Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

This species eats fruits, insects, flowers, nectar, berries, seeds, young leaves, bird eggs and small vertebrates such as frogs, lizards and nestlings (2). It is active in the day and arboreal, sleeping in tree holes at night. Black lion tamarins live in groups of around 2 to 3 adults and their offspring, and social bonds are maintained through food sharing and calling (5). Vocalisations and scent marking also serve to broadcast the presence of a group within their territory (5); the hair may stand on end during aggressive exchanges over territorial issues (5). Other forms of communication include shrill, bird-like vocalisations and a few facial expressions (6). All lion tamarins tend to give birth to twins, but triplets and quadruplets have also been observed (5).
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Description

The squirrel-sized black lion tamarin is one of the world's most endangered mammals (4). Also known as the golden-rumped lion tamarin, this species has glossy black fur with varying amounts of reddish-golden fur on the rump, thighs and base of the tail (2) (5). The long mane framing the face is black. Like the closely related golden lion tamarin, the black lion tamarin has long digits that are used to forage for small insects (5).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species formerly occurred along the north (right) margin of the Rio Paranapanema, west as far as the Rio Paraná, and between the upper Rios Paranapanema and Tieté in the state of São Paulo (Coimbra-Filho 1976a,b; Hershkovitz 1977). Today, it is known only from 11 widely separated forest patches covering 444 km². L. chrysopygus occurs in two state protected areas, the Morro do Diabo State Park, municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, and the Caetetus State Ecological Station, municipality of Gália, (Coimbra-Filho 1970a,b, 1976a,b; Coimbra-Filho and Mittermeier 1973, 1977; Valladares-Padua et al. 1994). All surviving populations are in the central to western part of its former range and concentrated in the region called the Pontal de Paranapanema, except for Buri, municipality of Buri, discovered in recent surveys in the eastern part, approximately 200 km east of the Caetetus Ecological Station, by Valladares-Padua et al. (2000). Rylands et al. (2002b) reviewed the distributions of all four lion tamarins.
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Geographic Range

Golden-rumped lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) at one time inhabited the vast tropical forest in the Central and Western portions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Now L. chrysopygus is limited to only two areas. One is the 375 square kilometer Morro do Diabo State Forest Reserve in southwesten Sao Paulo. The other is the Caiteus Reserve, a 23 square kilometer reserve in central Sao Paulo. (Beacham 1998)

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

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Range

Recorded only from the interior region of the Brazilian state of São Paulo (4). The black lion tamarin was believed to be extinct from 1905, until it was rediscovered in 1970 in a reserve in south-western São Paulo. At that time it was estimated that the population numbered fewer than 100 individuals (4). At present, about six populations are known, and the number of remaining individuals is estimated to be less than 1000 (6).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

L. chrysopygus is covered almost completely in silky, dense black hair. The only place this differs is in the hind quarters. The thighs, buttocks, and base of the tail are colored a reddish-brown. This is what gives the animal its common name, golden-rumped lion tamarin. The face of L. chrysopygus is not haired, as well as the hands and feet, these are colored dark gray to black. The hind limbs are generally longer than the forelimbs and the tail is not prehensile. All digits have a pointed sickle shaped nail, which is used for gripping trees, except the big toe which has a flat nail. The dental formula is as follows, 2/2 incisors, 1/1 canines, 3/3 premolars, 2/2 molars. Body length in L. chrysopygus is between 20 cm and 33.5 cm, tail length is usually 31.5 to 40 cm, and mass ranges from 300 to 700 g. (Beacham 1998; Nowak 1999; Wolters 1990)

Range mass: 300 to 700 g.

Average mass: 572.5 g.

Range length: 20 to 33.5 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Seasonal rain forest of the inland extension of Atlantic forest in the state of São Paulo, at altitudes up to 900 m (Coimbra-Filho 1976b; Rylands 1993; Valladares-Padua 1997). Lion tamarins are an adaptable species well able to live in degraded and secondary forests, depending only on sufficient year round food sources and foraging sites, along with the tree holes they use as sleeping sites (see Coimbra-Filho 1969, 1976; Coimbra-Filho and Mittermeier 1973).

Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects (see Rylands 1993; Kierulff et al. 2002a).

Coimbra-Filho (1970a,b, 1976a; Coimbra-Filho and Mittermeier 1977) studied their bevaviour in the wild, and Rylands (1993) and Kierulff et al. (2002a) provide a comprehensive review of the ecology, diet and behaviour of the lion tamarins. They differ from other callithrichids in having long fingers and hands, which allow them to forage for prey efficiently in nooks and crannies and in epiphytic tank bromeliads. Lion tamarins live in extended family groups of usually 4 to 8 individuals. For L. chyrsopygus, Carvalho and Carvalho (1989) obtained a mean group size of 3.6 (range 2-7, n=9) in the Morro do Diabo State Park. Generally, only one female per group breeds during a particular breeding season. They breed once a year. The groups defend home ranges of 40 to more than 100 ha (the size depending on availability and distribution of foods and second-growth patches). In the Morro do Diabo State Park, they have been found to have ranges exceeding 100 ha (113-199 ha: Valladares-Padua 1993; Valladares-Padua and Cullen Jr. 1994). Passos (1997) recorded a home range for his study group in the Ceatetus State Ecological Station of 277 ha.

French et al. (2002) review the reproductive biology of lion tamarins, Baker et al. (2002) review their mating system and group dynamics (focussing particularly on L. rosalia) and Tardif et al. (2002) aspects of infant care and development.

Size:
Adult male 575 g (n=4) (Rosenberger and Coimbra-Filho 1984).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Leontopithecus chrysopygus lives primarily in semideciduous forest of Sao Paulo. But it has also been know to occupy swamp forest and macega, a forest made up of mainly small bush-like trees. In these forests, L. chrysopygus lives approximately 3 to 12 meters above the ground, rarely going to the forest floor, giving it the classification of arboreal.

Range elevation: 0 to 700 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

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Inhabits remnants lowland semi-deciduous forest and macega, which consists of low bushy trees (2) (5).
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Leontopithecus chrysopygus eats mainly insects and fruits. When they are able to catch them, L. chrysopygus will eat small lizards, small birds, bird eggs, and small vertebrates. (Massicot 2001)

Animal Foods: birds; reptiles; eggs; insects

Plant Foods: fruit

Primary Diet: omnivore

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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

Golden-rumped lion tamarins may be important as seed dispersers in the ecosystems in which they live.

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Predation

The main predators of golden-rumped lion tamarins are small cats, birds of prey, and snakes. They avoid predation by being part of a social organization, so that more individuals are alert to potential dangers and will give warning signals to other members of their troupe. (Wolters 1990)

Known Predators:

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Known predators

Leontopithecus chrysopygus is prey of:
Strigiformes
Serpentes
Felidae
Falconiformes

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Known prey organisms

Leontopithecus chrysopygus preys on:
Reptilia
Aves

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Leontopithecus chrysopygus in the wild will live for approximately ten years. In captivity the longest lived golden-rumped lion tamarin lived for 28 years. (Nowak 1999)

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
10 years.

Range lifespan

Status: captivity:
28 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
17.9 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 17.9 years (captivity) Observations: One captive specimen lived for 17.9 years (Richard Weigl 2005). These animals have been studied in captivity. Still, considering the longevity of similar species, it is possible that maximum longevity is underestimated.
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Reproduction

Most cases have found L. chrysopygus to be monogamous when mating but there has been some polyandy observed in certain populations. In populations where there is more than one adult male per social group the female may mate with several males to confuse the males as to paternity of her young. This causes males to provide assistance in the care of offspring that may be their own.

Mating System: monogamous ; polyandrous

Golden-rumped lion tamarins give birth most frequently to twins, though triplets and quadruplets have been reported. In other species of lion tamarin, gestation lasts from 125 to 132 days. Lion tamarins give birth during the rainy season, usually from September through March.

Breeding season: Breeding occurs from September through March, the wet season..

Range number of offspring: 1 to 4.

Average number of offspring: 2.

Range gestation period: 125 to 132 days.

Range weaning age: 2 to 3 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 16 to 24 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 16 to 24 months.

Both male and female golden-rumped lion tamarins aid in the rearing of offspring. The young are born well-furred and with their eyes open, but are entirely dependent on adults for their care. For the first 2 to 3 weeks newborns stay primarily with the mother. After three weeks the father will carry the young for much of the day, bringing them to their mother every 2 to 3 hours for feeding. The offspring are weaned after 2 to 3 months but usually don't leave the family group until they reach sexual maturity, at 16 to 24 months. (Nowak 1999)

Parental Investment: precocial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Male, Female); post-independence association with parents; extended period of juvenile learning

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B2ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Kierulff, M.C.M., Rylands, A.B., Mendes. S.L. & de Oliveira, M.M.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Endangered due to its having an area of occupancy estimated at approximately 490 km², with all remaining populations extremely isolated, and a continuing decline in quality of habitat. The species is known to occur in only one large protected area (Morro do Diabo in Sao Paolo state), and the majority of the existing subpopulations are not considered to be viable in the long-term. Nonetheless, ongoing intensive conservation efforts begun in 1986, concentrating on site-based measures such as reintroduction, translocation, corridors, improved land use, and environmental education around the Morro do Diabo State Park and the Caestsu State Ecological Station as well as the creation of a new protected area (the Mico-leão Preto Ecological Station) have contributed to the down listing of this species from Critically Endangered to Endangered.

History
  • 2003
    Critically Endangered
    (IUCN 2003)
  • 2003
    Critically Endangered
  • 2000
    Critically Endangered
  • 1996
    Critically Endangered
  • 1994
    Endangered
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Endangered
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Endangered
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Endangered
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
  • 1982
    Endangered
    (Thornback and Jenkins 1982)
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L. chrysopygus is listed as one of the world's rarest mammals. It is estimated that only about 700 are still living in both the wild and captivity. (Massicot 2001)

US Federal List: threatened

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

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Status

Classified as Critically Endangered (CR B1 + 2abcde, C2a) on the IUCN Red List 2002 (1), and listed on Appendix I of CITES (3).
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Population

Population
Leontopithecus chrysopygus is now known to survive in 11 localities in the state of São Paulo. The population in the Morro do Diabo State Park contains 23,800 ha of forest and a population estimated at approximately 820 animals (Valladares-Padua and Cullen Jr. 1994). The Caetetus Reserve contains about 2,000 ha of forest (population estimated at about 40 individuals), but the other nine localities consist of fragments of between 400 and 800 ha, and together harbour about 114 individuals. The total population is estimated at about 1,000 animals spread through 11 isolated forests, 10 of which are certainly too small to be viable in the mid- to long-term.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is now highly fragmented occurring in 11 populations, only one of which is ostensibly viable – the Morro do Diabo State Park. The key threat for this species is the isolation and small size of the existing populations. A study by Dietz et al. (2000) examined inbreeding depression in small (50 or less) isolated populations of L. rosalia. They concluded that it reduced probability of long-term survival by about one-third. There is every reason to believe that inbreeding depression is likewise prejudicial to the isolated populations of L. chrysopygus.*
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Over 90% of the Atlantic forest in Brazil has been lost to logging, development and cultivation. The species is also vulnerable to fire and hunting (4). Areas of prime habitat occur in and around the Morro do Diabo State Park; however, 5% of this area was flooded in the early 1980's, following the construction of a hydroelectric plant (7). The remaining black lion tamarin populations have been isolated for some time, and studies have shown that genetic diversity is extremely low as a result of inbreeding (7). Inbreeding depression, which can reduce the fitness of the population in terms of survival, reproductive capacity and growth, is therefore a cause for concern in this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Included on the Brazilian Official List of Species Threatened with Extinction (Lista Oficial de Espécies Brasileiras Ameaçadas de Extinção, Edict No. 1.522/19th December 1989, see Bernardes et al. 1990; Fonseca et al. 1994), and likewise on the regional threatened species list of the state of São Paulo (Brazil, São Paulo SMA, 1998). It is listed on Appendix I of CITES.

The species is recorded from Morro do Diabo State Park (34,441 ha, of which 23,800 ha is forest), and Caetetus State Ecological Station (2,178 ha). A new (federal) Ecological Station of 5,500 ha was decreed in July 2002 – Mico-Leão-Preto Ecological Station in São Paulo. It covers three forest fragments containing Black Lion Tamarins.

The isolation and small size of the existing populations is being addressed through metapopulation management, which includes the captive population founded on individuals taken from the Morro do Diabo State Park, in the 1970s and later, in 1983-1985 as part of the rescue operation in the inundation area of the Rosana hydroelectric dam (Rylands et al. 2002a). Current efforts are focussing on the genetic health of these populations (translocation, managed dispersal and re-introduction) (Valladares-Padua et al. 2000; Valladares-Padua, Ballou et al. 2002), environmental education (Pádua and Valladares-Padua 1997; Pádua et al. 2002), the preservation of remaining forest fragments, with and without lion tamarins, and the creation of corridors to link forest patches to establish larger areas of continuous forest (Pádua and Valladares-Padua 1997; Cullen Jr. et al. 2001; Valladares-Padua et al. 2000; Valladares-Padua, Ballou et al. 2002; Valladares-Padua, Padua et al. 2002).

There is a well-managed captive breeding programme, although it has not been as successful as those for Leontopithecus rosalia and L. chrysomelas, probably because of a very reduced founder stock (Ballou et al. 2002). However, it is growing and, despite having few founders, is now also contributing significantly to the metapopulation management programme currently udnerway by Valladares-Padua and his team (Valladares-Padua and Ballou 1996; Valladares-Padua and Martins 1996; Valladares-Padua 1997; Valladares-Padua et al. 2000; Medici 2001; Valladares-Padua, Ballou et al. 2002). The first translocation of a wild L. chrysopygus group was carried out in 1995, and the first experimental re-introduction, was carried out in July 1999 by combining an adult male born in the Jersey Zoo, UK, with two wild females (Valladares-Padua et al. 2000).
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Conservation

A long-term programme of conservation and environmental education targeting the black lion tamarin is underway (7). An important measure to combat the effects of inbreeding will be to allow movement of individuals between the isolated sub-populations. This can occur through translocations of individuals or by creating corridors between habitat patches to facilitate movement between populations (4). Corridors have already been planted and some translocations have occurred (7). There is currently a captive population of around 100 individuals, which require the occasional incorporation of wild individuals to maintain genetic variation (7).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

There are no negative effects of lion tamarins on humans.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

L. chrysopygus is periodically captured and sold in Brazil as pets, though this has a negative impact on this imperiled species. The charismatic quality of lion tamarins makes them excellent candidates for ecotourism activities. (Beacham 1998)

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; ecotourism

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Wikipedia

Black lion tamarin

The black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus), also known as the golden-rumped lion tamarin, is a lion tamarin endemic to the Brazilian state of São Paulo, almost exclusively at the Morro do Diabo State Park. Its limited geographical range makes black lion tamarins rarest of the New World monkeys, with little known about it.[4] It was thought to be extinct for 65 years until its rediscovery in 1970.[5]

The black lion tamarin is also the most endangered from its genus,[5] with the total number of individuals estimated to be around 1000.[5] Some experts believe this to be an overestimate, as recent studies have shown that the average area inhabited by the black lion tamarin is closer to 106 hectares (260 acres) than the previously estimated 66 hectares (160 acres).[5] They are usually found in groups of 4 to 9, living in the secondary and primary forests along the circumference of its home range.

On average, the black lion tamarin weighs 590–640 grams (21–23 oz).[6]

Diet[edit]

Black-lion-tamarin São Paulo Zoo.

The diet of the black lion tamarin is seasonal and varies with the habitats it moves through.[5] When the tamarin is in the dryland forest, it usually eats a variety of fruits, whereas in a swampy environment it predominantly feeds on the gum of various trees.[5] In addition to seasonal variation, the black lion tamarin exhibits daily and monthly cycles of food preferences.[7]

Independent of the environment it occupies, a tamarin spends long periods each day searching for different types of insects and spiders to feed on. On average, 80% of its time foraging is spent searching for insects,[5] such as by foraging the forest floor. The tamarin's foraging locations are very intentional: it spends extended periods of time looking under dry palm leaves, in loose bark, and in tree cavities, with hands that have specialized fingers for prying.[3] The tamarin also positions itself in trees and scans for insects from above, usually four meters above the forest floor.

The black lion tamarin eats the gum and fruit of trees, climbing up to ten meters to reach them and as these are easily found, the tamarin spends 12.8% of its day obtaining them, rather than the 41.2% of the day spent foraging for insects in the high trees.[5]

Offspring[edit]

Black lion tamarins mate and have offspring during the spring, summer, and fall months (August to March in Brazil).[8] Females usually have one litter per year, though 20% females produce two litters per year.[8] The mean litter size is two infants.[8]

Most mammals produce a 50:50 ratio of males to females. The black lion tamarin population almost always produce a 60:40 male to female ratio.[8]

Most infants deaths occur within the first two weeks of birth, with newborns of first-time mothers having the lowest survival rates. The number of tamarins that survive to adulthood in the wild is 10% higher than those in captivity.[8]

Food sharing[edit]

During the first few months after birth, the infant is unable to obtain food on its own. For this reason, the infant rides on the parent's back and receives food from the parents. It drinks milk in the 4 to 5 weeks after birth; after that, the parents and other group-members share food with the infant. Sharing involves both offers from the parents and begging by the infant. Usually, until the age of approximately 15 weeks, the infant will receive the majority of its food (especially insects) from others.[9] The number of offers from group-members peaks at week 7; after week 15, sharing slowly declines, stopping by week 26.[9]

Communication[edit]

Morro do Diabo State Park is the major conservation unit of black-lion-tamarin.

Within Leontopithecus, the black lion tamarin is the largest in size and has the lowest-pitched calls, using longer notes than other species.[4] The black lion tamarin use calls to defend territory, maintain cohesion within the group, attract a mate, and contact individuals who might be lost. Most calls can be recorded in the morning, and can be attributed to the reunion of mated pairs. These mated pairs are coupled-up throughout the mating season.[clarification needed]

Taxonomy[edit]

The classification of the black lion tamarin was debated, as one group of taxonomists classified the lion tamarins by their geography, while other taxonomists placed them all into one species and then divided them into subspecies. More recently, taxonomists have agreed to base classification predominantly on their geography, though sometimes characteristics such as long calls are used to classify different species, similar to the use of bird songs in taxonomy.[4] For differentiating within Leontopithecus, the black lion tamarin is categorized as starting its call at the lowest note and going through the greatest range of pitch.[4]

Status and threats[edit]

Black lion tamarin conservation units in São Paulo State. Morro do Diabo State Park (yellow line) is the major forest remnant along black lion tamarin distribution.

The black lion tamarin is the most endangered species within Leontopithecus, and the IUCN has recorded their population to be declining.[10] The main threat against it is the destruction of its habitat through deforestation,[5] though it is also threatened by being hunted in unprotected forests, such as the Fazenda Rio Claro and the Fazenda Tucano (which have roughly 3.66 and 1.0 individuals per square kilometer respectively).[10]

There have been several attempts to bring black lion tamarins into captivity and to salvage what little habitat they have left within the Morro do Diabo State Park, as well as to increase breeding rates. Their population decline in the wild, however, could cause the black lion tamarins to become entirely endemic to the Morro do Diabo.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 133. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Rylands, A.B.; Mittermeier, R.A. (2009). "The Diversity of the New World Primates (Platyrrhini)". In Garber, P.A.; Estrada, A.; Bicca-Marques, J.C.; Heymann, E.W.; Strier, K.B. South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Springer. pp. 23–54. ISBN 978-0-387-78704-6. 
  3. ^ a b Kierulff, M. C. M., Rylands, A. B., Mendes, S. L. & de Oliveira, M. M. (2008). Leontopithecus chrysopygus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2 January 2009.
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