The subspecies Dasyurus maculatus maculatus was formerly distributed in south-eastern Queensland (as far north as Bundaberg and as far west as Chinchilla), eastern New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania (including some of the Bass Strait Islands (Maxwell et al. 1996). Maxwell et al. (1996) report that in south-east Queensland it has undergone a range contraction indicated to be in excess of 30% over the last 25 years and is now rare in most areas. Remaining populations are concentrated in the Blackall and Conondale Ranges, southern Darling Downs (Stanthorpe to Wallangarra), Main Range (Goomburra to Spicers Gap), Lamington Plateau and McPherson/Border Ranges (Springbrook to Mount Lindsay). This species is still extant in the Australian Capital Territory and eastern New South Wales, patchily distributed as far west as Warrumbungles National Park with a number of localized areas where reasonably abundant, mostly in wet forests. Most abundant populations believed to be in north-eastern New South Wales, where most commonly encountered on the north coast and ranges from the Hunter Valley, Taree, Port Macquarie to Coffs Harbour and gorges and escarpments of the New England Tableland (Maxwell et al. 1996). In Victoria, it is now patchily distributed through the Eastern Highlands, East Gippsland, the Otway Range and the Mount Eccles - Lake Condah area. Records of the species since 1970 are concentrated in the upper Snowy River valley, the Otway Range, Mount Eccles National Park, the Rodger River - Errinundra Plateau area and around the Gippsland Lakes (Mansergh 1995). There is a recent (1991) record from the Murray Mallee near Swan Hill, however, no population has been located. In Tasmania Spotted-tailed Quoll is absent from islands and absent or rare in the central midlands and parts of the central east coast cleared for agriculture. Records (339) during the past 30 years show it is more frequently recorded in wet forests or scrub in the north-east highlands and in the west of the State (Rounsevell et al. 1991). It is extinct in South Australia.
The subspecies D. m. gracilis formerly occurred throughout the latitudinal range of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area of north Queensland. It is now apparently extinct from the Atherton and Evelyn Tablelands, and there are few sightings south of 17o45'S. This represents a decline in extent of occurrence of approximately 20% (Maxwell et al. 1996).
Dasyurus maculatus is found in Australia. There are two subspecies; D. maculatus gracilis, which inhabits northern Queensland, and D. maculatus maculatus, which is found from southern Queensland to Tasmania (Strahan, 1995).
Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native )
Dasyurus maculatus is the largest of the quolls with a body and head length of 400-750 mm and a tail length of 350-560 mm (Nowak, 1999). It has an average adult weight of two to three kg (Nowak, 1999). Males have reached up to seven kg and females have reached up to four kg (Strahan, 1995). It can be identified by its dark brown fur and various sized white spots (Parker, 1990) and unlike other quolls, it has spots on its tail (Strahan, 1995).
Range mass: 7 (high) kg.
Average mass: 4-6 kg.
Range length: 400 to 750 mm.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry
Sexual Dimorphism: male larger
Average basal metabolic rate: 3.142 W.
Habitat and Ecology
The optimum habitat for D. m. gracilis appears to be upland (>900 m asl) notophyll vine forest. Occurs in lower abundances in progressively more marginal habitat - in lower altitude notophyll and mesophyll habitats (Maxwell et al. 1996). Occasionally it occurs as a transient in wet and dry sclerophyll forest and in modified habitats (e.g., pastures.
Dasyurus maculatus uses moist arboreal habitats (Nowak, 1999), especially rainforests (Jones and Barmuta, 2000). This species has also been recorded in "open forest, woodland, coastal heartland and inland riparian forest" (Strahan, 1995). Den sites include caves, crevices, and dens (Strahan, 1995).
Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial
Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest
Other Habitat Features: riparian
- Jones, M., L. Barmuta. 2000. Niche differentiation among sympatric Australian Dasyurid carnivores. Journal of Mammalogy, 81(2): 434-47.
- Nowak, R. 1999. Mammals of the World Volume I. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Strahan, R. 1995. Mammals of Australia. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
D. maculatus is largely carnivorous, with diet consisting mostly of small and medium-sized mammals, birds, invertebrates, reptiles, and sometimes, larger mammals (Belcher, 1995). Medium sized mammals make up about two-thirds of their diet (Strahan, 1995). Younger individuals tend to eat more smaller mammals than do the adults (Belcher, 1995). Quolls are effective hunters, but they also take carrion from dingo or dog kills (Strahan, 1995). At times, they have raided poulty farms (Nowak, 1999). In Tasmania, spotted tailed quolls often loose prey to Tasmanian devils because the quolls do not consume their prey quickly enough (Jones et. al, 2000).
Animal Foods: birds; mammals; reptiles; carrion ; insects
Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates, Insectivore , Scavenger )
Known prey organisms
This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
Life History and Behavior
D. maculatus has been kept alive in captivity for three to four years (Nowak, 1999).
Status: captivity: 3 to 4 years.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
D. maculatus demonstrates a lengthy courtship where the female may be bitten quite severely (Parker, 1990). Copulation can last around eight hours (Strahan, 1995).
While it may be possible for Quolls to ovulate more than once a year, they produce only a single litter each year (Macdonald, 1984). This is because it takes these large dasyurids longer to raise a litter than the smaller ones (Macdonald, 1984). The female pouch enlarges between June and July. The gestation period is twenty-one days (Nowak, 1999). The litter size is typically four to six offspring (Nowak, 1999).
Average number of offspring: 4-6.
Average gestation period: 21 days.
Average weaning age: 18 weeks.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 years.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 years.
Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal )
Average gestation period: 21 days.
Average number of offspring: 3.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male: 340 days.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female: 340 days.
After a gestation period of twenty-one days, the young are born and then spend seven weeks on their mothers' teats inside her pouch (Parker, 1990; Nowak, 1999). By eighteen weeks they are independent of their mothers and at one year, they are sexually mature (Nowak, 1999). By thirteen weeks, social play is well developed (Strahan, 1995).
Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
D. maculatus is rare in mainland Australia (Nowak, 1999); however, their population has increased in Tasmania (Strahan, 1995). They are threatened by introduced species such as foxes, cats, and domestic dogs (Strahan ,1995; Nowak, 1999). This species also competes with Tasmanian devils for food (Jones, 2000).
Dasyurus maculatus gracilis occurs in an isolated population in north Queensland and Dasyurus maculatus maculatus> occurs along the east coast, from southeastern Queensland to Tasmania. These populations are restricted and isolated. Population numbers may be too small for long-term viability of these populations. Spotted-tailed quolls are probably extinct in South Australia and uncommon to rare in other places where they occur.
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: no special status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: near threatened
- Australia National Parks and Wildlife Service, T. 1999. "Spotted-tailed Quoll" (On-line). Accessed December 10, 2003 at http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/PDFs/tsprofile_spottedtailed_quoll.pdf.
There is some evidence of a decline in distribution or in numbers in remaining suitable habitat (e.g., in the Otway Range), and the species is mostly uncommon (although it is present in good numbers in some areas, such as the Marengo and Chaelundi Forests).
D. m. gracilis is susceptible to factors which increase juvenile and/or adult mortality, or which otherwise decrease breeding success. Such factors may include habitat clearance, logging, introduced species including cane toad, and direct killing at chicken pens, at houses, and on roads (Maxwell et al. 1996).
Population trends should be conducted using repetitive density estimates in a range of habitats across its distribution. Suveys are particularly needed in central and southern New South Wales to complement forest surveys in north-eastern areas. Cage trapping and hair tubing have proved fairly successful in detecting the species if more than one sampling period per site is undertaken. Additional studies should investigate the effects of competition from other predators including feral cats, foxes and dingoes/wild dogs. Habitat use and further study of dietary requirements are also a priority. In Tasmania, monitoring of population densities should be conducted in relation to forestry practices.
Management actions required for D. m. maculatus (Maxwell et al. 1996) include: determining the critical threatening processes and taking remedial actions; minimising habitat loss, establishing broad wildlife corridors between conservation areas and implement these in all land use plans; feral predator control in significant areas; minimising non-target kills from 1080 baiting in known habitat areas.
There have been several management actions completed or underway for D. m. maculatus (Maxwell et al. 1996). For Victoria, an Action Statement was prepared under Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. A study of diet and some home range estimates and bait take behaviour was completed (Belcher 1995). Experimental baiting trials are under way (commenced 1995 by DNRE Orbost). For Tasmania, a three-year study of diet, fine-scale habitat use and competition with the two sympatric dasyurid carnivores D. viverrinus and Sarcophilus harrisii was completed (Jones 1995; Jones and Rose 1996).
Maxwell et al. (1996) define recovery objectives for D. m. gracilis as being the identification of current distribution and limiting factors, and to conserve remaining populations. Much of the habitat of this subspecies is secure from large-scale disturbances as it lies within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. A three-year field study of the life-history strategy, ranging behaviour, feeding ecology, distribution and abundance, and conservation status of the species in north Queensland is in the report stage (Burnett 2000). A management profile for the species in State Forests in north Queensland has been prepared (Burnett 1995) and a report on the conservation status of the species has been presented to QDE (Burnett 1993) (Maxwell et al. 1996).
Management actions required for D. m. gracilis include continued monitoring of quoll populations; additional survey work in order to locate other quoll populations and to test more rigorously for population distributional limits; experimental removal of cane toads from roads within the optimum habitat of D. m. gracilis and monitoring of effects if any on quoll populations; community extension work in areas where quolls have been, and continue to be, displaced (Maxwell et al. 1996).
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
This species sometimes raids poultry farms (Nowak, 1999).
Negative Impacts: crop pest