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BiologyActive during the day, the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset can be found in small groups foraging in the tree canopy (2). Like other marmosets, a large portion of this species' diet consists of gums and saps, obtained either by licking holes made by wood boring insects, or by gouging tree trunks, branches and vines of certain plant species with the specialised, small, tusk-like canine teeth of the lower jaw (2) (5). This latter form of gum extraction is quite destructive, often leaving trees riddled with hundreds of small slits and holes (2). While gum is consumed throughout the year, this species will preferentially take fruits during the wet season, and, unusually for a marmoset, will also feed on certain species of fungi found on bamboo (1) (5). Insects are another major source of food for this species, and may include grasshoppers (5), as well as swarms of army ants (7). Buffy-tufted-ear marmoset groups may comprise either a single breeding pair, along with their offspring and sometimes members of extended family (1) (8), or a single male with multiple female breeding partners and their offspring (5) (9). Home ranges are relatively large, with a significant portion actively defended as the group's territory (5). Marmosets generally give birth to non-identical twins, which are cooperatively reared within the group, with both parents and other family members sharing the duty of carrying the vulnerable infants (2) (8).