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BiologyThis species eats fruits, insects, flowers, nectar, berries, seeds, young leaves, bird eggs and small vertebrates such as frogs, lizards and nestlings (2). It is active in the day and arboreal, sleeping in tree holes at night. Black lion tamarins live in groups of around 2 to 3 adults and their offspring, and social bonds are maintained through food sharing and calling (5). Vocalisations and scent marking also serve to broadcast the presence of a group within their territory (5); the hair may stand on end during aggressive exchanges over territorial issues (5). Other forms of communication include shrill, bird-like vocalisations and a few facial expressions (6). All lion tamarins tend to give birth to twins, but triplets and quadruplets have also been observed (5).