily activities and tamarins will use bromeliads, palm crowns, palm leaf sheaths, woody crevices, lianas, vine tangles, tree bark, rotten logs, and leaf litters.[13][14] The golden lion tamarin uses its fingers to extract prey from crevices, under leaves, and in dense growth; a behavior known as micromanipulation.[17] It is made possible by elongated hands and fingers. Insects make up to 10–15% of its diet. Much of the rest is made of small, sweet, pulpy fruits. During the rainy season, the golden lion tamarin mainly eats fruit, however during drier times, it must eat more of other foods like nectar and gums.[13] Small vertebrates are also consumed more at these times as insects become less abundant.

Social structure[edit]

Family groups may consist of up to eight members.

Golden lion tamarins are social and groups typically consist of 2-8 members. These groups usually consist of one breeding adult male and female but may also have 2–3 males and one female or the reverse.[18] Other members include subadults, juveniles and infants of either sexes. These individuals are typically the offspring of the adults. When there is more than one breeding adult in a group, one is usually dominant over the other and this is maintained through aggressive behavior. The dominance relationship between males and females depends on longevity in the group. A newly immigrated male is subordinate to the resident adult female who inherited her rank from her mother.[19] Both males and females may leave their natal group at the age of four, however females may replace their mothers as the breeding adult, if they die, which will lead to the dispersal of the breeding male who is likely her father. This does not happen with males and their fathers. Dispersing males join groups with other males and remain in them until they find an opportunity to immigrate to a new group. The vast majority of recruits to groups are males.[20] A male may find an opportunity to enter into a group when the resident male dies or disappears. Males may also aggressively displace resident males from their group; this is usually done by two immigrant males who are likely brothers. When this happens, only one of the new males will be able to breed and will suppress the reproduction of the other. A resident male may also leave a vacancy when his daughter becomes the breeding female and he must disperse to avoid inbreeding.[21] Golden lion tamarins are highly territorial and groups will defend their home range boundaries and resources from other groups.[22]

Tamarins emit "whine" and "peep" calls, which are associated with alarm and alliances respectively.[23] "Clucks" are made during foraging trips or during aggressive encounters, whether directed at conspecifics or predators.[24] "Trills" are used to communicate over long distances to give away an individual's position. "Rasps" or "screeches" are usually associated with playful behavior. Tamarins communicate though chemicals marked throughout their territories. Reproductive males and females scent mark the most and their non-reproductive counterparts rarely do so. Dominant males use scent marking to show their social status and may suppress the reproductive abilities of the other males.

Reproduction[edit]

The mother provides transportation at the early stages of the infant's life.

The mating system of the golden lion tamarin is largely monogamous. When there are two adult males in a group only one of them will mate with the female. There are cases of a male mating with two females, usually a mother and daughter.[18] Reproduction is seasonal and depends on rainfall. Mating is at its highest at the end of the rainy season between late March to mid-June and births peak during the September–February rains.[25] Females are sexually mature between of 15–20 months but it isn't until they are 30 months old when they can reproduce.[24] Only dominant females can reproduce and will suppress the reproduction of the other females in the group.[26] Males may reach puberty by 28 months.[25] Tamarins have a four month gestation period. Golden lion tamarin groups exhibit cooperative rearing of the infants. This is due to the fact that tamarins commonly give birth to twins and, to a lesser extent, triplets and quadruplets. A mother is not able to provide for her litter and needs the help of the other members of the group.[27] The younger members of the groups may lose breeding opportunities but they gain parental experience in helping to rear their younger siblings.[19] In their first 4 weeks, the infants are completely dependent on their mother for nursing and carrying. By week five, the infants spend less time on their mother’s back and begin to explore their surroundings. Young reach their juvenile stage at 17 weeks and will socialize other group members. The subadult phase is reached at 14 months and a tamarin first displays adult behaviors.

Ecosystem roles[edit]

The golden lion tamarin has a mutualistic interaction with 96 species of plants found in the Atlantic Forest. This interaction is based on seed dispersal and food sources for the tamarins. The tamarins show repeat visits to those plants with abundant resources. They tend to move around their territories, and therefore, seeds are dispersed to areas far from the parent shadow, which is ideal for germination. Their seed distribution is important to forest regeneration, and genetic variability and survival of endangered plant species.[28]

Predation[edit]

A study has shown that increased predation has caused significant decreases in the population numbers.[29] A survey conducted in 1992 found the number of wild population of golden lion tamarins to be 562 individuals in 109 groups. Currently, the average group size includes 3.6 to 5.7 individuals and densities from 0.39 groups/km to 2.35 groups/km.[30] These predatory attacks occur at the golden lion tamarin sleeping sites. The predators make those sleeping sites, which are mainly tree holes (about 63.6%), larger in order to attack the golden lion tamarins, sometimes wiping out the entire family. The preferred sleeping sites of most golden lion tamarins are tree holes in living trees next to other larger trees with a small percentage of canopy cover. These sleeping sites not only provide a place for sleep, but also offer protection and easy access to foraging sites. Most of the tree holes are lower to the ground, so they are easier to enter. Tree holes that are located in living trees are drier, warmer, and have a lower number of insects and therefore a decreased percentage of transmitted diseases. A smaller percentage of canopy coverage allows the golden lion tamarins to detect the predators faster, and being surrounded by other large trees allows them access to escape routes.[29] Due to degradation of their habitats, there are fewer trees that can support entire social groups and some have to resort to using bamboo (17.5%), vine tangles (9.6%), and bromeliads (4.7%) as a sleeping site, making them more susceptible to predators. Golden lion tamarins are known to use different den sites, but do not change sites often. They are more likely to reuse secure sites that will offer protection. However, the disadvantage of doing so is that predators are able to learn where these sites are located. Golden lion tamarins also scent mark their den holes, so they can quickly return to them in the afternoon time when predators are most active. While excessive scent makes it easier for golden lion tamarins to find their sleeping sites, it also helps predators locate their prey. Moreover, increased deforestation has decreased habitat space, providing predators easy access to their prey, causing a decline in the golden lion tamarin population.[31]

Conservation[edit]

Threats to the golden lion tamarin population include illegal logging, poaching, mining, urbanization and infrastructure development and the introduction of alien species. In 1969, the number of individuals in the Atlantic Forest was found to have dropped to a low of 150 individuals.[32] In 1975 the golden lion tamarin was listed under Appendix I of CITES, given to animals threatened with extinction that may be or are being affected by trade.[33] The species was listed as Endangered by the IUCN in 1982,[3] and by 1984 the National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C. and the World Wide Fund for Nature, through the Golden Lion Tamarin Association, began a reintroduction programme from 140 zoos worldwide.[32] Despite the success of the project, the IUCN classification rose to Critically Endangered in 1996.[3] By 2003 the successful establishment of a new population at União Biological Reserve enabled downgrading the species to endangered,[34] but the IUCN warns that extreme habitat fragmentation from deforestation means the wild population has little potential for any further expansion.[3] In an attempt to curb the golden lion tamarin's precipitous decline, several conservation programs have been undertaken. The intent is to strengthen the wild population and maintain a secure captive population in zoos worldwide. The survival rate of re-introduced animals has been encouraging, but destruction of unprotected habitat continues.

Reintroduction[edit]

Because of the extensive habitat loss of the golden lion tamarin, the wild population reached endangered status in the early 1980s. Beginning in 1983, there has been a huge effort on behalf of scientists and conservationists to reintroduce captive born golden lion tamarins back into the wild. With the help of the Brazilian government, conservationists established the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve and the União Biological Reserve as sites for reintroduction. The goals of the reintroduction process include increasing the size as well as the genetic diversity of the wild population, increasing the available range to better encompass the historic range of the tamarins in Brazil, and widening the scope of public awareness and education programs.[35]

The first step of reintroduction begins with zoo free ranging programs, where tamarins have access to explore the entire zoo. However, they are kept on zoo grounds by the presence of a nest box, an ice box like container where their food is kept. When the tamarins are reintroduced in Poço das Antas Biological Reserve, they require a large amount of post-release training and veterinary care. For the first 6–18 months the reintroduced groups are monitored. Additionally, 1-2 tamarins from each group are radio collared to allow careful monitoring, and all reintroduced tamarins are tattooed and dye marked for easy identification.[35]

Translocation[edit]

Secondly, in an effort to save the golden lion tamarins from extinction, some of the golden lion tamarins have been removed from small, isolated unsafe forests and placed into a larger, protected forest; specifically they were moved to União Biological Reserve and Poço das Antas reserve. This effort to move the golden lion tamarins into União Biological Reserve in Brazil began in 1991.[36] The golden lion tamarins faced the potential of getting new diseases that they had not been previously exposed to. Many were exposed to callitrichid hepatitis, and contracted the disease.[37]

Despite the challenge of illness, the forty-two translocated golden lion tamarins' population grew to over 200 in União Biological Reserve. The number of wild golden lion tamarins is now up in the thousands in all reserves and ranches combined in Brazil. These numbers were once down in the 200s in 1991. By 2025, the number of golden lion tamarins that are protected is projected to be greater than 2000.[36]

Effects of habitat loss[edit]

Golden lion tamarins are native to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Their original habitat was located from the southern part of the state of Rio de Janeiro to the southern part of the state of Espirito Santo. However, deforestation of Atlantic Forest for commercial purposes, predation, and capture of the golden lion tamarins for animal trade and sale as pets has limited their population to about five municipalities across Rio de Janeiro. Most of the population is now found in the Poco des Antas Biological Reserve in Rio de Janeiro.[30]

However, due to the deforestation and fragmentation of the Atlantic forest, their home ranges have decreased in size.[16] The decrease in size has been reported in terms of fragmentation, and today the forest consists of thousands of fragments equaling only 8% of its former size.[38] This directly affects their areas of foraging and subsequently, the amount of resources available.[16]

Impact on juvenile behavior[edit]

The habitat of the tamarins also has an impact on their behavior and social interactions. For example, the type of trees present has a significant effect on the behavior of juvenile golden lion tamarins. Their juvenile behavior is characterized by social play between individuals of different ages and species. This is a key aspect of their social, cognitive and motor skill development, and it influences their behavior when facing competition and predators; how they play mirrors the way they act when facing predatory or competitive interactions. Social play is observed more in large branches (>10 cm) and vine tangles (4m above ground), which is considered safe for them, as they are less vulnerable to predators, compared to play in the dangerous areas including canopy branches and the forest floor. Therefore, deforestation affects the diversity in the forest and decreases the “safe” areas for play for the juvenile tamarins. As a result, play decreases and therefore the development of learned survivorship behaviors does as well. Also, if play is observed in the dangerous areas, the individuals are more exposed to predators, leading to a population decline; which resembles the effect of predation on their sleeping sites. The exposure to predation not only affects the juvenile tamarins but the adults as well, since it has been observed that play happens in the center of the group for protection of the young.[39]

Increase in inbreeding[edit]

Additionally, this deforestation and fragmentation also leads to demographic instabilities, and an increased probability of inbreeding, consequently leading to inbreeding depression and a population decline.[40] In the case of inbreeding, the problem lies in the increase of the isolated fragments where golden lion tamarins live. Inbreeding leads to low levels of genetic diversity and has a negative effect on survivorship; inbred offspring have a lower survivorship than non-bred offspring. Fragmentation leads to a decline in dispersal and as a result, a decline in breeding with individuals of other groups. Consequently, inbreeding depression is observed in these populations.[41] With delay breeding, the decrease and shortage of territory puts pressure on golden lion tamarins to disperse in order to find necessary resources and areas suitable for their survival. However, dispersal is risky and requires a lot of energy that could have been used for reproduction instead.[42]

References[edit]

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