Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

An arboreal species, the black-faced lion tamarin is active in the day and uses its long dextrous digits to forage for fruit, flowers, seeds, young leaves, nectar, insects, and small vertebrates such as reptiles and nestlings (2) (6). It typically lives in groups of two to seven individuals (2), and at night the whole group retires to tree holes to sleep (7). Births peak from September to March (5), and females usually give birth to twins (4). Some experts believe that the black-faced lion tamarin is actually a subspecies of the black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) (4).
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Description

The black-faced lion tamarin has a golden-coloured back that contrasts with the black face, head, mane, chest, feet, forearms and tail (2) (4). Like all lion tamarins it has a long tail, silky fur and a mane of hair that frames the face (4). Claws are found at the end of the long fingers, except on the first digit of each toe, which has a flattened nail (2) (5).
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Distribution

Range Description

The Black-faced Lion Tamarin occupies the southernmost limits of the distribution of the callitrichids. The type locality is on the north-eastern part the island of Superagüi, on the coast of the state of Paraná. Other groups have been found elsewhere on the island, except in the extreme north and some higher elevations in the south-west (Persson and Lorini 1991, 1993). These authors found L. caissara on the mainland, in parts of the valleys of the Rio Sebuí and the Rio dos Patos, limited in the north by the Rio Varadorzinho, and to the west by the Serra da Utinga, Morro do Bico Torto, Morro do Poruquara, and Serra do Gigante. Persson and Lorini (1991, 1993; Lorini and Persson 1994a,b) estimated that its entire range is less than 300 km². Four groups have been found to the north, also on the coast, in the municipality of Cananéia in the state of São Paulo (Persson and Lorini 1993). Martuscelli and Rodrigues (1992) reported four localities in the extreme south-east of São Paulo, two in the basin of the Rio do Turvo (Rio do Turvo and Morro do Teixeira, localities 1 and 3, map p.922), and two further north in the region of Itapitangui (localities 13 and 14, map, p.922), opposite the Ilha Cananéia. As a result of interviews of local people, Martuscelli and Rodrigues (1992) also indicated that L. caissara may occur further inland, at two localities: the Rio Taquari (locality 11, map p.922) and the Rio Ipiranguinha (locality 12, map p.922). The latter may refer to Jacupiranga State Park (100,000 ha, although a large part of it is no longer forested), but none of these localities have been confirmed. Field surveys by Valladares-Padua et al. (2000) in the municipalities of Jacupiranga and Pariqueraçu failed to obtain any evidence of the existence of L. caissara. However, they were able to confirm its presence between the villages of Ariri and Taquari, in the municipality of Cananéia, as had been reported by Martuscelli and Rodrigues (1992), and Valladares Padua et al. (2000) have suggested that its range may extend only a short distance north.

The distirbution of L. caissara is reviewed by Rylands et al. (2002b).
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Geographic Range

The geographic range of the Leontopithecus caissara is limited to about 17,300 hectares in southeastern Brazil (Massicot, 2001). It was first discovered in 1990 and was thought to exist only on the small island of Superagui in the state of Parana. It has since been observed on the mainland in the adjacent state of Sao Paulo (Kleiman and Mallison, 1998).

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

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Range

This species was first discovered in 1990 on Superagui Island, off the south-eastern coast of Brazil. By 1995, it had also been recorded on nearby parts of the mainland in the states of Parana and Sao Paulo. In 1997, the population was estimated to measure fewer than 260 individuals (6), mainly located within Superagui National Park (7).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

All four species of lion tamarins, including L. caissara, are also known as "Kings of the Jungle." Their tiny wrinkled faces are surrounded by tufts of hair that resemble a lion's mane. The mane, arms, and tail of L. caissara, are black, whereas the rest of the body has a golden color to it. Tamarins in general are monkeys the size of large squirrels (Newsweek, 1990). The average body mass is about 600 g, and the average length is about 30.5 cm (without the tail). The tail can be up to 43.2 cm long (Massicot, 2001). These tamarins have non-opposable thumbs, long digits for getting at insects and fruit, and claw-like nails for digging up insects under the bark of trees (Flannery, 2001).

Average mass: 600 g.

Average length: 30.5 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Lowland seasonal rain forest of the Atlantic coast of Brazil with rainfall of about 2,000 mm a year, sub-xeromorphic restinga (sandy soil forest), low (8-10 m) inundated forest (caxetais), and secondary forest (Rylands 1993). Golden lion tamarins are an adaptable species well able to live in degraded and secondary forests, depending on sufficient year round food sources and foraging sites, along with the tree holes they use as sleeping sites (see Coimbra-Filho 1969, 1976; Coimbra-Filho and Mittermeier 1973).

Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects) (see Rylands 1993; Kierulff et al. 2002a).

Kierulff et al. (2002a) provide a comprehensive review of the behavioural ecology of the lion tamarins. They differ from other callithrichids in having long fingers and hands, which allow them to forage for prey efficiently in nooks and crannies and in epiphytic tank bromeliads.

Lion tamarins live in extended family groups of usually 4 to 8 individuals. Generally, only one female per group breeds during a particular breeding season. They breed once a year. The groups defend home ranges of 40 to more than 100 ha (the size depending on availability and distribution of foods and second-growth patches). In the Superagüi National Park, L. caissara have been found to use very large home ranges (321 ha), travelling from 1,082 to 3,398 m a day (Prado 1999).

The first bevioural ecological study of this study of this species was carried out by Prado (Prado and Valladares-Padua 1997; Prado 1999; Prado et al. 2000).

French et al. (2002) review the reproductive biology of lion tamarins, Baker et al. (2002) review their mating system and group dynamics (focussing particularly on L. rosalia) and Tardif et al. (2002) aspects of infant care and development.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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L. caissara occupies deciduous rainforests (Flannery, 2001).

Habitat Regions: tropical

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

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Inhabits the Atlantic primary lowland coastal forest of south-eastern Brazil (2) (5).
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Black-faced lion tamarins are primarily frugivorous, feeding on fruit, flowers, gum and nectar. However, they also eat insects, which they find under the bark of trees, as well as small lizards and snakes (Massicot, 2001).

Animal Foods: reptiles; insects

Plant Foods: fruit; nectar; flowers; sap or other plant fluids

Primary Diet: herbivore (Frugivore )

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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

Because it eats fruit, this species helps to disperse seeds. It also likely has some effect on populations of insects, snakes, and small lizards because of its predatory behavior on these animals. Because L. caissara is also a prey item, fluctuations in the population of these primates probably has some effect on its predators.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Predation

Black-faced lion tamarins vary their sleeping spots to avoid predation (Harper). Some predators that have been reported include black-hawk eagles, jaguar, jaguraundi, ocelot, ornate hawk-eagles, and tayra.

Known Predators:

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Known predators

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Known prey organisms

Leontopithecus caissara preys on:
Reptilia

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Lifespan in this species has not been reported, but in another member of the same genus, L. rosalia, one individual lived in captivity for over 28 years (Nowak, 1999).

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Reproduction

These animals mate monogamously. Male and female maintain a territory, on which they tollerate their non-breeding offspring.

Mating System: monogamous

Black-faced lion tamarins are fairly social mammals living in groups ranging from 2 to 11 members (Massicot, 2001). They are mostly monogamous and both the male and female care for the young. They mate once a year and give birth usually to two offspring at a time, although triplets and quadruplets have been seen in the wild. Young are born fully furred with their eyes open (Nowak, 1999). The older twins from the previous year tend to remain and help raise the new young (Harper). The father carries the infants around while the mother nurses them every 2-3 hours. The birth peak is from September to March (Flannery, 2001). Weaning usually occurs by 12 weeks of age in captivity . Females reach sexually maturity around 18 months of age, whereas males mature sexually around 24 months (Nowak, 1999).

Breeding season: Births of black-faced lion tamarins peak from September-March.

Average number of offspring: 2.

Average weaning age: 12 weeks.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 18-24 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 18-24 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); viviparous

As in all mammals, the mother nurses the young. The father is attentive in tamarins, however, and begins carrying the young part of the time within a few weeks of birth. By three weeks, the father has charge of the young almost all the time, except when they are nursing. Young from a previous litter may also help to carry the infants (Nowak, 1999).

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Male, Female); post-independence association with parents

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
C1

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Kierulff, M.C.M., Rylands, A.B., Mendes. S.L. & de Oliveira, M.M.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Critically Endangered due to a small population size (the total population of this species is 400 individuals, with approximately 200 mature) located in three isolated subpopulations. The species is protected by two conservation units (Superagui and Jacupiranga) in Sao Paolo and Parana states. However, these reserves offer little protection against hunting and collection for pets, and ongoing threats from infrastructure development mean that it is possible the species could decline by at least one-quarter in the next seven years.

History
  • 2003
    Critically Endangered
  • 2003
    Critically Endangered
    (IUCN 2003)
  • 2000
    Critically Endangered
  • 1996
    Critically Endangered
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
  • 1996
    Critically Endangered
  • 1994
    Endangered
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Endangered
    (IUCN 1990)
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Black-faced lion tamarins are among of the world's rarest mammals and the species listed as critically endangered by the IUCN (Massicot, 2001). The estimated wild population of this animal is less than 300 individuals (Harper). There are several groups working to protect the tamarins and their habitat. Such groups include Instituto de Pesquisas Ecológicas, whose goal is to collect information regarding the natural history of this animal, along with basic habitat and behavioral data. This information is then used to educate the public, especially those living in or near the habitat of the tamarin (Prado). The group "Wildinvest," is working to help fund conservation projects for endangered or threatened animals such as black-faced lion tamarins. This group is supporting the black-faced lion tamarin conservation project, which is working to protect and restore the habitat, educate the public of the importance of conservation, as well as employing many other conservation management strategies (Massicot, 2001).

US Migratory Bird Act: no special status

US Federal List: threatened

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: critically endangered

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Status

Classified as Critically Endangered (CR) on the IUCN Red List (1), and listed on Appendix I of CITES (3).
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Population

Population
Lorini and Persson (1994a,b) estimated a total population not exceeding 260 animals, divided into three subpopulations: that on the island of Superagüi (about 120 individuals), and two on the adjacent mainland, in the valleys of the Rios Patos and Branco (estimated at 35 individuals), and the valleys of the Rios Varadouro and Araçauba (estimated 100 individuals). As noted already, the northern limits to the range of L. caissara identified by Lorini and Persson (1990) were extended north into the state of São Paulo to the Serra do Cordeiro through the surveys of Martuscelli and Rodrigues (1992), but many localities were based on reports, which have yet to be confirmed (Valladares-Padua et al. 2000). The northernmost confirmed localities to date are those in the region Ariri, municipality of Cananeia (Rodrigues 1998), and Valladares-Padua et al. (2000) indicated that under any circumstances the populations there are extremely scarce. Both Martuscelli and Rodrigues (1992) and Valladares-Padua et al. (2000) found difficulties in surveying the region using interviews as a guide (people knew little or confused the species, felt intimidated, and in some cases were hostile).

A more recent population estimate for the Island of Superagui, based on transect work between 2000 and 2002, is 183 animals (Amaral et al. 2003); there are no recent population estimates for the mainland. The total current population is therefore for unlikely to exceed 400 animals at present.

Population densities are in the order of 1.5 individuals/km² or 0.30 groups/km² (Lorini and Persson 1994a). Amaral et al. (2003) reported an individual density of 1.66 individuals/km² or 0.38 groups/km² on Superagui.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
With a very restricted distribution and few individuals known to exist, this species is perhaps the rarest and most threatened of all the callitrichids, despite the fact that part of the island of Superagüi, along with the Ilha de Peças, was decreed a national park (without knowledge of the existence of the lion tamarins) of 21,400 ha in 1989. The threats to, and conservation strategies for, surviving L. caissara populations have been discussed by Câmara (1993, 1994) and Vivekenanda (1994). The main threats come from forest destruction and degradation due to agriculture, squatters, hunting and extractivism, especially for palm hearts, and, most seriously, from burgeoning human occupation through land speculation and tourism (see Vivekananda 2001).

A study by Dietz et al. (2000) examined inbreeding depression in small (50 or less) isolated populations of L. rosalia. They concluded that it reduced probability of long-term survival by about one-third. There is every reason to believe that inbreeding depression is likewise prejudicial to the isolated populations of L. caissara, most notably on the mainland.
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Habitat loss as a result of development, cultivation and the increase in tourism in the area, as well as the capture of live individuals, has posed a threat to the survival of the species (6).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Included on the Brazilian Official List of Species Threatened with Extinction (Lista Oficial de Espécies Brasileiras Ameaçadas de Extinção, Edict No. 1.522/19th December 1989, see Bernardes et al. 1990; Fonseca et al. 1994), and likewise on the regional threatened species list of the states of Paraná (Brazil, Paraná SEMA, 1995), and São Paulo (Brazil, São Paulo SMA, 1998). It is listed on Appendix I of CITES.

Considerable efforts are being devoted to environmental education and also research, management and protection of the Superagüi National Park.

There is no captive breeding programme for the species (Ballou et al. 2002).
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Conservation

The black-faced lion tamarin project aims to study the species and gather information on its ecology and behaviour (7). Findings will be used to inform conservation management programmes, and raise awareness of the species through environmental education in the local area. Captive breeding programmes could also help this species enormously, and are a priority for future conservation efforts (2). This tamarin is one of the world's 25 most endangered primates and is on the very brink of extinction. It will require long-term conservation efforts and protection if it is to survive.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

No negative impact has been indicated in the literature.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Impact of this species on humans is very limited, due to the small size of the population. However, as with all endangered primates, there is likely some ecotourism generated from these animals.

Positive Impacts: ecotourism

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Wikipedia

Superagui lion tamarin

The black-faced lion tamarin or Superagui lion tamarin (Leontopithecus caissara) is a small New World monkey of the family Callitrichidae. It is critically endangered and endemic to coastal forests in southeastern Brazil. There are several conservation projects and the total populations is unlikely to exceed 400 individuals.[3] It is overall golden-orange with contrasting black head, legs and tail.[4]

Discovery and distribution[edit]

The black-faced lion tamarin was not recognized until 1990 when two Brazilian researchers, Maria Lorini and Vanessa Persson, described it based on individuals from the island of Superagui in the Brazilian state of Paraná.[4] Shortly after additional populations were discovered on the adjacent mainland in Paraná and in the far southern São Paulo.[5] The specific name caissara is a reference to the caicaras, the local people of Superagui Island.

Mainland populations prefer swampy and inundated secondary forest for habitat. The island population use mainly tall lowland forest and arboreal restinga (coastal forest on sandy soils) as primary habitat. Both populations strictly remain at altitudes below 40 m (130 ft).[6]

Behavior[edit]

The black-faced lion tamarin is an arboreal species and primarily eats small fruits and invertebrates such as insect, spiders and snails. They are also known to drink nectar, eat the young leaves of bromeliads and consume mushrooms.[4] They are thought to supplement parts of their diet with mushrooms during the dry season.[7]

The black-faced lion tamarin lives in extended family groups with 2-8 members. Within these families there is normally only one breeding female per season.[3] Births typically occur from September to March and females normally give birth to twins.[8] Social interaction is a key component in maintaining a reproductive system such as this. Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior seen by the species specifically between the breeding pair.[9]

Conservation[edit]

Threats[edit]

The black-faced lion tamarin has such a specific habitat preference and low population (400 individuals in total, of which approximately half are mature) that habitat loss is the greatest threat to the species.[3] Agriculture, development, fragmentation and extraction of heart-of-palm are the leading causes for their habitat loss.[10] It is also threatened from the illegal pet trade, hunting, increased tourism and inbreeding depression.[3]

Protection and conservation projects[edit]

The black-faced lion tamarin is listed as critically endangered by the IUCN, included on the Endangered Species Act and is listed on CITES Appendix I. Within Brazil, it is included on the national Official List of Species Threatened with Extinction[11] and it is also on regional lists by both the Paraná and São Paulo states.[12][13]

The Superagüi National Park covers most of the black-faced lion tamarin home ranges including Superagui Island and adjacent mainland parts of the state of Paraná. The national park is 33,988 hectares large and the black-faced lion tamarin is one of the endemic species that is used as a conservation unit for management of the park.[14] The population in São Paulo is protected in the Jacupiranga State Park.[3]

The Instituto de Pesquisas Ecologicas (IPE) began the black-faced lion tamarin conservation program in 1996 and through 2004 focused on learning the ecology and natural history of the species. In 2005, enough data was collected to create the first conservation action plan for the black-faced lion tamarin and its habitat. As well as collecting additional data, from 2005 to 2007 IPE completed a diagnostic of threats to the survival of the species. The IPE then hosted the first Eco-Negotiation Workshop in Ariri (São Paulo) in 2009, with a focus on education and awareness of sustainable production. Currently some of their objectives include evaluating dispersal of young, refine the projected population, observe the effects of sea rise due to climate change, and promote sustainable harvest of heart-of-palm.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 133. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Rylands AB and Mittermeier RA (2009). "The Diversity of the New World Primates (Platyrrhini)". In Garber PA, Estrada A, Bicca-Marques JC, Heymann EW, Strier KB. South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Springer. pp. 23–54. ISBN 978-0-387-78704-6. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Kierulff, M. C. M., Rylands, A. B., Mendes, S. L. & de Oliveira, M. M. (2008). Leontopithecus caissara. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2 January 2009.
  4. ^ a b c Russell A. Mittermeier et al. Primates in Peril: The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates, 2004–2006 [1]"Primate Conservation" 2006
  5. ^ Kleiman, Devra G. and Jeremy J. C. Mallinson. Recovery and Management Committees for Lion Tamarins: Partnerships in Conservation Planning and Implementation. "Society for Conservation Biology" Feb 1998
  6. ^ Nascimento,Alexandre T. Amaral and Lucia A. J. Schmidlin. Habitat selection by, and carrying capacity for, the Critically Endangered black-faced lion tamarin "Leontopithecus caissara" (Primates: Callitrichidae) Fauna & Flora International, "Oryx" 2010
  7. ^ Raboy, B. E. & Dietz, J. M. (2004). "Diet, Foraging, and Use of Space in Wild Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins". American Journal of Primatology 63: 1–15. 
  8. ^ "Black-faced lion tamarin biology". ARKive. 
  9. ^ Gabriela Ludwig. Padrão de atividade, Hábito alimentar, Área de vida e Uso do espaço do mico-leão-de-cara-preta (Leontopithecus caissara Lorini & Persson 1990) (Primates, Callitrichidae) no Parque Nacional do Superagui, Guaraqueçaba, Estado do Paraná. "UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARANÁ" 2011
  10. ^ Vivekananda, G. 2001. Parque Nacional do Superagui: A presença humana e os objetivos de conservação. Masters Thesis, Universidade Federal do Paraná.
  11. ^ Lista Oficial de Espécies Brasileiras Ameaçadas de Extinção, Edict No. 1.522/19 December 1989, see Bernardes et al. 1990; Fonseca et al. 1994
  12. ^ Brazil, Paraná SEMA, 1995
  13. ^ Brazil, São Paulo SMA, 1998
  14. ^ "Superagüi National Park". ParksWatch. 
  15. ^ "Black-Faced Lion Tamarin Conservation Program". Instituto de Pesquisas Ecológicas. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
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