Overview

Distribution

Range Description

C. penicillata has a very wide distribution, occurring in the cerrado region of east central Brazil. According to Hershkovitz 1977), this species occurs in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, Goiás, the south-west tip of Piauí, Maranhão and the north of São Paulo, north of the Rios Tieté and Piracicaba. In the north, it would seem that it is restricted to the south of the Rio Grande and Rio São Francisco (C. jacchus occurring to the north of the Rio Grande), although Vivo (1991) identified two skins in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, from the north-east coast of Maranhão, at Miritiba (now called Humberto dos Campos), which he indicated extends its range right through eastern Maranhão, along the left bank of the Rio Parnaiba. The large gap between the next northernmost locality to the south (Canabrava, Rio Tocantins, Goiás, locality 275a of Hershkovitz 1977, p.490) and this northern Maranhão locality, indicates that they were probably introduced animals. They were not located by Hershkovitz (1977) and were presumed by him to be C. jacchus, following Ávila-Pires (1969). Silva Jr. (1999) carried out surveys in Maranhão and Piauí and did not report the occurrence of C. penicillata, only C. jacchus. The western limits of its range would seem to be marked by the Rio Araguaia, south from around 8ºS in the region of the Serra das Cordilheiras, extending into the north-east of the state of Mato Grosso Sul, east of the Serra de Maracaju to the level of the Rios Pardo or Taquaraçú, west (right) bank tributaries of the Rio Paraná.

Surveys in the north of the state of Minas Gerais have shown that C. penicillata extends its range through the region between the upper Rio São Francisco and the Rio Jequitinhonha, along the western slopes of the Serra do Espinhaço. C. penicillata occurs both sides of the Rio Jequitinhonha as far east as the Rio Araçuaí, a south (right) bank tributary of the upper Jequitinhonha, beyond which it is restricted to the north of the river, with C. geoffroyi occurring to the south (Rylands et al. 1988), the result of a recent introduction (ca. 1975) in the vicinity of Belmonte (Coimbra-Filho unpubl.). C. penicillata is typically of the cerrado region of Minas Gerais (in the central, south-west, west, and north of the state). Those parts originally covered by Atlantic coastal forest in the east and south-east (the Zona da Mata) are the domain of C. geoffroyi, C. flaviceps, and in part of the Rio Doce valley, C. aurita. However, with the destruction of the forest and also resulting from introductions (misguided release of confiscated animals), C. penicillata is taking a hold and probably replacing other species in numerous localities east and south of its original range (see, for example, Olmos and Martuscelli 1995). This is happening in the Rio Doce State Park, and is possibly also the case of C. penicillata reported by Vivo (1991; see also Coimbra-Filho 1984) from the Itatiaia National Park straddling the border of the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. In both cases, C. aurita is the species naturally occurring in the area.
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Geographic Range

Black-pencilled marmosets are found in the Neo-tropical gallery forests of the Brazilian Central Plateau. They live along the Brazillian coast ranging from Bahia to Sao Paulo, and as far inland as Goias, between 14 and 17 degrees S.

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

  • Elliot, D. 1913. A Review of The Primates. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
  • Miranda, G., D. Faria. 2001. Ecological Aspects of Black-Pincelled Marmoset (Callithix penicillata) in the Cerradao and Dense Cerradao of the Brazilian Central Plateau. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 61/3: 397-404.
  • Boudet, C. 2004. "Mammal's Planet" (On-line). Accessed March 30, 2004 at http://www.mammals-planet.org/index_select.php?.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Black-pencilled marmosets typically have some sparse white hairs on their faces, with a dark brown or black head. Their upper body and limbs are gray and their rump is usually black. The marmosets' undersides are black with a gray abdomen. Their tail is ringed with black and white and is not prehensile, but is used for balance. They are characterized by the black tufts around their ears. Black-pencilled marmosets do not have an opposable thumb and their nails tend to have a claw-like appearance.

Average mass: 454 g.

Range length: 22.86 to 27.94 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; heterothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

Average mass: 307 g.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Gallery Forest, dry forest and forest patches in the Cerrado of Central Brazil. As is true of other marmosets, they show a preference for disturbed and secondary growth forest (Fonseca and Lacher Jr. 1984; Lacher Jr. et al. 1984; Rylands 1984; Seabra et al. 1991; Rylands and Faria 1993).

Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums, saps, latex) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects). Marmosets have morphological and behavioural adaptations for gouging trees trunks, branches and vines of certain species to stimulate the flow of gum, which they eat, and in some species form a notable component of the diet (Coimbra-Filho 1972; Rylands 1984; Rylands and Faria 1993). The most specialized of the Callithrix marmosets in this respect are Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata (see Rylands 1984; Fonseca and Lacher Jr. 1984; Lacher Jr. et al. 1984; Rylands 1984; Rylands and Faria 1993). They live in extended family groups of between four and 15 individuals. Generally, only one female per group breeds during a particular breeding season. Associated with their tree-gouging and gum-feeding specialisation, groups generally have small home ranges: 1.25 ha to 4.5 ha (Fonseca and Lacher Jr. 1984) or 3.5 ha (Faria 1986, 1989).

Callithrix pencillata has been the subject of a number of short studies (see, for example, Fonseca and Lacher Jr. 1984; Lacher Jr. et al. 1984; Faria 1984a,b, 1986, 1989; Miranda and Faria 2001; Vilela and Faria 2004; Vilela 2007).

Size:
Male 344 g (n=8) (Smith and Jungers 1997).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Black-pencilled marmosets live in rainforests, usually residing high in the trees, under the canopy. Marmosets have rarely been observed at or near ground level.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

  • Barros, M., C. Alencar, C. Tomaz. 2004. Differences in Aerial and Terrestrial Visual Scanning in Captive Black Tufted-ear Marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) Exposed to a Novel Environment. Folia Primatologica, 75/2: 85-91.
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Black-pencilled marmosets commonly feed on tree sap. During food shortages or droughts their diet also includes fruit and insects, and they have even been known to eat various arthropods, molluscs, and small vertebrates.

Animal Foods: insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; mollusks

Plant Foods: fruit; sap or other plant fluids

Primary Diet: herbivore (Eats sap or other plant foods)

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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

Black-pencilled marmosets are mutualists with many tree species, dispersing seeds of the fruit that they consume. They also act as parasites of other species of trees because they create sores in the trees in order to extract sap, while not positively affecting the tree in any way. They also serve as a source of prey for many larger animal species that reside in the forests, including large birds of prey, snakes, and wild cats.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

Species Used as Host:

  • trees

Mutualist Species:

  • Fruit trees

  • de Figueiredo, R., C. Longatti. 1997. Ecological Aspects of the Dispersal of a Melastomatacae by Marmosets and Howler Monkeys in a Semideciduous Forest in Southeastern Brazil. Revue d'Ecologie La Terre et La Vie, 52/1: 4-5.
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Predation

Black-pencilled marmosets are vulnerable to a wide range of both terrestrial and aerial predators. Aerial predators, large raptors, are considered the marmosets greatest threat, but they are also preyed upon by a variety of snakes and wild cats. Black-pencilled marmosets use a series of predator-specific vocalizations as well as visual scanning in their antipredation strategies.

Known Predators:

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

The communication of black-pencilled marmosets has not been fully studied, however, it is believed that they communicate mostly through vocalizations. They appear to have predator-specific cries when they are threatened and have many vocalizations in addition to predator warnings. Black-pencilled marmosets also use scent marking, though it is unclear whether this is a form of communication, as many different family groups simply ignore the markings that another family group has left.

Communication Channels: acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; acoustic

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

The life-span of a wild black-pencilled marmoset is unknown, however the average lifespan in captivity is 15 years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
15 years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
15.4 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 15.4 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

Black-pencilled marmosets are monogamous and typically live in family groups which include the reproducing couple and their offspring.

Mating System: monogamous

Black-pencilled marmosets breed twice a year and produce between 1 and 4 offspring, however they generally have twins. The gestation period is 150 days and offspring wean at about 8 weeks. The marmosets reach sexual maturity at approximately 18 months old. However, they typically mate very late.

Breeding interval: Black-pencilled marmosets usually breed twice a year

Range number of offspring: 1 to 4.

Average number of offspring: 2, twins.

Average gestation period: 150 days.

Average weaning age: 8 weeks.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 13 to 20 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 18 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 13 to 20 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 18 months.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); fertilization ; viviparous

Average number of offspring: 2.

There is considerable parental investment by both parents; infants are extremely dependent on their parents. The offspring are raised with the aid of other juvenile siblings. Offspring are weaned at 8 weeks and then taught to search for food.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); post-independence association with parents; extended period of juvenile learning; inherits maternal/paternal territory

  • Miranda, G., D. Faria. 2001. Ecological Aspects of Black-Pincelled Marmoset (Callithix penicillata) in the Cerradao and Dense Cerradao of the Brazilian Central Plateau. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 61/3: 397-404.
  • Guerra, R., E. Takase, C. Santos. 1998. Cross-fostering between two species of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 58/4: 665-669.
  • Rosenberg, S. 2004. "PENICILLATA MARMOSET: (Callithrix Penicillata)" (On-line). Accessed March 31, 2004 at http://monkeyneeds.com/penicillata_marmoset.htm.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Rylands, A.B. & Mendes, S.L.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Least Concern due to its large increasing populations, adaptability to disturbed habitat, and large distribution range. These species were common in the pet trade and have been released from captivity in many areas outside of their previous range - often hybridizing with native Callithrix.

History
  • 2003
    Least Concern
    (IUCN 2003)
  • 2003
    Least Concern
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Black-pencilled marmosets have no special status with the IUCN Red List or the Unites States Endangered Species Act List. They are listed in Appendix II of CITES and are not currently considered an endangered or threatened species.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix ii

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Population

Population
There are no recorded population densities.

Population Trend
Increasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This is an adaptable, widespread species, which has been introduced in a number of regions in Brazil (for example, Espírito Santo, Paraná, São Paulo and Santa Catarina), and is considered a competitor, displacing native species. However, as with C. jacchus, although widespread and hardy, and able to survive in extremely degraded habitats, populations of this species have disappeared or are declining in many parts of its range. Hunted for pets.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It has been introduced into part of the Rio Dôce State Park (35,973 ha), the Ibitipoca State Reserve (1,448 ha), both in the state of Minas Gerais (Mittermeier and Rylands pers. obs.), and the Ilha Grande State Park (56,000 ha), Rio de Janeiro (H.K.M. Corrêa pers. comm.). The following conservation units are within its geographical distribution (* indicates possibly introduced and/or mixed populations of C. jacchus and C. penicillata):

Brasília National Park (28,000 ha) DF
Emas National Park (131,868 ha) GO
Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park (60,000 ha) GO
Serra da Canastra National Park (71,525 ha) MG
Serra do Cipó National Park (33,800 ha) MG
Araguaia National Park (?) (562,312 ha) TO
Grande Sertão Veredas National Park (84,000 ha) MG
Chapada da Diamantina National Park (152,000 ha) BA
Pirapitinga Ecological Station (1,090 ha) MG
Raso da Catarina Ecological Reserve (99,772 ha)* BA
Ibitipoca State Park (1,489 ha) MG
Acauã State Reserve (5,000 ha) MG

It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

There are no known adverse affects of black-pencilled marmosets on humans.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Black-pencilled marmosets are considered highly valuable and exotic pets. They are also used often in zoo exhibits as well as many different types of scientific studies.

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; research and education

  • Mittermeier, R. 1986. Primate Conservation Priorities in the Neotropical Region. Pp. 221-240 in K Benirschke, ed. Primates: the road to self-sustaining populations. West Hanover, Massachusetts: Springer-Verlag.
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Wikipedia

Black-tufted marmoset

The black-tufted marmoset (Callithrix penicillata), also known as Mico-estrela in Portuguese, is a species of New World monkey that lives primarily in the Neo-tropical gallery forests of the Brazilian Central Plateau. It ranges from Bahia to Paraná,[3] and as far inland as Goiás, between 14 and 25 degrees south of the equator. This marmoset typically resides in rainforests, living an arboreal life high in the trees, but below the canopy. They are only rarely spotted near the ground.

Physical description[edit]

The black-tufted marmoset is characterized by black tufts of hair around their ears. It typically has some sparse white hairs on its face. It usually has a brown or black head and its limbs and upper body are gray, as well as its abdomen, while its rump and underside are usually black. Its tail is ringed with black and white and is not prehensile, but is used for balance. It does not have an opposable thumb and its nails tend to have a claw-like appearance. The black-tufted marmoset reaches a size of 19 to 22 cm and weighs up to 350 g.

Behavior[edit]

Diurnal and arboreal, the black-tufted marmoset has a lifestyle very similar to other marmosets. It typically lives in family groups of 2 to 14. The groups usually consist of a reproductive couple and their offspring. Twins are very common among this species and the males, as well as juvenile offspring, often assist the female in the raising of the young.

Though the black-tufted marmoset lives in small family groups, it is believed that they share their food source, sap trees, with other marmoset groups. Scent marking does occur within these groups, but it is believed that the marking is to deter other species rather than other black-tufted marmoset groups, because other groups typically ignore these markings. They also appear to be migratory, often moving in relation to the wet or dry seasons, however, the extent of their migration is unknown.

Though communication between black-tufted marmosets has not been studied thoroughly, it is believed that it communicates through vocalizations. It has known predator-specific cries and appears to vocalize frequently outside of predator cries.

Food and predation[edit]

Black-tufted marmoset eating a cricket around Serra do Cipó National Park, Brazil (by Leonardo C. Fleck)

The Black-tufted Marmoset diet consists primarily of tree sap which it gets by nibbling the bark with its long lower incisors. In periods of drought, it will also include fruit and insects in its diet. In periods of serious drought it has also been known to eat small arthropods, molluscs, bird eggs, baby birds and small vertebrates.

Large birds of prey are the greatest threat to the black-tufted marmoset, however, snakes and wild cats also pose a danger to them. Predator-specific vocalizations and visual scanning are its only anti-predation techniques.

Reproduction[edit]

The black-tufted marmoset is monogamous and lives in family groups. It reproduces twice a year, producing 1 to 4 offspring, though most often just twins. Its gestation period is 150 days and offspring are weaned after 8 weeks. There is considerable parental investment by this species, with both parents, as well as older juveniles, helping to raise the young. The offspring are extremely dependent on their parents and though they are sexually mature at 18 months, they typically do not mate until much later, staying with their family group until they do.

Ecosystem roles and conservation status[edit]

The black-tufted marmoset is a mutualist with many species of fruit trees because it distributes the seeds from the fruit it consumes throughout the forests. However, it is a parasite on other species of trees because it creates sores in trees in order to extract sap, while offering no apparent benefit to the trees. Though this marmoset is not a main food source to any specific species, it is a food source to a number of different species, specifically large birds of prey, wild cats, and snakes.

While there are no known negative effects of marmosets towards humans, it carries specific positive effects by being a highly valuable exotic pet. It is also used in zoo exhibits and scientific research.

The black-tufted marmoset is listed as having no special status on the IUCN Red List or the United States Endangered Species Act List. It is listed in Appendix II of CITES and is not currently considered an endangered or threatened species. In Rio de Janeiro State, where it was introduced alongside the common marmoset, it is considered as an invasive species posing a danger to the survival of the endangered Golden Lion Tamarin through competition. Management of the species in its invaded habitat has included proposals for sterilization of reproductive-age individuals, relocation, and public awareness campaign for prevention of further releases.[4]

References and notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 132. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Rylands, A. B. & Mendes, S. L. (2008). Callithrix penicillata. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2 January 2009.
  3. ^ Passos, Fernando C.; João M. D. Miranda; Lucas de M. Aguiar; Gabriela Ludwig; Itiberê P. Bernardi; Rodrigo F. Moro-Rios (2006). "DISTRIBUIÇÃO E OCORRÊNCIA DE PRIMATAS NO ESTADO DO PARANÁ, BRASIL" (pdf). A Primatologia no Brasil 10. EDIPUCRS. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  4. ^ Asociação Mico-Leão Dourado (Brazilian NGO concerned with Golden Lion Tamarin conservation), site, [1]. Accessed November the 15th. 2011

References[edit]

  • Barros, M.; Alencar, C.; Tomaz, C. (2004). "Differences in Aerial and Terrestrial Visual Scanning in Captive Black Tufted-ear Marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) Exposed to a Novel Environment". Folia Primatologica 75 (2): 85–91. doi:10.1159/000076266. 
  • Boudet, C. (2004). "Mammal's Planet". Retrieved March 30, 2004. 
  • de Figueiredo, R.; Longatti, C. (1997). "Ecological Aspects of the Dispersal of a Melastomatacae by Marmosets and Howler Monkeys in a Semideciduous Forest in Southeastern Brazil". Revue d'Ecologie La Terre et La Vie 52 (1): 4–5. 
  • Elliot, D. (1913). A Review of The Primates. New York: American Museum of Natural History. 
  • Guerra, R.; Takase, E.; Santos, C. (1998). "Cross-fostering between two species of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata)". Revista Brasileira de Biologia 58 (4): 665–669. doi:10.1590/S0034-71081998000400014. 
  • Lacher, T.; Bouchardet da Fonseca, G.; Alves, C.; Magalhaes-Castro, B. (1981). "Exudate-Eating, Scent-Marking, and Territoriality in Wild Populations of Marmosets". Animal Behavior 29 (1): 306–307. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(81)80185-6. 
  • Miranda, G.; Faria, D. (2001). "Ecological Aspects of Black-Pincelled Marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) in the Cerradao and Dense Cerradao of the Brazilian Central Plateau". Brazilian Journal of Biology 61 (3): 397–404. doi:10.1590/S1519-69842001000300008. 
  • Mittermeier, R. (1986). "Primate Conservation Priorities in the Neotropical Region". In Benirschke, K. Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining Populations. West Hanover, Massachusetts: Springer-Verlag. pp. 221–240. ISBN 0-387-96270-0. 
  • Rosenberg, S. (2004). "Penicillata Marmoset: (Callithrix Penicillata)". Retrieved March 31, 2004. 
  • Rylands, A. B.; Mittermeier, R. A. (2009). "The Diversity of the New World Primates (Platyrrhini)". In Garber PA, Estrada A, Bicca-Marques JC, Heymann EW, Strier KB. South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Springer. pp. 23–54. ISBN 978-0-387-78704-6. 
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